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Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 10th Edition – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0323353169
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0323353168

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SKU:tb1001976

Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 10th Edition – Test Bank

Chapter 06: Childhood Communicable and Infectious Diseases
Hockenberry: Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 10th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which term best describes the identification of the distribution and causes of disease, injury, or illness?
a. Nursing process
b. Epidemiologic process
c. Community-based statistics
d. Mortality and morbidity statistics

ANS: B
Epidemiology is the science of population health applied to the detection of morbidity and mortality in a population. It identifies the distribution and causes of diseases across a population. Nursing process is a systematic problem-solving approach for the delivery of nursing care. Morbidity and mortality statistics, along with natal rates, may provide an objective picture of a community’s health status.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 157
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. The nurse is taking care of a 7-year-old child with a skin rash called a papule. Which clinical finding should the nurse expect to assess with this type of skin rash?
a. A lesion that is elevated, palpable, firm, and circumscribed; less than 1 cm in diameter
b. A lesion that is elevated, flat-topped, firm, rough, and superficial; greater than 1 cm in diameter
c. An elevated lesion, firm, circumscribed, palpable; 1 to 2 cm in diameter
d. An elevated lesion, circumscribed, filled with serous fluid; less than 1 cm in diameter

ANS: A
A papule is elevated; palpable; firm; circumscribed; less than 1 cm in diameter; and brown, red, pink, tan, or bluish red. A plaque is an elevated, flat-topped, firm, rough, superficial papule greater than 1 cm in diameter. It may be coalesced papules. A nodule is elevated, 1 to 2 cm in diameter, firm, circumscribed, palpable, and deeper in the dermis than a papule. A vesicle is elevated, circumscribed, superficial, less than 1 cm in diameter, and filled with serous fluid.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 178
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

3. The nurse is teaching nursing students about childhood skin lesions. Which is an elevated, circumscribed skin lesion that is less than 1 cm in diameter and filled with serous fluid?
a. Cyst
b. Papule
c. Pustule
d. Vesicle

ANS: D
A vesicle is elevated, circumscribed, superficial, less than 1 cm in diameter, and filled with serous fluid. A cyst is elevated, circumscribed, palpable, encapsulated, and filled with liquid or semisolid material. A papule is elevated, palpable, firm, circumscribed, less than 1 cm in diameter, and brown, red, pink, tan, or bluish red. A pustule is elevated, superficial, and similar to a vesicle but filled with purulent fluid.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 178
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

4. The nurse is taking care of a 2-year-old child with a macule skin lesion. Which clinical finding should the nurse expect to assess with this type of lesion?
a. Flat, nonpalpable, and irregularly shaped lesion that is greater than 1 cm in diameter
b. Heaped-up keratinized cells, flaky exfoliation, irregular, thick or thin, dry or oily, varied in size
c. Flat, brown mole less than 1 cm in diameter
d. Elevated, flat-topped, firm, rough, superficial papule greater than 1 cm in diameter

ANS: C
A macule is flat; nonpalpable; circumscribed; less than 1 cm in diameter; and brown, red, purple, white, or tan. A patch is a flat, nonpalpable, and irregularly shaped macule that is greater than 1 cm in diameter. Scale is heaped-up keratinized cells, flaky exfoliation, irregular, thick or thin, dry or oily, varied in size, and silver white or tan. A plaque is an elevated, flat-topped, firm, rough, superficial papule greater than 1 cm in diameter. It may be coalesced papules.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 178
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

5. Which nursing consideration is important when caring for a child with impetigo contagiosa?
a. Apply topical corticosteroids to decrease inflammation.
b. Carefully remove dressings so as not to dislodge undermined skin, crusts, and debris.
c. Carefully wash hands and maintain cleanliness when caring for an infected child.
d. Examine child under a Wood lamp for possible spread of lesions.

ANS: C
A major nursing consideration related to bacterial skin infections, such as impetigo contagiosa, is to prevent the spread of the infection and complications. This is done by thorough hand washing before and after contact with the affected child. Corticosteroids are not indicated in bacterial infections. Dressings are usually not indicated. The undermined skin, crusts, and debris are carefully removed after softening with moist compresses. A Wood lamp is used to detect fluorescent materials in the skin and hair. It is used in certain disease states, such as tinea capitis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 177
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

6. The nurse is caring for a 5-year-old child with impetigo contagiosa. The parents ask the nurse what will happen to their child’s skin after the infection has subsided and healed. Which answer should the nurse give?
a. There will be no scarring.
b. There may be some pigmented spots.
c. It is likely there will be some slightly depressed scars.
d. There will be some atrophic white scars.

ANS: A
Impetigo contagiosa tends to heal without scarring unless a secondary infection occurs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 177
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

7. What is cellulitis often caused by?
a. Herpes zoster
b. Candida albicans
c. Human papillomavirus
d. Streptococcus or Staphylococcus organisms

ANS: D
Streptococci, staphylococci, and Haemophilus influenzae are the organisms usually responsible for cellulitis. Herpes zoster is the virus associated with varicella and shingles. C. albicans is associated with candidiasis, or thrush. Human papillomavirus is associated with various types of human warts.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 176
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

8. The nurse is conducting a staff in-service on appearance of childhood skin conditions. Lymphangitis (“streaking”) is frequently seen in which condition?
a. Cellulitis
b. Folliculitis
c. Impetigo contagiosa
d. Staphylococcal scalded skin

ANS: A
Lymphangitis is frequently seen in cellulitis. If it is present, hospitalization is usually required for parenteral antibiotics. Lymphangitis is not associated with folliculitis, impetigo, or staphylococcal scalded skin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 176
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

9. The nurse should expect to assess which causative agent in a child with warts?
a. Bacteria
b. Fungus
c. Parasite
d. Virus

ANS: D
Human warts are caused by the human papillomavirus. Infection with bacteria, fungus, and parasites does not result in warts.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 177
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

10. The nurse should implement which prescribed treatment for a child with warts?
a. Vaccination
b. Local destruction
c. Corticosteroids
d. Specific antibiotic therapy

ANS: B
Local destructive therapy individualized according to location, type, and number—including surgical removal, electrocautery, curettage, cryotherapy, caustic solutions, x-ray treatment, and laser therapies—is used. Vaccination is prophylaxis for warts and is not a treatment. Corticosteroids and specific antibiotic therapy are not effective in the treatment of warts.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 178
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

11. Herpes zoster is caused by the varicella virus and has an affinity for:
a. sympathetic nerve fibers.
b. parasympathetic nerve fibers.
c. posterior root ganglia and posterior horn of the spinal cord.
d. lateral and dorsal columns of the spinal cord.

ANS: C
The herpes zoster virus has an affinity for posterior root ganglia, the posterior horn of the spinal cord, and skin. The zoster virus does not involve sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve fibers and the lateral and dorsal columns of the spinal cord.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 178
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

12. The nurse is taking care of a 7-year-old child with herpes simplex virus (type 1 or 2). Which prescribed medication should the nurse expect to be included in the treatment plan?
a. Corticosteroids
b. Oral griseofulvin
c. Oral antiviral agent
d. Topical and/or systemic antibiotic

ANS: C
Oral antiviral agents are effective for viral infections such as herpes simplex. Corticosteroids are not effective for viral infections. Griseofulvin is an antifungal agent and not effective for viral infections. Antibiotics are not effective in viral diseases.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 178
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

13. What causes tinea capitis (ringworm)?
a. Virus
b. Fungus
c. Allergic reaction
d. Bacterial infection

ANS: B
Ringworm is caused by a group of closely related filamentous fungi that invade primarily the stratum corneum, hair, and nails. They are superficial infections that live on, not in, the skin. Virus and bacterial infection are not the causative organisms for ringworm. Ringworm is not an allergic response.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 179
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

14. The nurse is caring for a school-age child with a tinea capitis (ringworm) infection. What should the nurse expect the therapeutic management of this child to include?
a. Administering oral griseofulvin
b. Administering topical or oral antibiotics
c. Applying topical sulfonamides
d. Applying Burow solution compresses to affected area

ANS: A
Treatment with the antifungal agent griseofulvin is part of the treatment for the fungal disease ringworm. Oral griseofulvin therapy frequently continues for weeks or months. Antibiotics, sulfonamides, and Burow solution are not effective in fungal infections.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 179
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

15. Parents tell the nurse that their child keeps scratching the areas where he has poison ivy. The nurse’s response should be based on which knowledge?
a. Poison ivy does not itch and needs further investigation.
b. Scratching the lesions will not cause a problem.
c. Scratching the lesions will cause the poison ivy to spread.
d. Scratching the lesions may cause them to become secondarily infected.

ANS: D
Poison ivy is a contact dermatitis that results from exposure to the oil urushiol in the plant. Every effort is made to prevent the child from scratching because the lesions can become secondarily infected. The poison ivy produces localized, streaked or spotty, oozing, and painful impetiginous lesions. Itching is a common response. Scratching the lesions can result in secondary infections. The lesions do not spread by contact with the blister serum or by scratching.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 185
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

16. The nurse is taking care of a child with scabies. Which primary clinical manifestation should the nurse expect to assess with this disease?
a. Edema
b. Redness
c. Pruritus
d. Maceration

ANS: C
Scabies is caused by the scabies mite. The inflammatory response and intense itching occur after the host has become sensitized to the mite. This occurs approximately 30 to 60 days after initial contact. Edema, redness, and maceration are not observed in scabies.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 180
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

17. Which is usually the only symptom of pediculosis capitis (head lice)?
a. Itching
b. Vesicles
c. Scalp rash
d. Localized inflammatory response

ANS: A
Itching is generally the only manifestation of pediculosis capitis (head lice). Diagnosis is made by observation of the white eggs (nits) on the hair shaft. Vesicles, scalp rash, and localized inflammatory response are not symptoms of head lice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 182
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

18. The nurse is talking to the parents of a child with pediculosis capitis. Which should the nurse include when explaining how to manage pediculosis capitis?
a. “You will need to cut the hair shorter if infestation and nits are severe.”
b. “You can distinguish viable from nonviable nits, and remove all viable ones.”
c. “You can wash all nits out of hair with a regular shampoo.”
d. “You will need to remove nits with an extra-fine-tooth comb or tweezers.”

ANS: D
Treatment consists of the application of pediculicide and manual removal of nit cases. An extra-fine-tooth comb facilitates manual removal. Parents should be cautioned against cutting the child’s hair short; lice infest short hair as well as long. It increases the child’s distress and serves as a continual reminder to peers who are prone to tease children with a different appearance. It is not possible to differentiate between viable and nonviable eggs. Regular shampoo is not effective; a pediculicide is necessary.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 182
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

19. Which bite causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
a. Flea
b. Tick
c. Mosquito
d. Mouse or rat

ANS: B
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by a tick. The tick must attach and feed for at least 1 to 2 hours to transmit the disease. The usual habitat of the tick is in heavily wooded areas. Fleas, mosquitoes, and mice or rats do not transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 186
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

20. The school nurse is conducting a class for school-age children on Lyme disease. Which is characteristic of Lyme disease?
a. Difficult to prevent
b. Treated with oral antibiotics in stages 1, 2, and 3
c. Caused by a spirochete that enters the skin through a tick bite
d. Common in geographic areas where the soil contains the mycotic spores that cause the disease

ANS: C
Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete spread by ticks. The early characteristic rash is erythema migrans. Tick bites should be avoided by entering tick-infested areas with caution. Light-colored clothing should be worn to identify ticks easily. Long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into socks should be the attire. Early treatment of the erythema migrans (stage 1) can prevent the development of Lyme disease. Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete, not mycotic spores.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 186
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

21. The nurse is examining 12-month-old Amy, who was brought to the clinic for persistent diaper rash. The nurse finds perianal inflammation with satellite lesions that cross the inguinal folds. What is most likely the cause of the diaper rash?
a. Impetigo
b. Candida albicans
c. Urine and feces
d. Infrequent diapering

ANS: B
C. albicans infection produces perianal inflammation and a maculopapular rash with satellite lesions that may cross the inguinal folds. Impetigo is a bacterial infection that spreads peripherally in sharply marginated, irregular outlines. Eruptions involving the skin in contact with the diaper, but sparing the folds, are likely to be caused by chemical irritation, especially urine and feces.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 179
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

22. A school nurse assesses a case of tinea capitis (ringworm) on a 6-year-old child. Which figure depicts the characteristic lesion of tinea capitis?
a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: C
Tinea capitis is characterized by lesions in the scalp configured of scaly, circumscribed patches or patchy, scaling areas of alopecia. Generally the lesions are asymptomatic but a severe, deep inflammatory reaction may occur that manifests as boggy, encrusted lesions (kerions). Impetigo contagiosa is depicted in the figure showing the vesicular lesion around the nares area that has become vesicular. The lesions rupture easily, leaving superficial, moist erosions that tend to spread peripherally in sharply marginated irregular outlines. The exudate dries to form heavy, honey-colored crusts. The figure depicting inflammation on the cheek is cellulitis. Inflammation of skin and subcutaneous tissues is characterized by intense redness, swelling, and firm infiltration. Cellulitis may progress to abscess formation. The figure depicting “streaked blisters” surrounding one large blister is characteristic of contact dermatitis from poison ivy contact.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 180
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

23. Airborne isolation is required for a child who is hospitalized with:
a. mumps.
b. chickenpox.
c. exanthema subitum (roseola).
d. erythema infectiosum (fifth disease).

ANS: B
Chickenpox is communicable through direct contact, droplet spread, and contaminated objects. Mumps is transmitted from direct contact with saliva of infected person and is most communicable before onset of swelling. The transmission and source of the viral infection exanthema subitum (roseola) is unknown. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) is communicable before onset of symptoms.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 163
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment

24. Acyclovir (Zovirax) is given to children with chickenpox to:
a. minimize scarring.
b. decrease the number of lesions.
c. prevent aplastic anemia.
d. prevent spread of the disease.

ANS: B
Acyclovir decreases the number of lesions; shortens duration of fever; and decreases itching, lethargy, and anorexia. Treating pruritus and discouraging itching minimize scarring. Aplastic anemia is not a complication of chickenpox. Strict isolation until vesicles are dried prevents spread of disease.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 163
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

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