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Understanding Nutrition Australian And New Zealand Edition 1st Edition By Eleanor Noss Whitney – Test Bank

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Understanding Nutrition Australian And New Zealand Edition 1st Edition By Eleanor Noss Whitney – Test Bank

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Chapter 8 – Energy Balance and Body Composition

Multiple Choice

1. When an adult gains an extra 4.5 kilograms of body weight, approximately how much of this weight is fat?
a. 5 kg
b. 3 kg
c. 9.5 kg
d. 10 kg
ANS: b
REF: 242
DIF: Application Level

2. Approximately what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass?
a. 0
b. 20
c. 35
d. 50
ANS: d
REF: 242
DIF: Application Level

3. In an adult who gains 9 kilograms of excess body weight, about how much of this is lean tissue?
a. 0 kg
b. 9 kg
c. 2 kg
d. 10 kg
ANS: c
REF: 242
DIF: Application Level

4. What instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods?
a. Energy chamber
b. Exothermic meter
c. Bomb calorimeter
d. Combustion chamber
ANS: c
REF: 242
DIF: Knowledge Level

5. Which of the following describes an association between energy measurement and foods?
a. Indirect calorimetry cannot be used to determine the energy value of alcohol
b. A bomb calorimeter measures the amount of oxygen released when a food is oxidised
c. Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry of the same food rarely give similar values
d. The physiological fuel value of a food is almost always lower than the energy value of that food as determined by bomb calorimetry
ANS: d
REF: 242
DIF: Application Level

6. Which of the following represents an indirect measure of the amount of energy released from food?
a. The increase in heat given off when the food is burned
b. Quantity of oxygen consumed when the food is burned
c. Quantity of carbon dioxide consumed when the food is burned
d. The increase in heat retained by the food when it is slowly brought to 100° C
ANS: b
REF: 242
DIF: Application Level

7. About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
a. 30 minutes
b. 1.5 hours
c. 4 hours
d. 8 hours
ANS: c
REF: 243
DIF: Knowledge Level

8. A person who exhibits a physiological need to eat is most likely experiencing the sensation of
a. hunger.
b. appetite.
c. stress eating.
d. neuropeptide Y suppression.
ANS: a
REF: 243
DIF: Application Level

9. Which of the following identifies a specific food intake behaviour?
a. A physiological need to eat is called satiety
b. A pleasurable desire for food is called hunger
c. An intense feeling of hunger is called insatiable nervosa
d. A desire to eat without feelings of hunger is called appetite
ANS: d
REF: 243
DIF: Knowledge Level

10. After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake is an example of behaviour known as
a. satiety.
b. hunger.
c. appetite.
d. pigging out.
ANS: c
REF: 243
DIF: Application Level

11. A person who eats in response to arousal is most likely experiencing
a. stress eating.
b. sensory influences.
c. physiological influences.
d. postabsorptive influences.
ANS: a
REF: 243–244
DIF: Application Level

12. The feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed
a. satiety.
b. appetite.
c. postabsorptive hunger.
d. resting postabsorptive increment.
ANS: a
REF: 243
DIF: Knowledge Level

13. External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except
a. TV commercials.
b. outdoor exercises.
c. availability of food.
d. ‘time of day’ patterns.
ANS: a
REF: 243
DIF: Knowledge Level

14. An emotionally insecure person might eat for all of the following reasons except
a. to relieve boredom.
b. to ward off depression.
c. in preference to socialising.
d. to satisfy energy needs only.
ANS: d
REF: 243–245
DIF: Application Level

15. What is the most satiating macronutrient?
a. Fat
b. Water
c. Protein
d. Carbohydrate
ANS: c
REF: 244
DIF: Knowledge Level

16. Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger?
a. Apples
b. Peanuts
c. Doughnuts
d. Potato chips
ANS: a
REF: 244–245
DIF: Application Level

17. Which of the following hormones is most responsible for signalling satiety as well as reducing food intake during a meal?
a. Gastrin
b. Adipokines
c. Neuropeptide Y
d. Cholecystokinin

ANS: d
REF: 244
DIF: Knowledge Level

18. The day after Christmas, you and your sisters are a little hungry and want to eat leftovers before going shopping. Which of the following foods would most readily satisfy the feeling of hunger?
a. Turkey
b. Christmas cake
c. Roast potatoes
d. Pasta
ANS: a
REF: 244–245
DIF: Application Level

19. Which of the following may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?
a. Oxygen consumed
b. Total air exchanged
c. Intestinal gas expelled
d. Carbon dioxide consumed
ANS: a
REF: 245
DIF: Knowledge Level

20. The brain chemical neuropeptide Y is known to specifically enhance the craving for
a. fat.
b. salt.
c. protein.
d. carbohydrate.
ANS: d
REF: 245
DIF: Knowledge Level

21. All of the following are characteristics of neuropeptide-Y except
a. it stimulates appetite.
b. it reduces fat storage.
c. it is synthesised in the brain.
d. it increases carbohydrate cravings.
ANS: b
REF: 245
DIF: Knowledge Level

22. Which of the following describes the process of thermogenesis?
a. Burning of fat
b. Synthesis of fat
c. Generation of heat
d. Generation of water
ANS: c
REF: 245
DIF: Knowledge Level

23. All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except
a. high-fat foods are energy dense.
b. fat has a weak effect on satiation.
c. eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kilojoules.
d. in the small intestine fat triggers release of a hormone that inhibits food intake.
ANS: c
REF: 244–245
DIF: Application Level

24. What method is used to measure the amount of heat given off by the body?
a. Bomb calorimetry
b. Basal calorimetry
c. Direct calorimetry
d. Indirect calorimetry
ANS: c
REF: 245
DIF: Knowledge Level

25. Why might the measurement of the resting metabolic rate in a person be somewhat higher than her basal metabolic rate?
a. She was mildly malnourished
b. She slept through the procedure
c. She was wearing shorts and a t-shirt
d. She ate right before the measurement was done
ANS: d
REF: 246
DIF: Application Level

26. What fraction of the day’s energy expenditure of the average person is represented by his or her basal metabolism?
a. About 1/10
b. Up to 1/2
c. About 2/3
d. Over 9/10
ANS: c
REF: 246
DIF: Application Level

27. Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
a. Fever
b. Fasting
c. Sleeping
d. Malnutrition
ANS: a
REF: 246–247
DIF: Knowledge Level

28. The thermic effect of foods is highest for what nutrient?
a. Fat
b. Protein
c. Vitamins
d. Carbohydrate

ANS: b
REF: 247
DIF: Knowledge Level

29. What is the approximate daily basal metabolism of a 50-kilogram woman?
a. 500 kJ
b. 4700 kJ
c. 1500 kJ
d. 2000 kJ
ANS: b
REF: 246
DIF: Application Level

30. Which of the following factors has the most influence on the body’s metabolic rate?
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Amount of fat tissue
d. Amount of lean body tissue
ANS: d
REF: 246| 249
DIF: Knowledge Level

31. You are planning a diet for a hospitalised patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for six weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient’s energy expenditure?
a. Body composition
b. Basal metabolic rate
c. Physical activity level
d. Adaptive thermogenesis
ANS: b
REF: 246–247
DIF: Application Level

32. Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
a. Fever decreases the BMR
b. Fasting increases the BMR
c. Pregnancy increases the BMR
d. Females have a higher BMR than males on a body weight basis
ANS: c
REF: 246
DIF: Knowledge Level

33. Among the following groups, which has the highest metabolic rate?
a. Females
b. Older individuals
c. Younger individuals
d. People with smaller surface areas
ANS: c
REF: 246
DIF: Knowledge Level

34. If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
a. more body fat.
b. stronger bones.
c. stronger muscles.
d. more muscle mass.
ANS: d
REF: 246
DIF: Application Level

35. The weight of the body less the fat content is known as the
a. cherubic index.
b. lean body mass.
c. body mass index.
d. ideal body weight.
ANS: b
REF: 246
DIF: Knowledge Level

36. What term describes the increase in energy expenditure that occurs in a person who fractures a leg?
a. Febrile hyperthermia
b. Physical hyperthermia
c. Specific thermogenesis
d. Adaptive thermogenesis
ANS: d
REF: 247–249
DIF: Application Level

37. To estimate the energy requirements of individuals, which of the following was used in the Schofield equations?
a. Weight
b. Fat intake
c. Surface area
d. Fatfold thickness
ANS: a
REF: 250
DIF: Knowledge Level

38. For every decade beyond the age of 30, what is the percentage decrease in the need for total kilojoules?
a. 2
b. 5
c. 10
d. 15
ANS: b
REF: 249
DIF: Knowledge Level

39. If a normal 30-year-old woman has a daily energy expenditure of 9240 kilojoules, what would be her expected output when she reaches 60 years of age?
a. 3210 kJ
b. 5450 kJ
c. 7850 kJ
d. 9275 kJ

ANS: c
REF: 249
DIF: Application Level

40. What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight?
a. Males are usually taller than females
b. Females have lower levels of thyroid hormones
c. Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass
d. Females have a lower percentage of adipose tissue
ANS: c
REF: 249
DIF: Knowledge Level

41. What is the approximate value for the thermic effect of a 10 500 kilojoule diet?
a. 2500 kJ
b. 1050 kJ
c. 4000 kJ
d. 3500 kJ
ANS: b
REF: 247
DIF: Application Level

42. What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements?
a. It is too costly to measure
b. It is too variable to measure
c. The value is too low to be meaningful
d. The value is highly influenced by the dietary ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrate
ANS: b
REF: 247–249
DIF: Knowledge Level

43. Which of the following is a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values?
a. The values include fat and protein but not water
b. It is rare that sedentary, normal-weight people are overfat
c. It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight
d. Body composition can be accurately assessed by measuring body weight
ANS: c
REF: 251–252
DIF: Knowledge Level

44. What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight men?
a. 5–10%
b. 13–21%
c. 22–30%
d. 32–40%
ANS: b
REF: 252
DIF: Knowledge Level

45. An index of a person’s weight in relation to height is called
a. body mass index.
b. height to weight index.
c. ideal body weight index.
d. desirable body weight index.
ANS: a
REF: 251
DIF: Application Level

46. Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index?
a. It correlates with disease risks
b. It decreases by 1 unit for every 10 years of life
c. It provides an estimate of the fat level of the body
d. It is defined as the person’s height divided by the square of the weight
ANS: a
REF: 251
DIF: Knowledge Level

47. Jim is a 45 year old who eats fast food at least three times a week and smokes a pack of cigarettes each day. He just had a physical examination and was told that his body mass index is 24. In what category would Jim’s BMI be classified?
a. Obesity
b. Overweight
c. Underweight
d. Healthy weight
ANS: d
REF: 251
DIF: Application Level

48. What is the approximate body mass index of a woman who is 165cm tall and 65 Kgs?
a. 19
b. 24
c. 31
d. 36
ANS: b
REF: 251
DIF: Application Level

49. All of the following are features of using weight measures for the assessment of disease risk except
a. they are easy to administer.
b. they are inexpensive to obtain.
c. they reveal the location of excess body fat.
d. they are predictive of risk of degenerative diseases.
ANS: c
REF: 252
DIF: Knowledge Level

50. Why does use of the BMI overestimate the prevalence of obesity in black people?
a. Blacks have a higher average height than whites
b. Blacks have denser bones and higher body protein concentrations than whites
c. Blacks tend to have different proportions of brown and white adipose tissue than whites
d. The fat pads in blacks are situated primarily around the hips, whereas in whites the pads are primarily abdominal

ANS: b
REF: 252
DIF: Knowledge Level

51. What is the weight classification assigned both to young women with 30% body fat and young men with 20% body fat?
a. Obese
b. Normal
c. Mildly overweight
d. Slightly underweight
ANS: b
REF: 252
DIF: Application Level

52. What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight women?
a. 9–17%
b. 23–31%
c. 33–37%
d. 38–44%
ANS: b
REF: 252
DIF: Knowledge Level

53. Which of the following is not a known side effect of having insufficient fat stores?
a. Infertility
b. Clinical depression
c. Elevated body temperature
d. Abnormal hunger regulation
ANS: c
REF: 253
DIF: Application Level

54. Jenny is 34 years old and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as ‘pear-like’. John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is ‘apple-like’. Why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative diseases?
a. He is male
b. He is older
c. He weighs more
d. He has central obesity
ANS: d
REF: 253
DIF: Application Level

55. Which of the following is a characteristic of excess intra-abdominal fat?
a. It is more common in women than men
b. It is not as good an indicator of degenerative diseases as the BMI
c. It is found in smokers more often than nonsmokers even though smokers have a lower BMI
d. It is associated with increased risk for heart disease and diabetes in men but not in women
ANS: c
REF: 254
DIF: Knowledge Level

56. Which of the following defines central obesity?
a. Accumulation of fat during the mid-years of life
b. Storage of excess fat around the central part of the body
c. Overfatness due to a large number of interacting behavioural problems
d. Overfatness due to reliance on high-fat foods as a central part of the diet
ANS: b
REF: 253
DIF: Knowledge Level

57. In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
a. Neck
b. Abdomen
c. Hips and thighs
d. Arms and shoulders
ANS: b
REF: 253–254
DIF: Knowledge Level

58. Research in obese people seems to show that there is no increase in the risks for strokes and hypertension provided that the excess body fat is distributed around the
a. stomach.
b. arms and chest.
c. hips and thighs.
d. neck and shoulders.
ANS: c
REF: 254
DIF: Application Level

59. A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed
a. 61 cm.
b. 71 cm.
c. 88 cm.
d. 107 cm.
ANS: c
REF: 254
DIF: Knowledge Level

60. Which of the following can be used to gauge the amount of a person’s abdominal fat?
a. BMI
b. Essential body fat
c. Hydrodensitometry
d. Waist circumference
ANS: d
REF: 254
DIF: Application Level

61. A graph of the relationship between mortality (left axis) and body mass index is shaped like a(n)
a. J.
b. S.
c. backslash.
d. inverted U.

ANS: a
REF: 256
DIF: Application Level

62. There is a high risk of obesity-related health problems when a man’s waist circumference begins to exceed
a. 102 cm.
b. 116 cm.
c. 127 cm.
d. 133 cm.
ANS: a
REF: 254
DIF: Knowledge Level

63. Which of the following is a characteristic associated with using weight measures to assess risk of disease?
a. They are expensive to perform
b. They are complicated to perform
c. They are able to quantify total body fat
d. They cannot reveal fat distribution and central obesity
ANS: d
REF: 254
DIF: Knowledge Level

 

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