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The Art of Public Speaking 13Th Edition By Stephen Lucas – Test Bank

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The Art of Public Speaking 13Th Edition By Stephen Lucas – Test Bank

Analyzing the Audience

T

he questions for each chapter are organized according to type: true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay. Within each of these categories, questions are clustered by topic, roughly following the order of topics in the textbook.

To provide as much flexibility as possible in constructing examinations, there is deliberate overlap among the questions, both within and across question types. This enables you to choose the wording and question type that best fits your testing objectives. In deciding which questions to use, take care to avoid items such as a multiple-choice question that gives away the answer to a true-false or short-answer question, or an essay question that covers essentially the same ground as a true-false, short-answer, or multiple-choice question.

Each type of question—true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay—has an automatic numbering system, which means you can copy and paste items from within a question type, and they will automatically number themselves consecutively, beginning with “1.” The five answer choices for each multiple-choice question are also ordered automatically, so you can add, change, or reorder answer choices without rearranging the lettering.

If you would like to preserve the fonts, indents, and tabs of the original questions, you can copy and paste questions into the Exam Master provided at the end of the Test Bank. In the Exam Master, spaces for your course name, exam type, and the student’s name and section are followed by headings and instructions for true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions. You can add elements unique to your exams and delete elements you don’t want to use. After you customize the Exam Master, you can save it with your changes. Then, each time you open it, click “Save As” to give it the name of the exam you are currently constructing.

True-False Questions

  1. T F The primary purpose of speechmaking is to demonstrate your command of the topic.
  2. T F According to your textbook, public speakers need to be audience-centered.
  3. T F Being audience-centered means that your primary purpose as a speaker is to gain a desired response from the audience.
  4. T F The aim of successful speechmaking is to gain a desired response from listeners by any means necessary.
  5. T F The need to adapt to the audience means that speechmakers must usually compromise their own beliefs or values.
  6. T F The aim of successful speechmaking is to gain a desired response from listeners even if the speaker must compromise his or her beliefs to do so.
  7. T F Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience.
  8. T F Adapting to audiences is one of the easiest tasks facing beginning speakers.
  9. T F The need for audience analysis and adaptation is one of the major differences between public speaking and everyday conversation.
  10. T F The classroom is an artificial speaking situation in which you can overlook the attitudes and interests of your audience.
  11. T F You are most likely to be successful in your classroom speeches if you think of your classmates as a real audience.
  12. T F An audience’s response to a message is invariably colored by its perception of the speaker.
  13. T F Unlike beginning speakers, experienced speakers have little need for audience analysis.
  14. T F Audience analysis and adaptation affect all aspects of speechmaking except for the delivery of the speech itself.
  15. T F The process of audience analysis and adaptation affects every aspect of speech preparation from choosing a topic to delivering the speech.
  16. T F Public speaking is essentially like acting because once you learn a speech, you can give it over and over without adapting to the different audiences you address.
  17. T F Audience analysis first comes into play after a speaker has chosen a speech topic.
  18. T F Audience analysis first comes into play after a speaker has chosen a specific purpose.
  19. T F Audience analysis is only important after a speaker has completed research for a speech.
  20. T F Audience analysis is only important after a speaker has prepared an outline for the speech.
  21. T F The process of audience adaptation is over by the time a speaker starts delivering the speech.
  22. T F Although most of the process of audience adaptation occurs as part of preparing a speech, a speaker may still need to adapt her or his remarks to the audience during the presentation of the speech.
  23. T F Even when listeners pay close attention, they don’t always process a speaker’s message exactly as the speaker intended.
  24. T F As your textbook explains, a speaker’s frame of reference is usually the same as that of his or her listeners.
  25. T F Every speech contains two messages—the one sent by the speaker and the one received by the listener.
  26. T F Egocentrism is the belief that one’s culture is superior to all others.
  27. T F Egocentrism means that audiences typically approach speeches by asking, “Why is this important for me?”
  28. T F Ethnocentrism means that audiences typically approach speeches by asking, “Why is this important to me?”
  29. T F Listeners typically approach a speech with one question uppermost in their minds: “Why is this important to the speaker?”
  30. T F Any characteristic of a given audience is potentially important to a speaker analyzing that audience.
  31. T F One of the major demographic traits of audiences is interest in the speaker’s topic.
  32. T F Gender, sexual orientation, age, race, ethnicity, and group membership are all factors to consider when conducting a demographic audience analysis.
  33. T F Recognizing that some of your listeners may have racial, ethnic, cultural, or sexual orientations that bear upon your topic is part of demographic audience analysis.
  34. T F Audience size, the physical setting for the speech, and the audience’s disposition toward the topic are all elements of demographic audience analysis.
  35. T F Stereotyping is an effective way to use demographic audience analysis in a speech.
  36. T F Although the differences between women and men have diminished in recent years, the gender of listeners is still a major factor in audience analysis.
  37. T F Because men and women in the United States share a much broader range of experiences than they once did, gender is no longer a significant factor in demographic audience analysis.
  38. T F Because religion is private and personal for most people, it is seldom an important element in demographic audience analysis.
  39. T F A public speaker can safely assume that all members of a religious denomination share the same beliefs and values.
  40. T F According to your textbook, sexual orientation is one factor to be considered in situational audience analysis.
  41. T F According to your textbook, sexual orientation is one factor to be considered in demographic audience analysis.
  42. T F Employers are looking for college graduates who can communicate effectively with people of different cultural backgrounds.
  43. T F As the United States becomes more diverse, speakers no longer need to be sensitive to issues of race, ethnicity, and cultural background in public speaking.
  44. T F The group membership of an audience can provide excellent clues about their interests and attitudes.
  45. T F Audience size, the physical setting for the speech, and the audience’s disposition toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion are all elements of situational audience analysis.
  46. T F The size of the audience is one of the factors to be considered in situational audience analysis.
  47. T F As a general rule, the larger your audience, the more formal your speech presentation should be.
  48. T F Knowing how the physical setting might affect your listeners’ receptivity to your ideas is an important factor in demographic audience analysis.
  49. T F Knowing how the physical setting might affect your listeners’ receptivity to your ideas is an important factor in situational audience analysis.
  50. T F Interest, knowledge, and attitude are the three most important factors to consider when determining an audience’s disposition toward a speaker’s topic.
  51. T F The more people know about a topic, the more likely they are to be interested in it.
  52. T F No matter what the occasion, listeners will have fairly definite expectations about the kinds of speeches appropriate for the occasion.
  53. T F Keeping speeches within strict time limits is an artificial constraint of classroom speeches and is less important for speeches outside the classroom.
  54. T F When you construct an audience-analysis questionnaire, fixed-alternative questions are especially useful for getting at the strength of a respondent’s attitudes.
  55. T F When you construct an audience-analysis questionnaire, scale questions are especially useful for getting at the strength of a respondent’s attitudes.
  56. T F When you construct an audience-analysis questionnaire, scale questions give respondents the maximum leeway in responding.
  57. T F When you construct an audience-analysis questionnaire, open-ended questions are especially valuable because they usually generate clear, unambiguous responses.

Multiple-Choice Questions (Students are to indicate the best answer for each question by circling the correct letter.)

  1. As your textbook explains, the primary purpose of speechmaking is to
    1. gain a desired response from listeners.
    2. learn more about the speech topic.
    3. gain experience as a speaker.
    4. try out new ideas with an audience.
    5. display the speaker’s knowledge.
  2. As your textbook explains, the primary purpose of speechmaking is to
    1. display the speaker’s skills as a speaker.
    2. use language to manipulate people.
    3. gain a desired response from listeners.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and b only.
  3. Audience-centeredness means that public speakers should
    1. keep the audience foremost in mind throughout the speechmaking process.
    2. use any means necessary to gain the assent of the audience.
    3. avoid choosing topics that are controversial.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and b only.
  4. Audience analysis is an important factor in which of the following?
    1. selecting a topic
    2. organizing the speech
    3. choosing supporting materials
    4. all of the above
    5. a and c only
  5. Audience adaptation is an important factor in which of the following?
    1. choosing the speech topic
    2. preparing the speech
    3. presenting the speech
    4. all of the above
    5. a and b only
  6. Audience adaptation is an important factor in which of the following steps of the speechmaking process?
    1. formulating a specific purpose
    2. writing an introduction and conclusion
    3. choosing visual aids
    4. all of the above
    5. a and b only
  7. In her speech introduction, Kailyn asked, “Have you ever looked through old family photo albums and laughed at what people were wearing? Like many of you, I’ve noticed the changes in fashion and feared that my effort to look stylish today may eventually be a source of amusement to my future children.” According to your textbook, by attempting to show her listeners why they should care about her topic, Kailyn was
    1. using comparison.
    2. stereotyping her audience.
    3. engaging in ethnocentrism.
    4. adapting to her audience.
    5. practicing inclusion.
  8. In her speech introduction, Suya said, “Though we are all very different, we are all students here at this university and are all working toward the completion of a degree. Unfortunately, because of rising tuition, some of us may lose the ability to continue in school.” According to your textbook, by trying to show her audience how her topic affects her listeners, Suya was
    1. using comparison.
    2. stereotyping the audience.
    3. engaging in ethnocentrism.
    4. adapting to her audience.
    5. practicing inclusion.
  9. To say that people usually want to hear about things that are meaningful to them is to say that people are
  10. The fact that audiences are egocentric means that
    1. listeners interpret what you say on the basis of what they know and believe.
    2. listeners believe that their cultural group is superior to all other groups.
    3. listeners interpret the speech through the speaker’s frame of reference.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  11. The fact that audiences are egocentric means that
    1. listeners believe their cultural group is superior to all other groups.
    2. listeners are concerned above all with how a speech will affect them.
    3. listeners interpret the speech through the speaker’s frame of reference.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and b only.
  12. What are the two types of audience analysis discussed in your textbook?
    1. demographic and situational
    2. personal and impersonal
    3. occupational and educational
    4. psychological and sociological
    5. descriptive and analytical
  13. One of the ways speakers analyze audiences is by looking at traits such as age; religion; racial, ethnic, and cultural background; gender and sexual orientation; and group membership. According to your textbook, what is this called?
    1. demographic audience analysis
    2. psychological audience analysis
    3. background audience analysis
    4. situational audience analysis
    5. descriptive audience analysis
  14. As Amanda analyzed the audience for her speech about organic foods, she focused on such things as their gender, age, and cultural background. In doing so, she was engaging in __________ audience analysis.
    1. situational
    2. psychological
    3. demographic
    4. preliminary
    5. descriptive
  15. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. knowledge about the subject
    2. attitude toward the speaker
    3. interest in the topic
    4. physical setting
    5. cultural background
  16. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. their size
    2. their sexual orientation
    3. their attitude toward the speaker
    4. their knowledge about the subject
    5. their attitude toward the occasion
  17. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. interest in the topic
    2. attitude toward the speaker
    3. group membership
    4. knowledge about the subject
    5. physical setting
  18. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. physical setting
    2. attitude toward the speaker
    3. knowledge about the subject
    4. attitude toward the occasion
    5. religious affiliation
  19. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. age
    2. interest
    3. size
    4. attitude
    5. knowledge
  20. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. interest
    2. attitude
    3. size
    4. gender
    5. knowledge
  21. According to your textbook, when analyzing demographic information about your audience, it is essential that you avoid
  22. Creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people or assuming that all members of the group are alike is called
  23. If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience on the subject of mandatory retirement, the most important demographic factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its
    1. economic standing.
    2. group membership.
  24. If you were giving a persuasive speech on Medicare to members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the
    1. age of the audience.
    2. gender of the audience.
    3. audience’s attitude toward the speaker.
    4. physical setting of the speech.
    5. size of the audience.
  25. If you were giving a speech to a general audience on the topic of Elvis Presley, the most important demographic factor to consider in analyzing your audience would probably be its
    1. sexual orientation.
  26. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience about the war in Vietnam, the most important demographic factor to consider in analyzing your audience would probably be the
    1. sexual orientation of the audience.
    2. economic standing of the audience.
    3. gender of the audience.
    4. age of the audience.
    5. education of the audience.
  27. As part of his economics seminar, Geraldo has been invited to give a persuasive speech to a community audience on the subject of Social Security. The most important factor for Geraldo to consider when analyzing his audience is probably its
    1. sexual orientation.
  28. Karyn was leading a meeting of the parent-teacher group at the local elementary school. As her first item on the agenda, she described the position of homeroom mother and asked people to sign up after the meeting. One of the dads in the room raised his hand and said, “I’d love to do it, but is there any way we could change the name?” Which of the following factors of audience analysis did Karyn fail to take into consideration?
    1. education
    2. occupation
    3. gender
    4. political party
    5. age
  29. If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience on the issue of immigration reform, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its
    1. ethnic background.
    2. sexual orientation.
  30. If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience arguing that all children should be required to use standard English in the public schools, the most important factor to consider in audience analysis would probably be
    1. the age of the audience.
    2. the physical setting for the speech.
    3. the ethnic background of the audience.
    4. the time of day for the speech.
    5. the size of the audience.
  31. If you were giving a persuasive speech on gun control to members of the National Rifle Association, the most important factor to consider in audience analysis would probably be the
    1. size of your audience.
    2. group membership of your audience.
    3. economic standing of your audience.
    4. education of your audience.
    5. knowledge of your audience.
  32. Ramona is preparing a persuasive speech on environmental issues to present to members of the National Wildlife Federation. The most important factor Ramona should consider when analyzing her audience is probably its
    1. ethnic background.
    2. group membership.
    3. knowledge of the topic.
  33. As a member of the City Council, you have been invited to address the city’s bicycling club about the mayor’s plan to create additional bike routes. The most important demographic factor you should consider when analyzing your audience is probably its
    1. ethnic background.
    2. economic standing.
    3. group membership.
  34. According to your textbook, you should always combine demographic audience analysis with __________ audience analysis.
    1. scientific
    2. educational
    3. informational
    4. situational
    5. occupational
  35. As explained in your textbook, __________ audience analysis usually builds on demographic audience analysis.
    1. psychological
    2. descriptive
    3. occupational
    4. background
    5. situational
  36. According to your textbook, which of the following is a situational characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. gender
    2. size
    3. religion
    4. group membership
    5. age
  37. According to your textbook, which of the following is a factor in situational audience analysis?
    1. the audience’s cultural background
    2. the audience’s religious beliefs
    3. the audience’s group membership
    4. the audience’s gender
    5. the audience’s attitude toward the topic
  38. Which of the following is a factor to consider in situational audience analysis?
    1. gender
    2. group membership
    3. attitude toward the topic
    4. all of the above
    5. a and c only
  39. As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more
  40. You are giving a speech on a community building project to a local service organization at its monthly luncheon. Dessert dishes are being cleared away as you walk into the overcrowded, overheated room. The most important situational factor to consider when adapting to your audience would probably be the
    1. age of your audience.
    2. audience’s attitude toward you.
    3. physical setting for your speech.
    4. education of your audience.
    5. gender of your audience.
  41. According to your textbook, what are the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience’s disposition toward a speech topic?
    1. gender, knowledge, and opinions
    2. interest, background, and age
    3. size, occasion, and group membership
    4. knowledge, interest, and attitude
    5. background, situation, and gender
  42. Dimitri plans to give a speech to his classmates about the principles of physics behind the design of hybrid automobiles. The most important factor for Dimitri to consider when analyzing his audience is probably its
    1. group membership.
    2. attitude toward the speaker.
    3. knowledge about the topic.
  43. If you were giving an informative speech to your public speaking class about recent developments in artificial intelligence, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its
    1. knowledge about the topic.
    2. disposition toward the speaker.
    3. ethnic background.
    4. physical setting.
  44. Fran Breit, the golf pro at a local municipal course, has been asked by a social club to give a talk about how to play golf. What is probably the most important factor for Fran to consider in preparing her presentation?
    1. the age of the audience
    2. the racial background of the audience
    3. the time of day the talk will be given
    4. the audience’s knowledge of the topic
    5. the audience’s disposition toward the speaker
  45. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience on 3-D printing technology, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the
    1. group membership of the audience.
    2. size of the audience.
    3. knowledge of the audience about the topic.
    4. gender of the audience.
    5. physical setting for the speech.
  46. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience about digital encryption, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the
    1. physical setting for the speech.
    2. knowledge of the audience about the topic.
    3. size of the audience.
    4. attitude of the audience toward the speaker.
    5. group membership of the audience.
  47. Michael is preparing a persuasive speech for class in opposition to gun control. The most important factor for Michael to consider when analyzing his audience is probably its
    1. knowledge of the topic.
    2. disposition toward the speaker.
    3. cultural background.
    4. religious beliefs.
    5. attitude toward the topic.
  48. Gemma wants to persuade her classmates to become vegans. The most important factor for Gemma to consider when analyzing her audience is probably its
    1. knowledge of the topic.
    2. disposition toward the speaker.
    3. attitude toward the topic.
    4. disposition toward the occasion.
    5. racial composition.
  49. A landlord with a bad reputation among students for her high rent, deceptive advertising, and refusal to return security deposits is speaking to a campus group about how the city’s new zoning law will affect students. The most important factor the landlord should consider in her situational audience analysis is probably her listeners’
    1. knowledge of the topic.
    2. disposition toward the speaker.
    3. interest in the topic.
    4. cultural background.
  50. The __________ will usually dictate how long a speech should be.
    1. size of the audience
    2. speech occasion
    3. physical setting
    4. general purpose
    5. topic
  51. Which of the following elements usually has the greatest impact on the length a speech should be?
    1. the audience’s disposition toward the topic
    2. the physical setting for the speech
    3. the audience’s attitudes toward the speaker
    4. the occasion for the speech
    5. the group membership of the audience
  52. Everyone in the room was set to applaud as Raymond started to wrap up his wedding toast. But instead of finishing, he said, “Now that I have you all here, let me tell you about the great new app my company is developing.” When Raymond finishing talking about the app, there was little applause and a serious glare from the bride and groom. Which aspect of audience analysis did Raymond fail to take into consideration?
    1. the physical setting for the speech
    2. the audience’s disposition toward the occasion
    3. the group membership of the audience
    4. the audience’s attitudes toward the speaker
    5. the education of the audience

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