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What is Psychology International Edition 3rd Edition by Ellen E. Pastorino – Test Bank

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What is Psychology International Edition 3rd Edition by Ellen E. Pastorino – Test Bank

Chapter 6—How Does Memory Function?

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The encoding function of memory refers to
a. recalling information from memory.
b. storing information in memory.
c. consolidating information with other related information.
d. inputting information into memory.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Factual

2. When you momentarily forget a friend’s name, the function of memory that has failed is the ____ function.
a. reproduction c. encoding
b. retrieval d. storage

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

3. The greatest difference between computers and the human mind is the mind’s ability to
a. experience consciousness. c. retrieve memories.
b. store memories. d. encode information.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

4. If you don’t remember on which wrist your professor wears her watch, even if you remember many other things about her, which function of memory has most likely failed you?
a. Storage c. Encoding
b. Application d. Retrieval

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

5. The computer works well as an analogy for human memory, except that
a. computers don’t store information, but humans do.
b. humans don’t encode information, but computers do.
c. computers retrieve information, but humans don’t.
d. humans have conscious awareness, but computers don’t.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

6. Saving the paper you just wrote to the hard drive of a computer is most analogous to the ____ of new memory traces.
a. encoding c. retrieval
b. storage d. decay

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

7. On exam day, as you attempt to answer the questions on the exam, you are primarily engaged in the ____ of memory traces.
a. encoding c. retrieval
b. storage d. review

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

8. The three major functions of memory are
a. activation, reactivation, and completion.
b. implicit, explicit, and semantic.
c. integration, consolidation, and modification.
d. encoding, storage, and retrieval.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Factual

9. Typing information into a computer is most analogous to the ____ of memory traces in humans.
a. encoding c. retrieval
b. storage d. review

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

10. Implicit memory is to ____ as explicit memory is to ____.
a. short-term; long-term c. conscious; unconscious
b. long-term; short-term d. unconscious; conscious

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

11. Explicit memory is
a. memory that occurs without awareness.
b. memories for skills.
c. the conscious use of memory.
d. memories for classically conditioned feelings.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Factual

12. Implicit memory is
a. memory for facts. c. memories for events.
b. the unconscious use of memory. d. memory that occurs with awareness.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Factual

13. When you take a test and have to recall specific pieces of information to do well on the test, you are using your
a. information memory. c. validated memory.
b. implicit memory. d. explicit memory.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

14. When you tie your shoes, you are most likely making use of your
a. implicit memory. c. episodic memory.
b. semantic memory. d. explicit memory.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

15. Frika is washing dishes and automatically puts the forks in the side drawer, despite the fact that she moved the forks to another drawer last week. Frika’s error is most likely the result of ____ memory.
a. explicit c. episodic
b. implicit d. sensory

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

16. Which of the following is an example of the use of implicit memory?
a. Remembering that you have a dentist appointment next Friday at 2:30pm
b. Remembering the answer to a test question while taking an exam
c. Remembering how to knit a sweater
d. Remembering where you parked your car at the mall

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

17. Which of the following is the best example of the use of explicit memory?
a. Remembering the steps involved in knitting a sweater
b. Remembering how to drive a car
c. Remembering that you have a dentist appointment next Friday at 2:30pm
d. Remembering how to hit a curve ball

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 221
OBJ: Does Memory Function Like a Computer? MSC: TYPE: Applied

18. A principle that seems to underlie the three stages model of memory is that
a. forgetting is more influenced by biological factors than anything else.
b. the more you process something that you want to remember, the more likely it will end up in long-term memory storage.
c. memories need to spend a large amount of time in each stage before they can be remembered long-term.
d. consciousness of things we remember is not necessary until the long-term memory stage.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 223
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

19. If you are able to remember the arrangement of words in this question, it is because memory for the words is residing in your
a. sensory memory. c. short-term memory.
b. iconic memory. d. episodic memory.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 223
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

 

20. According to the three stages model of memory,
a. short-term memory holds a vast amount of information for up to several hours.
b. we keep all permanent memories in our long-term memory.
c. forgetting only occurs at the long-term memory stage.
d. all of these choices

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 223, 235
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

21. If you were explaining the three stages model of memory to your friend, you would tell her that the first stage of memory is
a. sensory memory. c. long-term memory.
b. short-term memory. d. working memory.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 223
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

22. In the three stages model of memory, in which stage does encoding of the environment occur?
a. Sensory memory c. Long-term memory
b. Short-term memory d. Semantic memory

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 223
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

23. Your friend asks you if it is possible in the three stages model of memory for memories to go directly from sensory memory to long-term memory. How should you answer?
a. Sure, the three stages model accounts for this common occurrence.
b. The model predicts that this can happen, but only in rare instances.
c. No, the model says that information has to travel in sequence from one stage to the next.
d. The three stages model does not address this issue. So, who knows?

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 223
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

24. In the three stage model of memory, the second stage of memory is ____ memory.
a. implicit c. sensory
b. short-term d. semantic

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 223
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

25. Short-term memory is to ____ as long-term memory is to ____.
a. simple material; complex material c. temporary; permanent
b. implicit; explicit d. elaborative; maintenance

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 223
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

 

26. In the three stages model of memory, the briefest stage of memory is
a. sensory memory. c. long-term memory.
b. short-term memory. d. semantic memory.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 223
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

27. Iconic memory is to ____ as echoic memory is to ____.
a. sensory memory; short-term memory
b. short-term memory; long-term memory
c. visual sensory memory; auditory sensory memory
d. auditory sensory memory; visual sensory memory

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

28. If your iconic memory lasted longer than normal,
a. you would score higher on a test of intelligence.
b. you would probably be a good artist.
c. you are a likely candidate for a mental illness.
d. your visual world would likely be confusing.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

29. Iconic memories are most helpful in which activity?
a. Drawing a picture c. Reading a book
b. Watching a movie d. Mopping the floor

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

30. Which of the following is true regarding sensory memory?
a. Echoic memory lasts longer than iconic sensory memory.
b. Sensory memory lasts the same amount of time for each sense.
c. Sensory memory lasts an average of 7 seconds.
d. Sensory memory is so short in duration that we are never able to be consciously aware of it.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

31. Iconic memory is most like a(n)
a. trail. c. echo.
b. snapshot. d. tickle.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

32. Sensory memories help us to
a. see motion when we watch a movie.
b. process sounds even after the sound didn’t register in our consciousness.
c. process sensations long enough to send them on to short-term memory.
d. all of these choices

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

33. Iconic memory lasts about
a. half a second. c. 20 seconds.
b. 2 seconds. d. 2 minutes.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

34. Echoic memory lasts about
a. half a second. c. 20 seconds.
b. 2 seconds. d. 2 minutes.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

35. A person without iconic memory probably wouldn’t be able to remember anything that he or she
a. heard. c. saw.
b. felt. d. thought.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

36. Echoic memories are a type of
a. short-term memory. c. long-term memory.
b. iconic memory. d. sensory memory.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

37. When you are not paying attention to your teacher and then suddenly realize that something important may have been said, you are often able to hear what was just said by reflecting on your experience over the past couple of seconds. This is possible because of
a. iconic memory. c. echoic memory.
b. short-term memory. d. haptic memory.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 225
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

 

 

38. Which of the following is false about sensory memory?
a. We have a separate sensory memory for each of our sensory systems.
b. Sensory memories are transferred to short-term memory when we pay attention to them.
c. Some information that enters our memory from the outside world does not pass through our senses.
d. When something is sensed but not processed any further, it will not be remembered in the future.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 224
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

39. The process that determines which memory information gets transferred from sensory memory to short-term memory is
a. transduction. c. bottom-up processing.
b. attention. d. capitulation.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 225
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

40. If we don’t pay attention to sensory memories, they will most likely
a. be forgotten forever.
b. be forgotten until you recall them at a later date.
c. end up in explicit memory.
d. get transferred to short-term memory.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 225
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

41. When we are conscious of a memory, the memory is most likely in
a. explicit memory. c. iconic memory.
b. long-term memory. d. short-term memory.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 225
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

42. Short-term memories are encoded either ____ or ____.
a. semantically; kinesthetically c. haptically; implicitly
b. visually; acoustically d. explicitly; consciously

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 225
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

43. Most short-term memories are stored as
a. visual images. c. feelings.
b. sounds. d. icons.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 226
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

44. Short-term memory uses a dual-coding system for storing memories. This means that
a. memories stored in short-term memory are usually stored in long-term memory at the same time.
b. short-term memories are stored in two forms at the same time in order to reduce the likelihood of forgetting.
c. short-term memories are usually stored either acoustically or visually.
d. memories in short-term memory are coded to indicate both where the memory came from and where it is going.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 225
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

45. Since when we think we are generally “hearing” our own voice inside of our minds, it shouldn’t surprise us that ____ are often stored in the form of the sounds our words make.
a. long-term memories c. sensory memories
b. echoic memories d. short-term memories

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 226
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

46. Short-term memory is best described as
a. large in capacity and long in duration. c. small in capacity and long in duration.
b. small in capacity and short in duration. d. large in capacity and short in duration.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 227
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

47. In the 1950s, George Miller showed that the capacity of short-term memory is
a. 7  2 bits of information. c. 20 chunks of data.
b. about 5 facts, 2 concepts, and 1 feeling. d. 15 items.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 227
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

48. Imagine that you are participating in a research study in which you are shown a list of numbers and then immediately afterwards you are asked to recall as many of them as you can. Most likely, the researcher is studying the
a. capacity of sensory memory. c. capacity of long-term memory.
b. duration of long-term memory. d. capacity of short-term memory.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 227
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

49. The phrase “7  2 bits” describes the
a. capacity of sensory memory. c. capacity of short-term memory.
b. duration of short-term memory. d. duration of sensory memory.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 227
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

50. Even though a long series of digits may exceed the normal capacity of short-term memory, it may still fit in your short-term memory through a grouping process called
a. consolidation. c. bit formation.
b. numerization. d. chunking.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 227
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

51. Using the bookshelf analogy to explain the capacity of short-term memory, when you use chunking to increase that capacity,
a. the size of the bookshelf is actually changed.
b. you are able to pack a virtually unlimited number of items into larger chunks or “books.”
c. you are not actually changing the size of the bookshelf.
d. you are changing the length of the shelf but not the depth of the shelf.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 227
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

52. The duration of short-term memory is about
a. 2 hours. c. 7  2 seconds.
b. 30 seconds. d. 2 seconds.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 227
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

53. Imagine that you are a participant in a study in which you are asked to remember a short sequence of letters and then immediately asked to count backwards from 100 by threes. After several seconds, you are asked to stop counting and recall the original sequence of letters. Most likely, the researcher is studying the
a. duration of long-term memory. c. capacity of short-term memory.
b. capacity of sensory memory. d. duration of short-term memory.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 227-228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

54. Maintenance rehearsal is most useful for
a. extending the duration of short-term memory.
b. transferring a short-term memory into long-term memory.
c. extending the duration of long-term memory.
d. transferring a sensory memory into short-term memory.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

 

55. Maintenance rehearsal is most closely associated with ____, while elaborative rehearsal is most closely associated with ____.
a. semantic memory; episodic memory c. visual memory; auditory memory
b. short-term memory; long-term memory d. implicit memory; explicit memory

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

56. When you attempt to remember the definition of implicit memory by repeating the definition over and over again, you are using ____ rehearsal.
a. practice c. elaborative
b. repetitive d. maintenance

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

57. Maintenance rehearsal describes the
a. attempt to remember something by repeating it over and over.
b. process of keeping something in memory by changing its form or structure.
c. attempt to keep memory skills strong by engaging in simple memory tests.
d. process of creating a mental image of something in order to remember it.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

58. Maintenance rehearsal is
a. an effective tool to transfer memories into long-term memory.
b. used to keep items in our long-term memory storage.
c. the forming of associations between what you want to remember and what you already remember.
d. effective in keeping memories “alive” in short-term memory.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

59. If you use maintenance rehearsal to prepare for your next test in psychology, you probably will
a. do well if the test is next week, but not well if the test is sometime after that.
b. not do well.
c. do quite well.
d. not do well on the questions that are based on facts and information, but do well on the questions based on concepts.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

 

 

60. If you prepare for your test on memory by relating the information to your grandfather’s memory problems due to Alzheimer’s disease, you are using ____ rehearsal.
a. maintenance c. elaborative
b. picture d. story

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

61. Elaborative rehearsal involves trying to store something in long-term memory by
a. repeating it over and over again.
b. associating it with something you already have stored in long-term memory.
c. listening to subliminal learning tapes.
d. taking memory enhancing pills.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

62. When advertisers use a catchy, familiar jingle to help us remember something in their ads, they are facilitating our use of
a. bottom-up processing. c. elaborative rehearsal.
b. good continuity. d. maintenance rehearsal.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 228
OBJ: The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory: Are We Serial Processors?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

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