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Worlds of Music An Introduction to the Music Of the World’s Peoples 6th Edition by Jeff Todd Titon

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1133953905
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1133953906

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Worlds of Music An Introduction to the Music Of the World’s Peoples 6th Edition by Jeff Todd Titon

Content Quiz

1. Which of the following is not a common Latin American musical instrument?
a. bongos

b. claves

c. salsa

d. maracas

2. Victor Jara is associated with
a. Bolivian K’antu music
b. Quichua sanjuanes

c. Peruvian wayno

d. Chilean Nueva Canción

3. Bolivian K’antu is
a. a type of ceremonial panpipe music from the altiplano, or high plane
b. a celebratory dance

c. a political movement

d. a category of percussion instruments


4. What unites the Cotacachi Quichua of the Northern Andes of Ecuador?
a. the importance of walking and its relation to their culture
b. their music sounding like all other Native American music
c. playing syncopated music with vibrato and a back beat

d. the importance of being world-class champions in soccer

5. The Cotacachi Quichua
a. typically bend pitches

b. live in small clusters of houses (comunas)
c. live in large urban areas by the ocean

d. do not speak an Indigenous language


6. Which is true about the African-Ecuadorians?
a. They use panpipes instead of guitars in their music.

b. They enjoy copying Quichua sanjuanes exactly.

c. Their music-culture shows little outside influence.

d. They may be descended from sixteenth-century slaves.

7. The Andean ensemble phenomenon has
a. brought American university students to Latin America
b. been copied in Japan and spread through videos

c. brought Andean music to international recognition

d. seen a shift from live performance to CD production

8. Wawa Velorio is
a. an instrumental praise form in Ecuador

b. the name of a modern, popular performance ensemble
c. the wake for a deceased Quichua child

d. a marketplace in Latin America


9. Dancing at a child’s wake (Wawa Velorio) is considered a celebration. In Latin America this celebration is attributed to the perspective that
a. the deceased child is an angel who is now with God
b. the deceased child was usually a dancer, too

c. the wake is coupled with a town festival

d. all of the above


10. The Moche culture is associated with the
a. Peruvian landó

b. Bolivian k’antu

c. Quichua sanjuán
d. Chota sanjuán


11. Isorhythm in Cotacachi Quichua sanjuán means
a. each player performing the same rhythm

b. the same exact rhythm heard sequentially

c. the same rhythm being sung and played at the same time
d. the same number of rhythms used in different sections

12. Andean bimodality refers to
a. both the major key and its relative minor key heard in the same song

b. both the Dorian and Aeolian modes heard together in the same song

c. both singers and their accompanying instruments featured at different times
d. both harp part and the golpe part sounding together in the same song


13. Sugar cane music is associated with
a. Peruvian landó

b. Bolivian k’antu

c. Quichua sanjuán
d. Chota sanjuán


14. The African-Ecuadorians from the Chota River Valley
a. play a hybrid music

b. play landó drinking songs
c. avoid using syncopations
d. all of the given choices


15. Which of the following is not a common Latin American instrument and/or rhythm/dance?
a. Instrument: claves RHYTHM/DANCE: bossa nova
b. Instrument: bongos RHYTHM/DANCE: salsa

c. Instrument: maracas RHYTHM/DANCE: tango

d. Instrument: calypso RHYTHM/DANCE: golpe


Listening Quiz

16. In “Kutirimunapaq,” an example of panpipe ensemble playing, the melody is (starting at 0:10 and continuing)
a. bimodal (uses both major/minor scales/keys)
b. performed by a hocketing procedure

c. accompanied by consonant harmony/chords
d. all of the above


17. Pitch aspects include (starting at 0:10 and continuing)
a. melodies that are accompanied by chords

b. melodies that occur simultaneously at different pitch levels
c. several different melodies that occur simultaneously

d. a single, unaccompanied melody played in unison


18. Which time characteristic changes at the beginning? (0:00-0:09)
a. tempo

b. meter

c. rhythm

d. measure

19. Accompanying beats are coming from the (starting at 0:07)
a. golpeador playing his drum

b. golpeador hitting the harp

c. foot-tapping of the harp player
d. audience tapping to the music

20. The structure of “Muyu muyari warmigu” (“Please Return, Dear Woman”) reflects (Entire piece)
a. a ternary (A B A) form

b. voices singing alone at the very beginning
c. voice stanzas alternating with harp solos
d. phrases that are avoided in the vocal solos

21. The main motive in “Ilumán tiyu” (“Man from Ilumán”) opens with what kind of rhythmic pattern? (The main motive starts at 0:36)
a. long-short-short-long-long.
b. short-short-long-long-long.
c. short-long-long-short-long.
d. short-long-short-long-long.

22. The melody line of “Me gusta la leche” (“I like milk”) is characterized by: (0:00-0:37)
a. short, repeating melodic motives.
b. parallel intervals and hocket.

c. pure and exact phrase isorhythm.
d. a recitative style, close to speech.

23. Musically speaking, “Me gusta la leche” (“I like milk”) is:
a. Hispanic-influenced.

b. African-influenced.

c. influenced by Ecuadorian Quichua music.
d. all of these choices.


24. The prominent accompanying instrument in “Amor imposible” (“Impossible Love”) is a (0:00 and continuing)
a. harp

b. guitar

c. bongo drum

d. plucked violin

25. The accompanying rhythmic pattern is made up of (0:05 and continuing)
a. non-repeating rhythmic motives
b. short notes only

c. long notes only

d. both long and short notes


26. “Amor imposible” (“Impossible Love”) features the distinctive portamento of the wayno. What exactly is meant by portamento? (Vocal part starting at 0:13)
a. hard accents on notes

b. sliding from one note to another

c. clapping while also singing

d. holding a note for an extended period

27. The music in Vacación features a great deal of
a. free form playing

b. repetition

c. major key passages

d. long pauses between phrases

28. Harpists play Vacación in order to
a. mark the outset of the wake

b. mark the moments when the behavior centers on the deceased child
c. drive out the devil

d. all of the above


29. The instrument in “Toro Barroso” is: (Entire piece)
a. solo guitar

b. solo violin

c. harp and guitar
d. solo harp


30. In “Toro Barroso” (“Reddish Bull”) we hear: (Entire piece)
a. bimodality

b. major triads only

c. minor triads only

d. a continuously changing harmonic structure

Short Answer Quiz

31. Define sanjuán, including its preferred performing instrument, isorhythm, and why walking is so important to the Cotacachi Quichua.
ANSWER: Answers will vary.
• A sanjuán is a recurring eight–beat phrase, often with a short-long-short rhythmic marker and made up of isorhythmic patterns (the second half of a phrase has the exact same rhythm as the first half of the phrase).
• “Today, the instrument that Cotacachi Quichua often use to perform sanjuán is the harp without pedals [called a “diatonic harp”] . . .”
• Having few motorized vehicles or roads, most of the Quichua rely on walking the ubiquitous footpaths found throughout the area. Walking therefore is a very important aspect of their life and culture.

32. Discuss the cultural context of the African-Ecuadorian music of the Chota River Valley, including some of the music’s significant features that show outside influences. Explain why “Me gusta la leche” can be referred to as an “Indo-Hispano-Afro-Ecuadorian” hybrid.
ANSWER: Answers will vary.
• “Me gusta la leche” is music by African-Ecuadorians from the Chota River Valley in the highland Imbabura Province.
• The Chota sanjuán structure reflects Ecuadorian Native American music; the Spanish language shows Hispanic influence.
• Syncopation (misplaced accents) in a Chota sanjuán rhythm suggests African influence.

33. Define and give two examples of the “Andean ensemble phenomenon.”
ANSWER: Answers will vary.
• The “Andean ensemble phenomenon” refers to the spread of Andean music and ensembles (playing traditional Andean instruments) to other parts of the world.
• Examples will vary and may include any of the ensembles referred to Worlds of Music, p. 472-478
• (1) Otavalo music performed by Quichua musicians from the Otavalo Valley of Imbabura (a province in the Andes of Northern Ecuador) that has now “become globalized, part of the world music beat . . .” and
• (2) the husband/wife duo, Chaskinakuy, self-described as “dedicated revivalists,” who perform songs in Quechua/Quichua and Spanish on a variety of native Andean instruments.


34. Define and exemplify Nueva Canción.
ANSWER: Answers will vary.
• Nueva Canción is a song movement that “stands up for one’s own culture . . . in the face of oppression by a totalitarian regime or in the face of cultural imperialism from abroad . . .
• For example, Víctor Jara’s “El aparecido” (“The Apparition”), which honors Ernesto Che Guevara, the famous revolutionary illustrates this song movement. WOM presented a performance of this piece by the Chilean Nueva Canción ensemble Inti Illimani.
• New Song lives on as an international movement.” Its message is contemporary, but it retains its traditional and regional roots. “It seeks to draw attention to the people–often the forgotten people–and to their struggles for human dignity.”


35. Discuss and exemplify the musical concept of bimodality, including bimodality in major scales/keys and their related (relative) minor scales/keys. What is the relevance of bimodality to Andean musics?
ANSWER: Answers will vary.
• Bimodality refers to the close occurrence of two related modes (key centers and/or scale types) within the same musical selection.
• In Western or Western-influenced music, every major key/scale has a relative minor key/scale that starts on the sixth scale-degree of the major scale. One common example of bimodality in a musical piece would be the close occurrence of the Eb major key/scale and its relative minor key/scale, C minor (Eb major scale: Eb = 1, F = 2, G = 3, Ab = 4, Bb = 5, C= 6, D = 7; the relative C minor scale starts on the sixth scale degree of Eb major).
• This type of bimodality is a common occurrence in musics of many Andean peoples.





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