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Test Bank for Life Span Human Development 2nd Australian and New Zealand Edition by Sigelman

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0170415910
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0170415910

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SKU:tb1002019

Test Bank for Life Span Human Development 2nd Australian and New Zealand Edition by Sigelman

CHAPTER 8
LANGUAGE, LITERACY AND LEARNING

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following best defines a language?
a. Limited number of signals producing infinite number of messages
b. Unlimited number of signals producing infinite number of messages
c. Limited number of signals producing finite number of messages
d. Unlimited number of signals producing finite number of messages

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: The language system

2. All forms of language are:
a. spoken. c. inherited.
b. based on some agreed-upon set of rules. d. gesture-based.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: The language system

3. The basic units of sound in a given language are called:
a. phonemes. c. semantics.
b. pragmatics. d. morphemes.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: The language system

4. __________ are the basic units of meaning in a language.
a. Phonemes c. Morphemes
b. Syntax d. Intonation

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: The language system

5. Which word consists of three morphemes?
a. Cat c. Previewing
b. Volcano d. Breakfast

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: The language system

6. The set of systematic rules specifying how words can be combined to form meaningful sentences in a language is referred to as:
a. pragmatics. c. prosody.
b. syntax. d. phonology.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: The language system

7. When someone says, ‘It’s a matter of semantics,’ they are referring to the __________ of a sentence.
a. context c. length
b. meaning d. syllables

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: The language system

8. The aspect of language centring on meanings is called:
a. morphemes c. prosody
b. syntactics d. semantics

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: The language system

9. When four-year-old Carl sees an elderly gentleman enter a store, he screams, ‘Mum, look at that old man who looks like he should be dead!’ The fact that Carl does not yet realise that such statements are socially inappropriate indicates that he lacks a complete understanding of the __________ of language.
a. semantics c. prosody
b. syntax d. pragmatics

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: The language system

10. Prosody involves __________ sounds are produced.
a. when c. how
b. where d. why

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: The language system

11. Nina’s mum has been warning her about the danger of playing with her balloon near a burning candle. Suddenly, the balloon hits the flame and explodes. Nina’s mum looks at her and says, ‘I hope that you are happy’. But because of the tone of her voice, her mum is really saying, ‘See, I told you to watch out!’ This use of tone to change the meaning of a sentence provides a good example of the concept of:
a. word segmentation. c. overregulation.
b. syntactic bootstrapping. d. prosody.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: The language system
12. Which of the following is not a characteristic of prosody?
a. Content c. Timing
b. Melody d. Intonation

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: The language system

13. The fact that eight-month-old Robin recognises that the sentence ‘There is a bird in the tree’ has seven distinct words indicates that she understands:
a. intonation. c. word segmentation.
b. overextension. d. holophrases.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Developing language

14. A ‘coo’ is best defined as a __________ sound.
a. vowel-like c. meaningful
b. consonant-plus-vowel d. crying

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: Developing language

15. Six-month-old Emir is sitting in his car seat and repeatedly saying ‘na na na na na.’ Emir is best described as doing what?
a. Babbling c. Cooing
b. Using pragmatics d. Holophrasing

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

16. Which statement is true?
a. At five months of age, deaf and hearing children from all cultures make similar sounds
b. At five months of age, deaf and hearing children produce very different sounds
c. At five months of age, children from different cultures produce very different sounds
d. At five months of age, deaf children produce no sounds while hearing children
produce many sounds

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

17. In most one-year-olds:
a. language comprehension typically precedes language production.
b. language production typically precedes language comprehension.
c. language comprehension and language production occur simultaneously.
d. neither language comprehension nor language production is readily apparent.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

18. _____________ is the act of looking at the same object at the same time with someone else; a way in which infants share perceptual experiences with their caregivers.
a. Syntactic bootstrapping c. Joint attention
b. Vocabulary spurt d. Decontextualised language

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

19. When using syntactic bootstrapping, a child:
a. uses a word’s placement in a sentence to help determine its meaning.
b. generates a one-word utterance that has the meaning of a full sentence.
c. uses a grammar rule in an inappropriate manner (e.g., uses the ‘-ed’ which means past tense on a word like ‘run’ to create the word ‘runned’).
d. is able to immediately connect a word in one language to its counterpart in a second language.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

20. Which is the typical order of linguistic attainment (from earliest to latest)?
a. Coo, then babble, then word, then holophrase
b. Babble, then coo, then word, then holophrase
c. Coo, then babble, then holophrase, then word
d. Babble, then coo, then holophrase, then word

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

21. Joel reaches up to Daddy with waving outstretched arms and says ‘Up!’ meaning ‘Daddy, pick me up!’ This is an example of:
a. underextension. c. a holophrase.
b. echolalia. d. babbling.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

22. Nelson (1973) found that the majority of words found in the vocabularies of one-year-olds were:
a. verbs concerning actions of people who were familiar to the child.
b. verbs concerning actions of people who were unfamiliar to the child.
c. nouns representing objects or people who were unfamiliar to the child.
d. nouns representing objects or people who were familiar to the child.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: Developing language

23. A phenomenon, occurring around 18 months of age, that involves the pace of word learning quickening dramatically, is called:
a. babbling. c. an overextension.
b. metalinguistic awareness. d. a vocabulary spurt.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

24. Two-year-old Tonka calls every four-wheeled vehicle he sees ‘truck’. This is an example of:
a. overextension. c. telegraphic speech.
b. overregularisation. d. social speech.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

25. Underextension is most likely the result of a toddler’s limited:
a. vocabulary size. c. phonetic ability.
b. joint attention. d. pragmatic skills.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

26. ‘Look that’ is an example of:
a. telegraphic speech. c. joint attention.
b. underextension. d. babbling.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

27. Functional grammar emphasises the __________ relations between words.
a. semantic c. phonological
b. morphological d. intonation

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

28. Lois Bloom (1998) believes it is appropriate to describe children’s early sentences in terms of ___________ grammar.
a. child-directed c. functional
b. transformational d. overregulated

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Developing language

29. Applying language rules to cases in which the rule is not appropriate defines the concept of:
a. joint attention. c. telegraphic speech.
b. overregularisation. d. holophrasing.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

30. Transformational grammar is best associated with rules of:
a. phonology. c. morphology.
b. semantics. d. syntax.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

31. Which question demonstrates the correct placement of the auxiliary verb?
a. ‘How pig?’ c. ‘How can the pig oink?’
b. ‘How big pig?’ d. ‘How big the pig is?’

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: Developing language

32. Which is the best example of metalinguistic awareness?
a. Being able to pronounce all the phonemes in a language
b. Becoming less egocentric and then becoming better able to understand the meaning of selfishness
c. Confusing a ‘w’ with an ‘m’ and reading ‘wow’ as ‘mom’
d. Using the term ‘truck’ when referring to all wheeled vehicles (e.g., trucks, cars, motorcycles)

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Developing language

33. The increasing ‘tip-of-the-tongue’ experience in older age is most likely the result of the:
a. inability to retrieve a word stored in memory.
b. permanent loss of a word from memory.
c. reduced speed of access to items in sensory memory.
d. lack of ability to encode new words into memory.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Developing language

34. As a neurobiologist, Dr Proctor would be most likely to utilise _________ as an assessment tool.
a. MMPIs c. APGARs
b. ERPs d. MIDs

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

35. Researchers have shown that individuals who are better able to learn new words show more connectivity between their left and right:
a. supramarginal gyrus. c. adrenal medulla.
b. pons. d. reticular formation.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

36. The main role of the arcuate fasciculus is to help produce:
a. memories. c. achievement motivation.
b. mathematical analysis. d. speech.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

37. Damage to the ____________ connecting Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas can result in the language disorder known as aphasia.
a. arcuate fasciculus fibres c. supramarginal gyrus
b. superior temporal gyrus d. angular gyrus fibres

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

38. ______________ is a language disorder that results from brain injury and involves loss of the ability to communicate or understand spoken or written language.
a. Dysphoria c. Aphasia
b. Anoxia d. Apoptosis

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

39. What is the best summary of the implications of neurobiological research on language?
a. There is no doubt that language acquisition is impacted solely by heredity factors
b. There is no doubt that language acquisition is impacted by both heredity and environmental factors
c. There is no doubt that language acquisition is impacted solely by environmental factors
d. There is no doubt that the factors which underlie language acquisition cannot be identified

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

40. Tyler argues that language is best explained in terms of a baby imitating the speech of her parents and being reinforced by parents for speaking words properly. These arguments best fit with the __________ perspective on language acquisition.
a. constructivist c. humanist
b. learning d. cognitive

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture
41. Which best reflects the nurture-based research on language acquisition?
a. Children only learn words that are directly spoken to them
b. Reinforcing a word does not increase the odds that a word will be learned
c. Frequent caregiver conversation involving questions encourages language development in children
d. Aphasia may be related to damage of arcuate fasciculus fibres.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

42. Learning theory does the poorest job of explaining the __________ aspect of language development.
a. morphology c. semantics
b. phonology d. syntax

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

43. Which statement concerning language acquisition is true?
a. Imitation alone can account for the learning of grammatical rules
b. Reinforcement alone can account for the learning of grammatical rules
c. Imitation and reinforcement together can account for the learning of grammatical rules
d. Imitation and reinforcement together cannot account for the learning of grammatical rules

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

44. With regard to language learning, nativists believe that:
a. language is learned as a result of differential parental reinforcement.
b. children learn language by listening, observing, and imitating.
c. children are biologically programmed for language acquisition.
d. the social environment plays the most critical role in language learning.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

45. Universal grammar is best described as:
a. a list of the manner in which all words should be pronounced.
b. the biological factor that limits the specific language (e.g., English, French) a newborn will acquire.
c. the belief that there are an unlimited number of possibilities for forming language.
d. a system of common rules and properties for learning any of the world’s languages.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

46. If you believe in a language acquisition device, then you believe that:
a. language is acquired mostly though the process of modelling.
b. infants have an inborn brain mechanism for processing language.
c. parental reinforcement can explain most of language acquisition.
d. the most difficult part of language acquisition involves grasping the rules of language.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

47. From the nativist perspective, the language ‘learnability factor’ states that children tend to acquire an incredibly complex communication system:
a. slowly and without formal instruction.
b. slowly and only through formal instruction.
c. rapidly and without formal instruction.
d. rapidly and only through formal instruction.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

48. In which areas does there appear to be a sensitive period?
a. Only first spoken language
b. Only spoken second language
c. Only signed language
d. First spoken, second spoken, and signed languages

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

49. Research on language acquisition among deaf children has shown that:
a. deaf infants ‘babble’ in sign language in the same manner as hearing infants ‘babble’ in spoken language
b. the sequence of language acquisition between deaf children learning sign and hearing children learning spoken language are quite different
c. while hearing parents speak in child-directed speech, deaf parents do not sign in a child-directed manner
d. the language areas of the brain developed in deaf children exposed to sign language are in the opposite hemisphere of hearing children exposed to speech

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

50. Which of the following is evidence for a critical period for language acquisition?
a. Children denied access to language often have difficulty mastering language skills in later life
b. Deaf children who never hear language can learn to speak
c. Adults are more likely to acquire multiple languages than are children
d. Children do not acquire large vocabularies until they learn to read

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

51. The _____________ gene has been shown to be connected with motor skills necessary for speech.
a. TMM2 c. LAD1
b. MID2 d. FOXP2

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

52. Which type of theorist would be most likely to view language development as a combination of nature and nurture factors?
a. Learning c. Interactionist
b. Cognitive d. Nativist

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

53. When talking to their two-year-old, Steve and Eve typically use short, simple sentences, lots of repetition, and high-pitched voices. This sort of speech is known as:
a. abbreviated speech. c. child-directed speech.
b. caretaker speech. d. telegraphic speech.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

54. Young infants appear to pay more attention to speech characterised by:
a. low-pitch sounds and non-varied intonation.
b. low-pitch sounds and varied intonation.
c. high-pitch sounds and non-varied intonation.
d. high-pitch sounds and varied intonation.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

55. Catherine Snow and associates’ study of Dutch-speaking children who watched a great deal of German television demonstrated that:
a. it is easy to acquire a second language via television.
b. to learn a language, children must be actively involved with the language.
c. German is significantly easier to learn than Dutch.
d. bilingualism is inherited.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

56. ____________ is a conversational tactic used by adults in speaking to young children in which they respond to a child’s utterance with a more grammatically complete expression of the same thought.
a. Child-directed speech. c. Expansion.
b. Babbling. d. Underextension

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Explaining language: nature and nurture

57. The intrinsic drive to be successful in one’s environment defines:
a. mastery motivation. c. learned helplessness.
b. external motivation. d. metalinguistic awareness.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Mastery motivation

58. Which is the best example of mastery motivation?
a. Jerry’s innate ability to understand phonemes
b. Kramer’s innate drive to succeed
c. George’s parents’ rewards for his success in school
d. Elaine’s extremely large vocabulary

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Mastery motivation

59. Mastery motivation tends to be found in children whose parents:
a. avoid sensory stimulation and teach the child that most events are due to fate or luck.
b. provide sensory stimulation and teach the child that most events are due to fate or luck.
c. avoid sensory stimulation but provide the opportunity for the child to see that children can control their environment.
d. provide sensory stimulation and the opportunity for the child to see that children can control their environment.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Mastery motivation

60. Which best summarises Elkind’s opinion on products like the ‘Baby Einstein’ DVD and the ‘Baby Mozart’ CD?
a. He thinks they are the best idea ever
b. He has no opinion
c. He advises to be careful, as they may result in children with less self-initiation and intrinsic motivation
d. He thinks they are great for teaching motivation, but terrible at teaching information

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Early learning
61. Research has shown that children in preschools with very strong academic orientations tend to be less __________ by the end of their kindergarten year.
a. anxious c. negative toward schooling
b. creative d. intelligent

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult TOP: Early learning

62. Which group seems to gain the most benefit from being enrolled in quality preschool programs?
a. Deaf children c. Male children
b. Gifted children d. Disadvantaged children

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Early learning

63. Preschool programs that emphasise __________ appear to be of the most benefit to children, especially those from disadvantaged families.
a. play but not academic skill-building
b. academic skill-building but not play
c. academic skill-building and play
d. overregularisation and academic skill-building

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Early learning

64. Individuals with high levels of achievement tend to attribute their success to __________ causes.
a. internal and unstable c. external and unstable
b. internal and stable d. external and stable

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Achievement motivation

65. Annabel thrives on challenges and persists in the face of failure. Her work is buoyed along by the belief that increased effort will pay off in the end. Annabel has a high level of what?
a. External orientation c. Mastery orientation
b. Mastery motivation d. External motivation

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: Achievement motivation

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