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Understanding Psychology 14Th Edition By Robert Feldmen -Test Bank

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Understanding Psychology 14Th Edition By Robert Feldmen -Test Bank

Understanding Psychology, 14e (Feldman)
Chapter 6 Learning

1) Psychologists use the term ________ to refer to a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience.
A) “growth”
B) “maturation”
C) “cognition”
D) “learning”

2) Which of the following types of learning explains phenomena such as crying at the sight of a bride walking down the aisle, fearing the dark, and falling in love?
A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) latent learning
D) cognitive learning

3) ________ permits us to ignore things that have stopped providing new information.
A) Stimulus discrimination
B) Extinction
C) Habituation
D) Stimulus generalization

4) You toss a newly purchased felt mouse across the floor; your cat chases it excitedly, clutches it in her paws, and rolls around with it. Several tosses later, your cat yawns pointedly and settles herself for a nap. The change in your cat’s behavior illustrates
A) adaptation.
B) habituation.
C) conditioning.
D) maturation.

5) ________ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.
A) Thorndike
B) Skinner
C) Pavlov
D) Watson

6) ________ is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
A) Classical conditioning
B) Operant conditioning
C) Observational learning
D) Instrumental conditioning

7) ________ stimulus is a stimulus that does not naturally bring about the response of interest.
A) Reflexive
B) Unconditioned
C) Neutral
D) Normative

8) ________ stimulus is a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned.
A) Conditioned
B) Unconditioned
C) Neutral
D) Normative

9) As a child, Tim loved salami sandwiches but was not particularly fond of dill pickles. However, his mother would always serve the pickles with salami sandwiches. Now, the sight of even an empty dill pickle jar makes his mouth water. In the context of classical conditioning, the pickle jar is a(n) ________ and salami is a(n) ________.
A) conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
B) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus
C) neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
D) conditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus

10) Alexis uses cocaine, which activates her sympathetic nervous system. Expecting her dealer, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a knock on the door. Which alternative below correctly identifies the neutral stimulus, the CS, and the UCS?
A) neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—cocaine; UCS—cocaine
B) neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; UCS—pounding heart
C) neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; UCS—cocaine
D) neutral stimulus—cocaine; CS—knock on the door; UCS—cocaine

11) In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus
A) becomes a conditioned stimulus.
B) elicits a particular response that is a result of training.
C) elicits a particular response without having been learned.
D) becomes a neutral stimulus.

12) Which of the following is true of unconditioned responses?
A) They are led by conditioned stimuli.
B) They require the presence of a conditioned stimulus.
C) They require the presence of a neutral stimulus.
D) They occur naturally.

13) In Pavlov’s study, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was ________; the neutral stimulus was ________; and, finally, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was ________.
A) meat; the bell; meat
B) meat; the bell; the bell
C) the bell; meat; meat
D) meat; meat; the bell

14) Classical conditioning is most successful when the neutral stimulus begins
A) just before the unconditioned stimulus begins.
B) at exactly the same time that the unconditioned stimulus begins.
C) long before the unconditioned stimulus begins.
D) immediately after the unconditioned stimulus begins.

15) Many people experience hunger pangs at the sight of McDonald’s golden arches. In the context of classical conditioning, the golden arches are a(n) ________ and the hunger pangs on seeing the arches are a(n) ________.
A) conditioned stimulus; conditioned response
B) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response
C) unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response
D) neutral stimulus; unconditioned response

16) Jonas is a veteran of the war in Iraq. He suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Now, back home in a quiet California neighborhood, he jumps when he hears a firecracker or a car backfire. In the terminology of classical conditioning, these sounds are best thought of as ________ stimuli.
A) neutral
B) unconditioned
C) conditioned
D) normative

17) In the context of classical conditioning, which of the following actions is most likely to produce extinction?
A) prolonging the association between conditioned stimuli and unconditioned stimuli
B) ending the association between conditioned stimuli and unconditioned stimuli
C) adding a negative reinforcer to the environment
D) adding a positive reinforcer to the environment

18) In the context of classical conditioning, during extinction, a conditioned stimulus is
A) presented by itself.
B) paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
C) paired with a neutral stimulus.
D) elicits an unconditioned response.

19) Danny visited the zoo with his parents. A week later, his grandparents took him to the zoo when he asked them. For the next few days, he kept asking his parents to take him to the zoo again. About two weeks later, he stopped asking to be taken to the zoo. The given scenario exemplifies
A) extinction.
B) reinforcement.
C) latent learning.
D) observational learning.

20) In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus are presented together during
A) habituation.
B) acquisition.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) extinction.

21) The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning is known as
A) extinction.
B) habituation.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) deconditioning.

22) Every time 5-year-old Peter picked up his toys, his mother gave him a penny. After some time, she stopped giving him pennies to pick up his toys. Over the next few weeks, Peter gradually stopped asking for pennies. Three months later, when Peter picked up his toys, he asked his mother for a penny. In the given scenario, Peter asking for a penny after a period of 3 months exemplifies
A) latent learning.
B) extinction.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) reinforcement.

23) ________ is a process in which, after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a particular response, stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus produce the same response.
A) Stimulus location
B) Stimulus generalization
C) Stimulus reflexive
D) Stimulus discrimination

24) Which of the following is TRUE of stimulus generalization?
A) It is the process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another.
B) The greater the similarity between two stimuli, the greater the likelihood of stimulus generalization.
C) The conditioned response elicited by the new stimulus is usually more intense than the original conditioned response.
D) Stimulus generalization provides the ability to differentiate between stimuli.

25) Which of the following scenarios exemplifies stimulus generalization?
A) Margie learns to draw by watching her older brother draw.
B) Ethan does not eat any kind of mushroom, because as a child he ate a mushroom growing in his yard and fell sick.
C) Lanny does not drive yet but knows all the rules of driving because his mother frequently drives him to school.
D) Megan finishes her science homework on time because she got detention the last time she did not finish her homework.

26) Ramona takes her 4-year-old daughter to a park. While her daughter plays in the sand pit, Ramona sits and chats with her friends. When she hears two girls fighting, she does not worry as she recognizes that it’s not her daughter’s voice. The given scenario illustrates
A) stimulus generalization.
B) stimulus discrimination.
C) extinction.
D) latent learning.

27) June’s cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can opener, which she has learned is used to open her food when her dinner is about to be served. The cat does not run when a blender is used, although it sounds similar. June’s cat is demonstrating stimulus
A) control.
B) discrimination.
C) generalization.
D) diffusion.

28) When Mathew was a child, he ate some red berries from his garden. He fell violently sick after eating them. Now, he refuses to eat any red-colored fruits. In the context of classical conditioning, the given scenario illustrates
A) positive reinforcement.
B) stimulus discrimination.
C) stimulus generalization.
D) negative reinforcement.

29) Which of the following statements is true of learned taste aversion?
A) It illustrates the social cognitive approach to learning.
B) It can occur even with a gap of up to 8 hours between exposure to the stimulus and the response.
C) It requires repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
D) It occurs when a previously conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus decreases in frequency and eventually disappears.

30) In what way does learned taste aversion not seem to follow the basic principles of classical conditioning?
A) In learned taste aversion, the CS and the unconditioned response (UCR) are separated by only a brief interval.
B) Learned taste aversion can occur after only a single CS-UCR pairing.
C) Learned taste aversion takes longer to develop than do most classical conditioning processes.
D) Learned taste aversion is subject to biologically based constraints while, classical conditioning is not.

31) ________ is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences.
A) Classical conditioning
B) Operant conditioning
C) Observational learning
D) Instrumental conditioning

32) Operant conditioning most importantly involves forming associations between
A) neutral and unconditioned stimuli.
B) stimuli and involuntary behavior.
C) behavior and consequences.
D) conditioned response and reflex.

33) In operant conditioning, an organism
A) operates on its environment to produce a desirable result.
B) reacts to a stimulus in an unthinking, mechanical, and automatic manner.
C) uses active thought processes to decide its response to a stimulus.
D) imitates the behavior of a model.

34) The root of operant conditioning may be traced to ________’s early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages.
A) Skinner
B) Thorndike
C) Watson
D) Pavlov

35) “Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated.” This is the law of
A) consequences.
B) reward.
C) effect.
D) reinforcement.

36) The most influential psychologist to study operant conditioning was
A) Freud.
B) Watson.
C) Pavlov.
D) Skinner.

37) The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called
A) habituation.
B) reinforcement.
C) learning.
D) spontaneous recovery.

38) Which of the following statements is true of primary reinforcers?
A) They work only if they can help fulfill needs other than biological needs.
B) They work naturally, regardless of a person’s previous experience.
C) They work only if a person understands the importance of the particular reinforcer.
D) They are primarily associated with money.

39) A ________ is any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again.
A) catalyst
B) rejoinder
C) reinforcer
D) stimulant

40) Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called ________ reinforcers.
A) primary
B) positive
C) unconditioned
D) reflexive

41) In the context of operant conditioning, which of the following is true of reinforcement?
A) It occurs when a conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without an unconditioned stimulus.
B) It is used to decrease the relevant behavior.
C) Mirror neurons that fire when observing another person carrying out a behavior play a key role in the reinforcement of behavior.
D) The neurotransmitter dopamine plays a key role in the reinforcement of behavior.

42) Caroline is playing in the snow in her yard. Her father calls her to come inside the house as it is getting late. Caroline does not want to go inside and ignores her father. After a while, she starts to feel cold and goes inside the house to keep warm. In the given scenario, the feeling of warmth is a
A) conditioned stimulus.
B) primary reinforcer.
C) secondary reinforcer.
D) neutral stimulus.

43) Noah’s mother gives him a dollar every Friday evening if he finishes his chores for the week without being reminded. He diligently finishes his chores every week, and he uses the money to buy candies over the weekend. In the given scenario, the weekly allowance acts as a(n)
A) secondary reinforcer.
B) primary reinforcer.
C) neutral stimulus.
D) unconditioned stimulus.

44) The term reward is associated with
A) positive reinforcement only.
B) reinforcement generally.
C) negative reinforcement only.
D) primary reinforcement only.

45) Cabe pulls a muscle in his leg. His doctor asks him to apply ice on the injury. Even though he does not like to apply cold packs, Cabe does it because he feels instant relief from the pain. In the given scenario, the relief from pain is a
A) negative punishment.
B) positive punishment.
C) negative reinforcer.
D) positive reinforcer.

46) As part of a behavior modification program, Kendra and her partner each agree to praise the other if they complete their assigned household chores by the end of the day. Such praise is an example of
A) primary reinforcement
B) tertiary reinforcement
C) positive reinforcement
D) negative reinforcement

47) A(n) ________ reinforcer is a stimulus added to the environment, like getting paid to work, that specifically brings about an increase in a preceding response.
A) primary
B) positive
C) unconditioned
D) neutral

48) A(n) ________ reinforcer refers to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, putting on a sweater when you’re cold for example, which leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.
A) negative
B) secondary
C) unconditioned
D) neutral

49) Dr. Isonzo notices several students nodding in agreement as he lectures. Subsequently, his rhetoric becomes more confident and more passionate. The students have provided ________ reinforcement.
A) positive
B) secondary
C) conditioned
D) neutral

50) Which of the following statements is true of negative reinforcement?
A) It is the same thing as punishment.
B) It involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
C) It decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be performed.
D) It refers to the addition of a negative stimulus.

51) Which of the following scenarios exemplifies negative reinforcement?
A) Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound.
B) Drake no longer cuts class, now that his parents have confiscated his iPod.
C) Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one.
D) Nate no longer arrives late at work following a reprimand from his boss.

52) ________ weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus.
A) Negative reinforcement
B) Negative punishment
C) Positive punishment
D) Normative reinforcement

53) Which of the following scenarios exemplify negative punishment?
A) Astrid tells her daughter she is grounded for misbehaving and cannot meet her friends for a week.
B) Carly yells at her husband when he comes home drunk.
C) Jim makes his middle-schoolers run extra laps when they are unruly in gym class.
D) Joanie takes several ibuprofen tablets when she has a headache.

54) Which of the following is an example of positive punishment?
A) you fight with your significant other and walk away
B) getting a speeding ticket
C) grounding a child for misbehaving and not letting him/her watch television
D) giving your dog a treat for rolling over

55) Sheryl’s parents have told her that she is “grounded” and will not be allowed to watch any television for a week, because she is not completing her assignments on time. This is an example of
A) negative punishment.
B) negative reinforcement.
C) positive punishment.
D) positive reinforcement.

56) Which of the following is an example of negative punishment?
A) you fight with your significant other and walk away
B) spanking a child for misbehaving
C) yelling at your spouse for being irresponsible
D) demoting an employee for poor job performance

57) Which of the following types of consequences is correctly matched with an example?
A) positive reinforcement—Vickie applies lotion to lessen the discomfort of a small burn
B) negative reinforcement—Ella’s parents confiscate her car keys for breaking curfew
C) positive punishment—Laurel’s mother yells at her when Laurel takes $20 from her mom’s purse
D) negative punishment—Maddie receives a bonus for outstanding work performance

58) Identify the type of consequence that is correctly matched with an example.
A) positive reinforcement—Harvey is suspended when he vandalizes school property.
B) negative reinforcement—Jeff puts up his umbrella when it starts to sprinkle so he won’t get wet.
C) positive punishment—Jacqueline’s teacher puts a cute sticker on an arithmetic exercise completed without mistakes.
D) negative punishment—Tommy receives a written reprimand from his boss following a series of customer complaints.

59) Which of the following is a disadvantage of punishment?
A) It is ineffective if it is delivered immediately after the undesirable behavior.
B) It does not provide an opportunity to reinforce a person for subsequently behaving in a more desirable way.
C) It tends to change behavior very slowly.
D) It is ineffective if an individual is able to leave the setting in which the punishment is being given.

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