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Test Bank of Psychology 10th Edition by Wade Tavris

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Test Bank of Psychology 10th Edition by Wade Tavris

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Chapter 8 – Quick Quiz 1

1. Who conducted an experiment on the effects of punishment on learning that was, in reality, an experiment on obedience?
a. Solomon Asch c. Philip Zimbardo
b. Stanley Milgram d. Muzafer Sherif

2. How many of the subjects in the obedience study gave the highest level of shock?
a. about a third c. about two-thirds
b. about half d. about three-fourths

3. Which of the following is NOT a reason people obey an authority figure even when doing so goes against
their values?
a. they have become entrapped
b. they allocate responsibility to the authority
c. they accept moral responsibility
d. they want to be polite

4. What are the two types of causal attributions that people make?
a. dispositional and situational
b. environmental and situational
c. personality traits and dispositional
d. implicit and explicit

5. What is it called when a person experiences conflict between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior?
a. cognitive consistency c. cognitive dissonance
b. behavioral adjustment d. implicit assumption

6. Culture is defined as a program of shared _______________ that govern the behavior of people in a society
as well as a set of shared values and beliefs.
a. social roles c. expectations
b. rules or norms d. cognitions

7. Which of the following is NOT a result of diffusion of responsibility?
a. bystander apathy c. social loafing
b. deindividuation d. fundamental attribution error

8. _______________ is a tendency for all people on a team or a mission together to agree with each other and suppress any dissension among their ranks.
a. Groupthink c. Consensus
b. Conformity d. Deindividuation

9. A cultural cause of prejudice is to:
a. help people bond to their own ethnic group.
b. increase self-esteem.
c. increase conformity to social norms.
d. make official forms of discrimination seem legitimate.

10. _____________ reflects a behavioral expression of prejudice, a reluctance to get too close to another group.
a. Personal space c. Cultural space
b. Social distance d. Discrimination distance

Chapter 8 – Quick Quiz 1
Answer Key

1. b Rationale: Stanley Milgram conducted a classic study on the effects of
obedience which asked a “teacher” to give a learner increasing increments of
shock for wrong answers. (Pages 264-265, Factual)

2. c Rationale: About two-thirds of the subjects in Milgram’s obedience study gave
the highest level of shock, 450 volts. (Page 265, Factual)

3. c Rationale: People who accept moral responsibility do not generally obey
authorities who order them to do something that violates their standards. It is
when responsibility is allocated to the authority that they obey. (Pages 266-267,

4. a Rationale: When trying to understand the cause of a person’s behavior we
either make dispositional attributions (caused by personality traits) or situational
attributions (caused by the situation). (Page 270, Factual)

5. c Rationale: The definition of cognitive dissonance is the state of tension that
results from inconsistent attitudes and behaviors. (Page 273, Factual)

6. b Rationale: Culture includes shared norms, values, and beliefs that are taught to each successive generation.(Page 263, Factual)

7. d Rationale: The fundamental attribution error is an error commonly made in
attributing causes to another’s personal dispositions. It is unrelated to diffusion of
responsibility. Bystander apathy, social loafing, and deindividuation all can result
from diffusion of responsibility. (Pages 270-271, Factual)

8. a Rationale: The definition of groupthink is a tendency for all members of a group to think alike and for disagreement to be suppressed. (Page 280, Factual)

9. a Rationale: A cultural cause in prejudice is that it helps people to bond to their own ethnic group. (Page 294, Conceptual)

10. b Rationale: Social distance is this behavioral reflection of prejudice. (Page 296, Factual)




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