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Writing for Psychology International Edition 4th Edition by Mark L. Mitchell – Test Bank

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Writing for Psychology International Edition 4th Edition by Mark L. Mitchell – Test Bank

Chapter 7A—Memory

TRUE/FALSE

1. People often correctly answer questions by the recognition method that they could not answer by the recall method.

ANS: T REF: recognition OBJ: remembering

2. Free recall, cued recall, recognition, and savings are all tests of explicit memory.

ANS: T REF: testing OBJ: remembering

3. You might show implicit memory of something even when you have no conscious memory of it at all.

ANS: T REF: implicit OBJ: remembering

4. Brain damage that impairs declarative memory will also impair procedural memory.

ANS: F REF: procedural OBJ: remembering

5. Typically, people form declarative memories quickly, and procedural memories gradually.

ANS: T REF: procedural OBJ: remembering

6. Of the various ways of testing memory, a suspect lineup is most similar to the recall method.

ANS: F REF: suspect lineups
OBJ: application and understanding

7. A sequential lineup, in which a witness makes a yes/no judgment on each suspect, one at a time, decreases the probability of falsely identifying an innocent person.

ANS: T REF: suspect lineups
OBJ: application and understanding

8. Many three-year-olds can accurately report their experiences even 6 weeks later.

ANS: T REF: children witnesses OBJ: remembering

9. If you are asking a toddler to describe what someone did, accuracy improves if you ask the child to act out the events with a doll.

ANS: F REF: children witnesses OBJ: remembering

10. People tend to lose semantic memories more quickly and easily than they lose episodic memories.

ANS: F REF: short term/long term OBJ: remembering

11. Short-term memory can hold a vast amount of information.

ANS: F REF: short term/long term OBJ: remembering

12. Short-term memory for a list of words or numbers fades quickly unless you rehearse it.

ANS: T REF: short term/long term OBJ: remembering

13. A distraction produces the most noticeable impairment of performance for people who have good executive functioning.

ANS: T REF: working memory OBJ: remembering

14. Repeating something over and over, word for word, is the best way to remember it.

ANS: F REF: encoding OBJ: remembering

15. “Flashbulb” memories of highly emotional events are not only vivid, but also reliably accurate.

ANS: F REF: influences OBJ: remembering

16. Moderately strong emotion at the time of learning something enhances your probability of remembering it later.

ANS: T REF: influences OBJ: remembering

17. If you are trying to remember the items on a list, an effective strategy is to imagine how each item might or might not aid you in survival in some challenging situation.

ANS: T REF: influences OBJ: remembering

18. It is often the case that the students who get the best test grades read the assigned material most slowly.

ANS: T REF: influences OBJ: application and understanding

19. If you want to remember a set of information for a long time, under a variety of conditions, the best advice is to study the information repeatedly at your usual work station (e.g., your desk).

ANS: F REF: study OBJ: remembering

20. If you want to remember something for as long as possible, and you plan to spend 10 hours studying, it is best to study the material for 10 hours all at once.

ANS: F REF: study OBJ: remembering

21. While you are reading something, taking time out to answer questions about it will improve your memory of it.

ANS: T REF: study OBJ: remembering

22. Answering questions about something improves your memory of it.

ANS: T REF: testing OBJ: remembering

23. If you describe everything you can remember about something today, you might remember more if you try again tomorrow.

ANS: T REF: retrieval OBJ: remembering

24. Remembering something is like replaying a recording of it.

ANS: F REF: retrieval OBJ: application and understanding

25. After an event happens, people still remember how likely they thought the event was, before it happened.

ANS: F REF: hindsight bias OBJ: remembering

26. The more times you have memorized lists of a particular type, the longer you will remember each new list that you learn.

ANS: F REF: interference OBJ: application and understanding

27. Research on children who have experienced traumatic events (e.g., witnessed the murder of their parents, been kidnapped) indicates that memories for traumatic events are likely to be repressed or dissociated.

ANS: F REF: false memory OBJ: remembering

28. Psychological researchers agree that it is possible for clinicians to help people recover lost memories of early childhood abuse.

ANS: F REF: false memory OBJ: remembering

29. Damage to the hippocampus impairs all types of memory equally.

ANS: F REF: hippocampus OBJ: remembering

30. People who are impaired at remembering the past are also impaired at imagining the future.

ANS: T REF: hippocampus OBJ: remembering

31. People with Korsakoff’s syndrome confabulate on all types of questions, even nonsensical ones.

ANS: F REF: prefrontal cortex OBJ: remembering

32. Adults can’t remember the events of early childhood, but preschool children can’t remember them, either.

ANS: F REF: infant amnesia OBJ: remembering

 

 

COMPLETION

1. If asked to tell your social security number (without looking it up), you are being asked to perform a ____________________ memory test.

ANS:
free recall (Accept “recall.”)
free recall
recall

REF: recall OBJ: application and understanding

2. Looking over all the cars in the parking lot to try to find your own is like testing your memory with the __________ method.

ANS: recognition

REF: recognition OBJ: application and understanding

3. Free recall, cued recall, recognition, and savings are tests of ____________________ memory.

ANS: explicit direct

REF: implicit/explicit OBJ: remembering

4. Remembering how to kick a soccer ball is an example of ____________________ memory.

ANS: procedural

REF: procedural OBJ: application and understanding

5. A suspect lineup is an example of testing memory by the ______ method

ANS: recognition

REF: suspect lineups OBJ: remembering

6. Memory of principles and facts, such as what you learn in school, is a special kind of declarative memory known as __________ memory.

ANS: semantic

REF: short term/long term OBJ: remembering (definition)

7. Remembering specific experiences in your life is a special type of declarative memory known as _________ memory.

ANS: episodic

REF: short term/long term OBJ: remembering (definition)

8. Remembering the details of what you did on the most recent holiday is an example of a special type of declarative memory known as ________ memory.

ANS: episodic

REF: short term/long term OBJ: application and understanding

9. If you remember something, but you forget where or how you learned it, you are showing ________ amnesia.

ANS: source

REF: short term/long term OBJ: remembering (definition)

10. The system for using current information is known as _______ memory.

ANS: working

REF: working memory OBJ: remembering (definition)

11. The aspect of working memory responsible for governing shifts of attention is known as __________ functioning.

ANS: executive

REF: working memory OBJ: remembering (definition)

12. The tendency to remember the first item on a list better than most of the others is known as the _______ principle.

ANS: primacy

REF: influences OBJ: remembering (definition)

13. People memorize a list of words best if they think about each word and form as many associations as possible with each word. This is known as the ____________________ principle.

ANS:
depth-of-processing (or levels of processing)
depth-of-processing
levels of processing

REF: influences OBJ: remembering (definition)

14. The associations you form at the time of learning are the most effective retrieval cues for remembering something later. This principle is known as _________ specificity.

ANS: encoding

REF: encoding specificity OBJ: remembering (definition)

15. You read a list of words including envelope, address, stamp, and seal. Later someone asks you what word on the list refers to a kind of animal, and you do not think of the word “seal.” This result is an example of the __________ specificity principle.

ANS: encoding

REF: encoding specificity OBJ: application and understanding

16. In the method of loci, you first memorize a series of places and then use them to help you remember some other list. The method of loci is one example of a ______ device.

ANS: mnemonic

REF: mnemonics OBJ: remembering (definition)

17. If you remember more of some material the second time you try to recall it than you did the first time, your improved memory is called ________.

ANS: hypermnesia

REF: retrieval OBJ: remembering (definition)

18. The tendency to misremember your earlier expectations so they match the way events later happened is known as ________ bias.

ANS: hindsight

REF: hindsight bias OBJ: remembering (definition)

19. Forgetting new material because of interference from similar old memories is known as _________ interference.

ANS: proactive

REF: interference OBJ: remembering (definition)

20. Sigmund Freud introduced the term _________ to refer to the process of moving unacceptable memories from the conscious mind to the unconscious mind.

ANS: repression REF: traumatic memories OBJ: remembering (definition)

21. Patient H. M. suffered severe amnesia after damage to his ________.

ANS: hippocampus

REF: hippocampus OBJ: remembering

22. Inability to store new long-term memories is known as __________ amnesia.

ANS: anterograde

REF: hippocampus OBJ: remembering (definition)

23. Prolonged deficiency of vitamin B-1 (usually caused by severe alcoholism) leads to an impairment of memory and attention known as __________ syndrome.

ANS: Korsakoff’s

REF: prefrontal cortex OBJ: remembering (definition)

24. If you say some words that you recently heard, without remembering that you heard them, you are demonstrating _________ memory.

ANS: implicit

REF: implicit/explicit OBJ: application and understanding

SHORT ANSWER

1. Suppose you want to test a student’s memory of U.S. state capitals. How would you do so by the cued recall method and by the recognition method?

ANS:
By the cued recall method, you could list the states and ask for the capital of each. You might also provide the first letter of each as a hint. By the recognition method, you might give several choices for each state and ask the student to choose the correct one. For example, Texas: Austin, Dallas, El Paso, Ft. Worth, or Waco?

REF: testing OBJ: application and understanding

2. What recommendations do psychologists offer concerning best ways for the police to conduct suspect lineups?

ANS:
The officer administering the lineup should be blind to which person the police suspect. If the witness mentions a distinguishing feature (such as a scar or a mustache), all members of the lineup should have that feature. The police should postpone as long as possible telling the witness whether he/she chose someone that the police suspected. Ideally, the police should present suspects one at a time, requesting a yes/no decision on each one rather than an opportunity to choose the best choice available.

REF: suspect lineups OBJ: remembering | application and understanding

3. A police officer is interviewing a young child, Alex, to try to determine whether or not the child was physically abused by another child during a recent visit to the park. The police officer first asks Alex if he was hit or hurt during his visit to the park. The officer then gives Alex two dolls and asks him to use the dolls to act out what occurred at the park. Finally, when Alex continues to struggle to describe any abusive event, the officer plays a tape in which a different child is describing a fight that took place at the park. The officer then asks Alex if he now remembers the event. Give at least two examples of strategies used by the officer that may negatively influence the accuracy of Alex’s report.

ANS:
1. He asked suggestive questions when asking the child if he was hurt, rather than asking him what happened at the park yesterday.
2. He used doll props, which may cause the child to act out events that did not happen.
3. He allowed Alex to hear other children. Children respond strongly to social influence and may report the same event even if it did not occur.

REF: child eyewitnesses OBJ: application and understanding

4. Describe an example of source amnesia.

ANS:
Any example in which someone remembers certain content, but forgets when and where he/she first learned about it. One possibility: You remember hearing that someone has invented a perpetual motion machine, and forget that you read it on an unreliable Internet site.

REF: short term/long term OBJ: application and understanding

5. Define executive functioning and describe one way to measure it.

ANS:
Executive functioning is the aspect of working memory that governs shifts of attention. Example of a way to measure it: Read a list of words and ask someone to say after each word the word he/she heard previous to it. Then read a list of words and ask for the second word back.

REF: working memory OBJ: remembering

6. If you are trying to memorize a list of words, what are some strategies that would help?

ANS:
Think about the meaning of each item and try to relate it to something you care about. Ideally, think about how each item might be useful to you in a life-or-death situation. Alternate between reading the list and testing yourself. Break up your study into sessions on different days.

REF: influences and study OBJ: remembering | application and understanding

7. What are several ways in which memory is different from replaying a recording?

ANS:
If you try to recall something repeatedly, your memory sometimes increases from one attempt to the next. Recalling one aspect of an experience inhibits recall of other aspects of the experience. Most importantly, when you try to remember an experience, you start with items you remember clearly and reconstruct the rest, using logical inferences to fill in the gaps.

REF: retrieval OBJ: application and understanding

8. Lee has recently had a brain injury in which there was substantial damage to the hippocampus. During recovery, Lee finds that he is able to remember the steps needed to shop (e.g. get a shopping basket, shop, pay for groceries and carry them out). However, Lee has extreme difficulty remembering the list of groceries which he decided he needed while he was at home. At the end of the day, he cannot recall what happened. Given what we know about the hippocampus, explain why Lee remembers some things better than others.

 

ANS:
Lee has difficulty remembering lists because the hippocampus is important for explicit, declarative memory. He cannot recall the day, because the hippocampus is important for episodic memory. However, he has no trouble with the skill of going through the store, because the hippocampus is not essential for procedural memories.

REF: hippocampus OBJ: application and understanding

9. Mr. Dannemiller has recently been diagnosed with Korsakoff’s syndrome. His doctor decides to give him a neuropsychological evaluation to assess his memory. He is given two tasks–to remember a list of twenty words and to remember a lengthy and detailed story about a little girl going to camp for the first time. When he is tested for his memory, his doctor notices some prominent deficits. Describe specific types of memory deficits that the doctor is likely to note, given Mr. Dannemiller’s condition.

ANS:
The doctor is likely to note the following types of memory deficits:

Anterograde amnesia: difficulty storing new memories (in this case, forgetting the list of words and the story)
Retrograde amnesia: loss of old memories (characteristic of Korsakoff’s syndrome, although probably not relevant in this case)
Difficulties with explicit memories: Although this man probably has intact implicit memories, he will have impairments in the two tasks.
Confabulation: attempts to fill in gaps in memories. Confabulation is a prominent symptom of Korsakoff’s syndrome. Mr. Dannemiller may offer details that were not in the original list of words or the story about the little girl.

REF: prefrontal cortex OBJ: remembering

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