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Test Bank of Psychologist as Detective The An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology 6th Edition By Smith _ Davis

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0205859070
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0205859078

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Test Bank of Psychologist as Detective The An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology 6th Edition By Smith _ Davis

CHAPTER 7:

CONDUCTING A GOOD EXPERIMENT II: FINAL CONSIDERATIONS, UNANTICIPATED INFLUENCES, AND CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES

Activities/Assignments

Experimenter Expectancies. The following activity can help students see firsthand the effects of experimenter expectancies (Wiederman, 1999). Students read one of two descriptions of a fictitious 17-year-old troubled young man named Jeff. In one description, Jeff is depicted as withdrawn at school and in the other, Jeff is depicted as aggressive at school. Students then are exposed to a Rorschach and a TAT card followed by Jeff’s interpretation of both. Afterwards, the teacher asks the students to state what they felt was most important in Jeff’s responses. Students tend to be influenced by the descriptions they read earlier and are puzzled that half the class is focusing on different characteristics than themselves.

Wiederman, M. W. (1999). A classroom demonstration of potential biases in the subjective interpretation of projective tests. Teaching of Psychology, 26, 37-39.

Experimenter Expectancies Video, Part I. The Discovering Psychology video series contains an interview with Rosenthal concerning his famous study with grade school children and teacher expectancies. The interview is in Program #20: Constructing Social Reality. This same video contains footage of Jane Elliot’s brown-eyed/blue-eyed study, which also nicely illustrates the power of expectancies to shape behavior. The interview with Rosenthal begins approximately 12 minutes into the video and lasts about 5 minutes. You can view these videos online at the link below (registration is required, but it’s free).

http://www.learner.org/resources/series138.html?pop=yes&vodid=238952&pid=1516#

Experimenter Expectancies Video, Part II. The Discovering Psychology video series contains a description of an experiment to test the validity of lie detectors. The segment is located in Program #2: Understanding Research. The segment begins approximately 20 minutes into the video and lasts about 4 minutes. Have students view the video and answer the following questions (Note: Because these videos are available online for free, students could complete this as an out-of-class assignment).

1. State several criticisms of lie detector tests, according to Leonard Saxe.

ANSWER: (1) Some innocent people are shown to be liars. (2) The effectiveness relies on people believing the polygraph is effective, not on it actually being effective. (3) Some individuals are capable of defeating the test.

2. How do lie detector tests supposedly work?

ANSWER: The polygraph measures heart rate, sweating, etc. The tester asks control questions to get a baseline level of arousal. Then the tester asks questions about which the participant might lie. If the participant lies, heart rate and sweating will increase.

3. In the experiment described in the video, what was the independent variable?

ANSWER: expectancy about the effectiveness of the polygraph: half of the participants were told that the polygraph is always accurate, and half were told that lie detectors can be deceived

4. In the experiment described in the video, what was the dependent variable?

ANSWER: ability to pass the lie detector test

5. How do the results of this experiment relate to expectancies, as described in the textbook?

ANSWER: According to the video, polygraphs only work if participants expect them to work.

Article Review. The article review for chapter 7 is by Gordon and Carey (1996). Young men were given either alcohol or no alcohol and then completed questionnaires on their knowledge of HIV, their attitudes toward condom use, and their feelings of self-efficacy regarding condom use. The results showed that men who consumed alcohol had less favorable attitudes toward condom use compared to the control group.

Gordon, C. M., & Carey, M. P. (1996). Alcohol’s effects on requisites for sexual risk reduction in men: An initial experimental investigation. Health Psychology, 15, 56-60.

Chapter 7: Conducting a Good Experiment II: Final Considerations, Unanticipated Influences, and Cross-Cultural Issues

Article Review

Read the following article and answer the questions that follow:

Gordon, C. M., & Carey, M. P. (1996). Alcohol’s effects on requisites for sexual risk reduction in men: An initial experimental investigation. Health Psychology, 15, 56-60.

1. How do you think the researchers chose their participants for this study (precedent, availability, or type of research project)? Explain.

ANSWER: Probably availability – the sample consisted of men from the community.

2. How do you think the researchers decided on this particular number of participants (finances, time, availability, type of research project, power concerns)? Explain.

ANSWER: Probably finances – the researchers had to pay each participant $30, so likely they could not have a very big sample (there are only 20 participants, which is very small).

3. What is the independent variable?

ANSWER: type of drink (alcohol versus no alcohol)

4. Identify at least three dependent variables.

ANSWER: (1) AIDS risk knowledge, (2) Attitudes about condom use, (3) Risk for HIV infection, (4) Self-efficacy for initiating discussion of condom use with a new partner, (5) Self-efficacy for insisting on condom use if the partner did not want to use a condom, and (6) Self-efficacy for refusing sexual activity if condoms were not to be used.

5. What was the hypothesis?

ANSWER: Men who consume alcohol will have lower HIV-related knowledge, decreased motivation for condom use, and reduced self-efficacy for condom use relative to men who do not consume alcohol.

6. How might experimenter characteristics have affected this study?

ANSWER: The participants were men drinking alcohol and then answering questions about HIV and condom use. They may have felt uncomfortable answering these questions in front of, for example, a woman or an experimenter appearing anxious or unfriendly. Their discomfort could cause socially desirable responses.

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