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Test Bank for International Trade Theory and Policy 10th Edition Krugman

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0133423670
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0133423679c

 

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SKU:tb1002037

Test Bank for International Trade Theory and Policy 10th Edition Krugman

International Economics, 10e (Krugman/Obstfeld/Melitz)
Chapter 7 External Economies of Scale and the International Location of Production

7.1 Economies of Scale and International Trade: An Overview

1) If a firm’s output more than doubles when all inputs are doubled, production is said to occur under conditions of
A) increasing returns to scale.
B) imperfect competition.
C) intra-industry equilibrium.
D) constant returns to scale
E) decreasing returns to scale.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 146-147
Difficulty: Easy

2) One advantage of the specialization that results from international trade is that countries can take advantage of
A) scale economies.
B) production diversification
C) smaller countries.
D) taste reversals.
E) lower transport costs.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 146-147
Difficulty: Moderate

3) Why are increasing returns to scale and fixed costs important in models of international trade and imperfect competition?
Answer: There are many answers. Three of these are
(a) Increasing returns to scale and high fixed costs may be inconsistent with perfect competition. In such a case, the initial autarkic state may be a suboptimal equilibrium. For example, relative prices may not equal marginal rates of transformation. It follows from this that a change in output compositions associated with trade may result in a national welfare for one or both trading countries that is inferior to that associated with the initial autarkic conditions. Hence no “gains from trade.”
(b) In a case of increasing scale economies at the firm or plant level, the determination of which product will be exported by which country is ex-ante indeterminate. Therefore, deriving clear implications concerning the effects of trade on income distributions such as may be derived from the Samuelson-Stolper Theorem is no longer generally possible.
(c) Market structures containing positive scale economies and imperfect competition may allow for “two-way trade,” or intra-industry trade. As in b. above, the various theorems derivable from the Heckscher-Ohlin model concerning directions of trade and income distributions are no longer generally applicable.
Page Ref: 146-147
Difficulty: Difficult
4) If a firm’s output doubles when all inputs are doubled, production is said to occur under conditions of
A) increasing returns to scale.
B) imperfect competition.
C) intra-industry equilibrium.
D) constant returns to scale
E) decreasing returns to scale.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 146-147
Difficulty: Easy

5) If a firm’s output less than doubles when all inputs are doubled, production is said to occur under conditions of
A) increasing returns to scale.
B) imperfect competition.
C) intra-industry equilibrium.
D) constant returns to scale
E) decreasing returns to scale.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 146-147
Difficulty: Easy

7.2 Economies of Scale and Market Structure

1) The existence of external economies of scale
A) may be associated with a perfectly competitive industry.
B) cannot be associated with a perfectly competitive industry.
C) tends to result in one huge monopoly.
D) tends to result in large profits for each firm.
E) focuses more on individual firms than the industry as a whole.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Moderate

2) The existence of internal economies of scale
A) cannot be associated with a perfectly competitive industry.
B) may be associated with a perfectly competitive industry.
C) is associated only with sophisticated products such as aircraft.
D) cannot form the basis for international trade.
E) focuses more on the industry than individual firms.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Moderate

3) When there are external economies of scale, an increase in the size of the market will
A) increase the number of firms and lower the price per unit.
B) increase the number of firms and raise the price per unit.
C) decrease the number of firms and raise the price per unit.
D) decrease the number of firms and lower the price per unit.
E) not affect the number of firms, but will lower the price per unit.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Easy

4) If some industries exhibit internal increasing returns to scale in each country, we should not expect to see
A) perfect competition in these industries.
B) intra-industry trade between countries.
C) inter-industry trade between countries.
D) high levels of specialization in both countries.
E) increased productivity in both countries.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Moderate

5) If a scale economy is the dominant technological factor defining or establishing comparative advantage, then the underlying facts explaining why a particular country dominates world markets in some product may be pure chance, or historical accident. Explain, and compare this with the answer you would give for the Heckscher-Ohlin model of comparative advantage.
Answer: This statement is true, since the reason the seller is a monopolist may be that it happened to have been the first to produce this product in this country. It may have no connection to any supply or demand related factors; nor to any natural or man-made availability. This is all exactly the opposite of the Heckscher-Ohlin Neo-Classical model’s explanation of the determinants of comparative advantage.
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Difficult

6) External economies of scale arise when the cost per unit
A) falls as the industry grows larger and rises as the average firm grows larger.
B) rises as the industry grows larger and falls as the average firm grows larger.
C) falls as the industry and the average firm grows larger.
D) remains constant over a broad range of output.
E) rises as the industry and the average firm grows larger.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Easy

7) Internal economies of scale arise when the cost per unit
A) falls as the average firm grows larger.
B) rises as the industry grows larger.
C) falls as the industry grows larger.
D) rises as the average firm grows larger.
E) remains constant over a broad range of output.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Easy
8) Where there are internal economies of scale, the scale of production possible in a country is constrained by
A) the size of the domestic plus the foreign market.
B) the size of the country.
C) the size of the trading partner’s country.
D) the size of the domestic market.
E) the size of the foreign market.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Easy

9) Internal economies of scale will ________ average cost when output is ________ by ________.
A) reduce; increased; a firm
B) increase; increased; a firm
C) reduce; increased; the industry
D) increase; increased; the industry
E) reduce; reduce; the industry
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Moderate

10) Why is it that if an industry is operating under conditions of internal scale economies then the resultant equilibrium cannot be consistent with the pure competition model?
Answer: Because once one firm will becomes bigger than another, or if one firm began the industry, then no other firm will be able to match its per unit cost, so that they would be driven out of the industry. The firm would become a natural monopoly.
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Moderate

11) Is it possible for an equilibrium that is consistent with purely competitive conditions to arise in an industry with positive scale economies? If so, explain how this could happen. If not, why not?
Answer: Yes. If the scale economies were external to the firm, then there is no reason why the firms may not be in perfect competition.
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Moderate

12) External economies of scale will ________ average cost when output is ________ by ________.
A) reduce; increased; the industry
B) reduce; increased; a firm
C) increase; increased; a firm
D) increase; increased; the industry
E) reduce; reduce; the industry
Answer: A
Page Ref: 147-148
Difficulty: Moderate
7.3 The Theory of External Economies

1) What is meant by an “industrial district” and what are the three main sources of the economic advantages derived from locating in such a district?
Answer: An industrial community is a geographical concentration of firms in the same industry. Silicon Valley and Bollywood are modern examples. The advantages are (1) specialized suppliers, (2) labor market pooling, and (3) knowledge spillovers.
Page Ref: 148-151
Difficulty: Moderate

2) External economies of scale often arise because similar firms
A) locate in the same geographic region.
B) collude to fix prices and increase profits.
C) have excellent internal logistics.
D) agree to cooperate to expand global trade.
E) have economies of scale in production.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 148-151
Difficulty: Easy

3) The Internet has made transactions between businesses (B2B trading) fast and easy. Any business in any location can access specialized knowledge, labor, and materials. It is likely that these virtual economic communities will result in
A) external economies of scale.
B) internal economies of scale.
C) consolidation of industries into a small number of powerful firms.
D) suppression of innovations and collusive behavior, driving up prices.
E) government intervention and regulation.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 148-151
Difficulty: Moderate

4) The long-run market supply curve in the presence of internal economies of scale is ________, and in the presence of external economies of scale, it is ________.
A) downward sloping; downward sloping
B) upward sloping; horizontal
C) horizontal; upward sloping
D) downward sloping; horizontal
E) upward sloping; downward sloping
Answer: A
Page Ref: 148-151
Difficulty: Easy
5) If output is increased in the long-run, average production costs in the presence of internal economies of scale will ________, and in the presence of external economies of scale, will ________.
A) decrease; decrease
B) increase; remain constant
C) remain constant; increase
D) decrease; remain constant
E) increase; decrease
Answer: A
Page Ref: 148-151
Difficulty: Easy

6) If the firms in a market have constant returns to scale internally while there are external economies of scale for the industry, a firm’s long-run supply curve will be ________ and the long-run market supply curve will be ________.
A) downward sloping; downward sloping
B) upward sloping; horizontal
C) horizontal; downward sloping
D) downward sloping; horizontal
E) upward sloping; downward sloping
Answer: C
Page Ref: 148-151
Difficulty: Easy

7) If output is increased in the long-run, then in the presence of internal economies of scale the number of firms will ________, and in the presence of constant external returns to scale the number of firms will ________.
A) decrease; decrease
B) increase; remain constant
C) remain constant; increase
D) decrease; remain constant
E) increase; decrease
Answer: C
Page Ref: 148-151
Difficulty: Easy

8) If output is increased in the long-run, average production costs in the presence of internal diseconomies of scale will ________, and in the presence of external diseconomies of scale, will ________.
A) decrease; decrease
B) increase; remain constant
C) remain constant; increase
D) decrease; remain constant
E) increase; decrease
Answer: C
Page Ref: 148-151
Difficulty: Easy
7.4 External Economies and International Trade

1) If two countries begin trade and both produce a product subject to external economies of scale, then the country with the ________ rate of production will ________ production until it controls ________ of the market.
A) higher; increase; 100%
B) higher; increase; 50%
C) lower; increase; 100%
D) lower; increase; 50%
E) higher; decrease; 0%
Answer: A
Page Ref: 152-158
Difficulty: Easy

2) Explain why positive economies of scale in one (of two) sectors may establish a comparative advantage for the large (as compared to the small) country in the production of the commodity which exhibits positive scale economies.
Answer: In the case of the H-O model, the actual size of the country is irrelevant in the determination of the direction of trade (though it may affect the equilibrium terms of trade). When positive scale economies apply to the production of one product, the country that can devote more resources (in absolute terms) will be able to sell that product cheaper, and therefore will be more likely to gain a “revealed” comparative advantage in that product. This will be the country with more factors (both labor and capital)-the larger country.
Page Ref: 152-158
Difficulty: Difficult

3) In the presence of external economies of scale, trade
A) may or may not improve welfare in both countries.
B) will unambiguously improves welfare in both countries.
C) will unambiguously worsens welfare in both countries.
D) will unambiguously worsen welfare in the exporting country and improve welfare in the importing country.
E) will unambiguously improve welfare in the exporting country and worsen welfare in the importing country.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 152-158
Difficulty: Moderate

4) A learning curve relates ________ to ________ and is a case of ________ returns.
A) unit cost; cumulative production; dynamic increasing returns
B) output per time period; long-run marginal cost; dynamic increasing returns
C) unit cost; cumulative production; dynamic decreasing returns
D) output per time period; long-run marginal cost; dynamic decreasing returns
E) labor productivity; education; increasing marginal returns
Answer: A
Page Ref: 152-158
Difficulty: Easy
5) The learning curve describes the ________ relationship between ________ and ________.
A) inverse; unit cost; cumulative output
B) direct; unit cost; cumulative output
C) inverse; education; annual income
D) direct; education; annual income
E) direct; education; labor productivity
Answer: A
Page Ref: 152-158
Difficulty: Easy

6) If two countries begin trade and both produce a product subject to internal economies of scale, then the country with the ________ rate of production will ________ production until it controls ________ of the market.
A) higher; increase; 100%
B) higher; increase; 50%
C) lower; increase; 100%
D) lower; increase; 50%
E) higher; decrease; 0%
Answer: A
Page Ref: 152-158
Difficulty: Easy

7) Suppose that two countries, A and B, employ the same technology in the production of a good. External economies of scale apply in both countries. Analyze the effects of trade on long-run production levels if country A has a comparatively lower cost of production when trade begins.
Answer: Initially, country B will have a comparative advantage in production of the good. Over time, as production shifts to Country B, costs will decline there while increasing in country A. In the absence of market intervention, country B will have a monopoly. Note that no individual firm will have a monopoly unless internal economies of scale also apply.
Page Ref: 152-158
Difficulty: Moderate

7.5 Interregional Trade and Economic Geography

1) Restaurant meals are an example of a ________ good and clothing is an example of a ________ good. The pattern of interregional trade is determined primarily by ________.
A) nontraded; traded; external economies.
B) traded; nontraded; internal economies
C) nondurable; durable; natural resource
D) durable; nondurable; natural resources
E) consumer; style; population
Answer: A
Page Ref: 158-161
Difficulty: Easy
2) The share of ________ goods in employment is ________ across the country. The share of ________ goods in employment is ________ across the country.
A) nontraded; uniform; traded; variable
B) traded; uniform; nontraded; variable
C) durable; uniform; nondurable; variable
D) nondurable; uniform; durable; variable
E) nontraded; variable; traded; uniform
Answer: A
Page Ref: 158-161
Difficulty: Moderate

3) Patterns of interregional trade are primarily determined by ________ rather than ________ because factors of production are generally ________.
A) external economies; natural resources; mobile
B) internal economies; external economies; mobile
C) external economies; population; immobile
D) internal economies; population; immobile
E) population; external economies; immobile
Answer: A
Page Ref: 158-161
Difficulty: Easy

4) The primary determinant of patterns of interregional trade is
A) accidents of history.
B) resource allocations.
C) factor abundance.
D) weather.
E) centralized optimization.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 158-161
Difficulty: Easy

5) The study of factors that influence both international and interregional trade is referred to as
A) accidents of history.
B) economic geography.
C) factor abundance theory.
D) weather analysis.
E) centralized optimization.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 158-161
Difficulty: Easy

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