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Window on Humanity A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology 9th Edition by Conrad Kottak – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1260071472
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1260071474

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SKU:tb1001975

Window on Humanity A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology 9th Edition by Conrad Kottak – Test Bank

Chapter 08
The First Farmers

1. To what did Kent Flannery (1969) refer with the term broad-spectrum revolution? A. the period in which the first large states began to grow, although there was nothing actually “revolutionary” about it because this process occurred very gradually B. the period between 20,000 B.P. and 10,000 B.P. when anatomically modern humans colonized the entire world, made possible by a smarter utilization of a wider range of environments C. the period beginning around 15,000 B.P. in the Middle East and 12,000 B.P. in Europe, during which a wider range of plant and animal life was hunted, gathered, collected, caught, and fished D. the period in which a wider range of tools was being fabricated, for both utilitarian and ritualistic purposes E. the period in which Asia became the only place in the world with communities leading a sedentary life and engaging in food and animal domestication Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the broad-spectrum revolution. Topic: Broad-Spectrum Economies 2. The broad-spectrum revolution in Europe included the late Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, which followed it. What tool type characterized the Mesolithic? A. blade B. spear C. axe D. microlith E. core Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the broad-spectrum revolution. Topic: Broad-Spectrum Economies 3. Which of the following regarding Europe by 10,000 B.P. is FALSE? A. The range of hunting, gathering, and fishing populations extended to the formerly glaciated British Isles and Scandinavia. B. The process of preserving meat and fish by smoking and salting grew increasingly important. C. As a consequence of the increase in forest species, people increasingly practiced new hunting techniques, mainly solitary stalking and trapping, similar to more recent practices of many Native American groups. D. The continent’s coasts and lakes were fished intensively with new technologies such as the characteristic Mesolithic stone blades and microliths used as fishhooks and in harpoons. E. The continent was forest rather than treeless steppe and tundra, as it had been during the Upper Paleolithic. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the broad-spectrum revolution. Topic: Broad-Spectrum Economies 4. What is the name given to the cultural period in which the first signs of domestication were present? A. Upper Paleolithic B. Microlithic C. Neolithic D. Chalcolithic E. Mesolithic Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Recall the Neolithic Revolution. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic 5. Middle Eastern food production arose in the context of four environmental zones. From highest altitude to lowest, they are A. Zagros, piedmont steppe, hilly flanks, and alluvial plains. B. high zone, middle-high zone, middle-low zone, and low zone. C. high plateau, Natufian fields, Mesopotamia, and alluvial desert (the area watered by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers). D. Ali Kosh, high plateau, Mesopotamia, and piedmont steppe. E. high plateau, hilly flanks, piedmont steppe, and alluvial desert (the area watered by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers). Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 6. Where do scholars believe food production first began in the Middle East? A. hilly flanks B. alluvial desert C. desert oases D. high plateau E. marginal zones Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 7. Where did the earliest domestication of animals and plants in the Middle East occur? A. in desert oases B. in the area where wild forms of wheat and barley grew C. in the marginal zones next to the hilly flanks D. in the Fertile Crescent, where the world’s first civilization emerged E. along the banks of the Nile Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 8. What is sedentism? A. transhumance B. living off domestic species C. living off wild species D. a capitalist-based exchange E. life in permanent villages Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 9. When did sedentary life develop in the Middle East? A. at the same time that farming and herding developed B. after herding, but before farming C. after farming and herding D. after farming, but before herding E. before farming and herding Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 10. The Natufians’ ability to exploit their rich local environment with broad-spectrum foraging made it possible for them to A. establish the foundations of a complex state even prior to boosting food production. B. incorporate roaming herding groups into their sedentary communities. C. live in year-round villages prior to the emergence of domestication. D. experiment with agricultural techniques that would eventually lead to increased food production and a truly sedentary lifestyle. E. have a nutritious diet with staples ranging from millet to manioc. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 11. In the Middle East, early cultivation began as an attempt to copy, in a less favorable environment, the dense stands of wheat and barley that grew wild in the hilly flanks. All of the following either motivated or facilitated this attempt EXCEPT A. living in marginal areas most affected by climatic changes. B. human inventiveness and experimentation that occurred in the optimal zones, such as the hilly flanks. C. the existence of a vertical economy. D. population growth. E. climatic changes that reduced the available amount of wild wheat and barley. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 12. What is a vertical economy? A. one of the types of segmentary lineage organization found in regions of East Africa B. a system of top-down exchange across regions C. a means of integrating a society based on hereditary inequality and coercion D. a system that exploits environmental zones that contrast with one another in altitude, rainfall, overall climate, and vegetation E. a form of indirect-biased transmission Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 13. Which of the following conditions did NOT contribute to the development of food production in the Middle East? A. the shift to a broad-spectrum subsistence pattern at the end of the Upper Paleolithic B. population increase, leading people to try planting grasses in new ecological niches C. the diffusion of domesticated animal species from southern Europe D. favorable changes in cultivated grains through artificial selection E. the availability of annual grasses with edible grains Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 14. With domestication, the husk that encloses the edible portion of wild cereals became A. tougher. B. thicker. C. darker. D. more brittle. E. None of these answers is correct. Wild cereals do not have husks. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 15. Which of the following statements about sheep is true? A. Wild sheep have a larger range of habitat than domesticated sheep. B. Wild sheep produce more wool than domesticated sheep. C. Woolly sheep are the product of natural selection. D. The domestic sheep’s wool offers it protection against extreme heat. E. Wool from wild sheep is better for making clothing. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 16. The foundations of the state—a social and political unit featuring a central government, extreme contrasts of wealth, and social classes—emerged A. in the alluvial desert plain of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where a new economy based on irrigation and trade fueled the growth of this entirely new form of society. B. against the will of the people, who correctly foresaw the many ills this new form of society would bring upon them. C. below the intersection of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where the abundance of water helped keep a complex irrigation system working. D. in the hilly flanks, because that was the area that could best sustain a growing population. E. out of an attempt to copy, on a larger scale, the lifestyle that early sedentism offered its members prior to the sudden population growth caused by food production. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 17. Which of the following was NOT domesticated in China? A. dogs B. millet C. cattle D. cassava E. rice Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the Neolithic in Africa, Europe, and Asia. Topic: Other Old World Farmers 18. Which of the following is NOT one of the areas where food production was independently invented? A. northern and southern China B. sub-Saharan Africa C. the Middle East D. the eastern United States E. the Indus Valley Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the Neolithic in Africa, Europe, and Asia. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic Topic: Other Old World Farmers 19. The domestication of the dog A. ensured, worldwide, that all early states had strong enough animals to help plow fields. B. likely occurred in two phases, the first beginning in China. C. occurred only in the Eastern Hemisphere. D. occurred only after a key mutation that turned dogs into more docile creatures. E. illustrates the strong human-animal bond that was an important adaptation during the time of early hominin evolution. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the broad-spectrum revolution. Topic: Broad-Spectrum Economies 20. Which of the following was NOT domesticated in the eastern United States? A. corn B. marsh elder C. squash D. sunflower E. goosefoot Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Contrast Old World and New World farmers. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic Topic: The First American Farmers 21. Three key caloric staples and major sources of carbohydrates were domesticated by Native American farmers. These were A. corn, squash, and potatoes. B. wheat, maize, and cassava. C. maize, teosinte, and peanuts. D. maize, white potatoes, and manioc. E. corn, beans, and potatoes. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Contrast Old World and New World farmers. Topic: The First American Farmers 22. The path from foraging to food production was one that people followed independently in at least seven world areas. New archaeological research techniques continue to overturn previously held assumptions about where and how this occurred. Microscopic evidence from early cultivated plants suggests that A. farming in the South American tropical lowlands preceded domestication in the Middle East by some 5,000 years. B. New World farming began in the lowlands of South America and then spread to Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands. C. maize was first domesticated in the Pacific islands and brought to the Americas by colonizers who navigated to the western coasts of South America. D. all early domesticates originated among the Clovis people, whose knowledge then diffused southward. E. the old assumption that New World farming originated in the upland areas is correct. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Contrast Old World and New World farmers. Topic: The First American Farmers 23. Contrary to the old assumption that New World farming originated in the upland areas, recent research suggests that A. the upland communities borrowed farming techniques from their lowland neighbors. B. all food staples except maize were domesticated in the tropical lowlands. C. farming originated in the coastal lowlands of Argentina and then diffused upward. D. all food staples except teosinte were domesticated in the South American jungle. E. farming first originated in the tropical lowlands at about the same time food production arose in the Middle East—around 10,000 years ago—and that these new techniques developed in the tropics and then diffused into drier regions at higher elevations. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Contrast Old World and New World farmers. Topic: The First American Farmers 24. What is the name of the wild ancestor of maize? A. cavia B. teosinte C. guajalote D. elote E. corn Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Contrast Old World and New World farmers. Topic: The First American Farmers 25. What have new dating techniques applied to plant remains revealed about the origins of domestication in the New World? A. Evidence of Ecuadorian potatoes dating back 5,000 years suggests that food production originated in the New World as the result of growing population pressures, particularly in the South American Andes. B. Evidence of Peruvian squash seeds dating back 10,000 years that were found but were not domesticated in the highlands are proof of even earlier New World domestication, probably in South America’s tropical lowlands. C. Food production had originated independently in five different regions of the Americas by 12,000 B.P. D. Evidence of Mexican peanut hulls dating back 15,000 years confirms that the origin of domestication in the New World preceded food production everywhere else in the world by more than 5,000 years. E. Food production in the New World was a result of knowledge brought by the first settlers to the Americas, who crossed Beringia approximately 18,000 years ago. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Contrast Old World and New World farmers. Topic: The First American Farmers 26. Where were beans domesticated? A. Mexico B. New England C. Patagonia D. the U.S. Southwest E. Beringia Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Contrast Old World and New World farmers. Topic: The First American Farmers 27. Unlike the pattern in the Old World, plant domestication in the New World A. involved no food plants, but instead was used to increase the production of utilitarian plants such as bottle gourds and hemp. B. was apparently not necessary for the development of states such as Teotihuacán. C. occurred before the rise of the first sedentary communities. D. occurred after the rise of the first sedentary communities. E. was begun but then abandoned before there was a chance for societies to develop into states. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Recall the factors that converged to make domestication happen and promote its spread. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic 28. Which of the following is a key difference between the food-producing traditions of Mesopotamia and Mesoamerica that helps us understand the subsequent histories in the two regions? A. Food production occurred as a gradual process in Mesoamerica but was revolutionary in Mesopotamia. B. Food production emerged in Mesoamerica thousands of years prior to when it did in Mesopotamia. C. Large domesticated animals played an important role in Mesopotamia but were absent from Mesoamerica. D. In Mesoamerica, goats, sheep, and pigs were domesticated, but in Mesopotamia only dogs were domesticated. E. Maize was the staple grain in Mesopotamia, whereas the primary grain in Mesoamerica was wheat. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Recall the factors that converged to make domestication happen and promote its spread. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic 29. Anthropologists once thought that domestication would happen almost automatically once people gained sufficient knowledge of plants and animals and their reproductive habits to figure out how to make domestication work. They now know that A. they were correct, thanks to recently uncovered evidence in Chile. B. aside from this knowledge, domestication requires the invention of the wheel. C. aside from this knowledge, an emerging state is necessary for domestication to occur. D. some other trigger is needed to start and sustain the process of domestication. E. the will to overcome a lazy lifestyle is even more important than such knowledge. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Recall the factors that converged to make domestication happen and promote its spread. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic 30. Which of the following was a consequence of domestication? A. Humans had to work less than before to acquire food. B. There was an increase in dietary diversity. C. There was a decline in disease. D. Sedentary life became more widespread. E. There was a gradual decrease in population size. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Summarize the costs and benefits of food production. Topic: Costs and Benefits Topic: Explaining the Neolithic 31. Which of the following is a benefit of farming? A. better health B. greater predictability of staple species C. fewer diseases D. less work E. a broader diet Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Summarize the costs and benefits of food production. Topic: Costs and Benefits 32. Which of the following is true? A. Food production led to an increase in social inequality. B. Food production allowed most people to work less. C. Food production yielded more nutritious diets. D. Food-producing societies are more egalitarian than foraging societies. E. Food production reduced warfare. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Summarize the costs and benefits of food production. Topic: Costs and Benefits 33. Food production was a critical step toward the broad-spectrum revolution. FALSE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the broad-spectrum revolution. Topic: Broad-Spectrum Economies 34. Early cultivation began as an attempt to copy, in a less favorable environment, the dense stands of wheat and barley that grew wild in the hilly flanks. TRUE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 35. Most researchers today argue that the domestication of plants in the Middle East took place in the hilly flanks regions where wild plant ancestors naturally grew. FALSE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 36. In the Middle East, sedentism developed before plants and animals were domesticated. TRUE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 37. A vertical economy exploits environmental zones that are close together in space but are separated by altitude, rainfall, overall climate, and vegetation. TRUE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 38. Compared to those of wild plants, the seeds of domesticated plants are larger and less likely to shatter and disperse. TRUE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 39. With domestication, plants developed thicker husks. FALSE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Explain the developments that led to farming and herding in the Middle East. Topic: The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East 40. Nabta Playa was an important center for prehistoric herders in southern Egypt. TRUE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the Neolithic in Africa, Europe, and Asia. Topic: Other Old World Farmers 41. Around 8000 B.P., communities on Europe’s Mediterranean shores started to export species to the Middle East. FALSE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Describe the Neolithic in Africa, Europe, and Asia. Topic: Explaining the Neolithic Topic: Other Old World Farmers 42. In the Middle East, as subsistence economies became more specialized and more dependent on domesticated species, population centers began to emerge that had temples, writing, and canals for irrigating fields. TRUE
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: Recall the factors that converged to make domestication happen and promote its spread. Topic: Other Old World Farmers

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