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# SOLUTION MANUAL DEVELOPMENTAL MATH 3RD EDITION LIAL

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• ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0321854454
• ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0321854452

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## SOLUTION MANUAL DEVELOPMENTAL MATH 3RD EDITION LIAL

CHAPTER 8 STATISTICS
8.1 Circle Graphs
8.1 Margin Exercises
1. (a) The circle graph shows that the greatest
number of hours is spent sleeping.
(b) 
 

hours working
hours studying
hours
Two more hours are spent working than studying.
hours studying
hours working
hours attending class
hours
(c) 

 

Thirteen hours are spent studying, working, and
attending classes.
2. (a) Hours spent driving to whole day:
    
 
   
(driving)
(whole day)
hours
hours

 
(b) Hours spent sleeping to whole day:
 
 

(sleeping)
(whole day)
hours
hours

(c) Hours spent attending class and studying to
whole day:

 

hours attending class
hours studying
hours
 
 

hours
hours

(d) Hours spent driving and working to whole
day:

 

hours driving
hours working
hours
    
    
 
hours
hours

3. (a) Hours spent in class to hours spent studying:
 (class)
(studying)
hours
hours

  

(b) Hours spent working to hours spent sleeping:
 

( )
( )
hours
hours

working
 sleeping
(c) Hours spent driving to hours spent working:
    
    
 
( )
( )
hours
hours

driving
working
(d) Hours spent in class to hours spent for
“Other:”
 
 

( )
(o )
hours
hours

class
ther
4. Use the percent equation:
part percent  • whole
(a) whole billion; percent    % ;  
find the part.
   billion   billion
The amount spent on corn chips is \$ billion 
or \$ , , , .    
(b) whole billion;  
percent  % ; find the part.  
   billion billion   
The amount spent on miscellaneous is \$
billion or \$ , , , .    
(c) whole billion; percent    % ;  
find the part.
   billion billion   
The amount spent on cakes/pies is \$ billion 
or \$ , , , .    
(d) whole billion;  
percent  % ; find the part.  
   billion billion   
The amount spent on cookies/crackers is \$
billion or \$ , , , .    
5. (a) Working poor:
° °%       °
(b) Ex-offenders:
° ° ° %     
(c) At-risk youth:
° ° °%       
(d) Unemployed:
° ° °%       
304 Chapter 8 Statistics
8.1 Section Exercises
1. A circle graph shows how a total amount is divided
into parts.
2. When making a circle graph, a tool called a
protractor is used to measure degrees in the circle.
    
in millions
The number of pets owned in the United States is
 million or , ,   
4. The type of pet that is owned by the greatest
number of people in the United States is fish.
 million or , , fish are owned.   
5. From Exercise 3, the total number of pets is 
million.
number of cats million
number of pets million 


 
   
   
6. From Exercise 3, the total number of pets is 
million.
number of small animals million
number of pets million 


 
   
   
7.
number of cats million
number of dogs million 


 
   
   
8.
number of fish million
number of cats million 


 
   
   
9. The largest sector represents “Sleeping.”
Americans spend hours minutes per day on  
this activity.
10. The second largest sector represents “Leisure, TV,
and sports.” Americans spend hours minutes  
per day on this activity.
11. Total minutes per day
 ( hours)( minutes per hour)  
  minutes
Total minutes sleeping per day
 ( hours)( minutes per hour)    
   
  minutes
“Sleeping” to total:
    
    
 
minutes
minutes
12. From Exercise 11, the total number of minutes in a
day is . 
“Personal care” to total:
    
    
 
13. “Educational/civic/religious activities” to
“Eating and drinking”:
 
  

 
   
   
minutes minutes
hour minutes minutes
14. “Personal care” to “Sleeping”:
 
  

 
   
   
minutes minutes
hours minutes minutes
15. “Working” to “Household duties/caring for
others”:
  
  

 
   
   
hours minutes minutes
hours minutes minutes
16. “Leisure, TV, and sports” to “Working”:
  
  

 
   
   
hours minutes minutes
hours minutes minutes
17. To determine how many people prefer onions for
their hot dog topping, use the percent equation.
part percent
people

  
 
• whole
18. Ketchup % of
people
  
  
 
19. Sauerkraut % of
people
  
  
 
20. Relish % of
people
  
  
 
21. Mustard % of
people
  
  
 
8.1 Circle Graphs 305
22. Chili % of
people
  
  
 
23. Need the car to go miles or more: 
   
 
 
% of
people (rounded)
24. Need the car to go miles: 
   
 
 
% of
people (rounded)
25. Need the car to go miles or fewer: 
   
 
 
% of
people (rounded)
26. Need the car to go miles: 
   
 
 
% of
people (rounded)
27. Need the car to go miles: 
   
 
 
% of
people (rounded)
28. To find the number of people that “Need the car to
Exercise 23 ( miles or more) and Exercise 26 
( miles). 
     people (rounded)
Note: We could also use
% % % of to get . Either      
29. First find the percent of the total that is to be
represented by each item. Next, multiply the
percent by ° to find the size of each sector. 
Finally, use a protractor to draw each sector.
30. A protractor is used to measure the number of
degrees in a sector. First, you must draw a line
from the center of the circle to the left edge. Next,
place the hole of the protractor at the center of the
circle, making sure that the on the protractor is 
on the line. Finally, make a mark at the desired
number of degrees. This gives you the size of the
sector.
31. % of the total is Adult sports.
Degrees of a circle % of   
 
 
°
°
32. Percent for Children’s sports
%



   
°
°
33. From the text, \$ is the total amount spent 
during one month.
Percent for Day camp \$
\$
%



   
Degrees of a circle % of   
 
 
°
°
°

34. % of the total is Senior fitness.
Degrees of a circle % of   
 
 
°
°
°

35. % of the total is Annual egg hunt.
Degrees of a circle % of   
 
 
°
°
°

36. Percent for Arts and crafts \$
\$
%



   
Degrees of a circle % of   
 
 
°
°
°

37. Percent for Mommy and baby exercise
%



   
°
°
38.
306 Chapter 8 Statistics
39. (a) Total sales  \$ , \$ ,     
 \$ , \$ , \$ , \$ ,           
(b) Adventure classes  \$ ,  
percent of total % ,
,
number of degrees
    
 
 
 ° °   
Grocery and provision sales \$ ,   
percent of total % ,
,
number of degrees
    
 
 
 ° °   
Equipment rentals \$ ,   
percent of total % ,
,
number of degrees
    
 
 
 ° °   
Rafting tours \$ ,   
percent of total % ,
,
number of degrees
    
 
 
 ° °   
Equipment sales \$ ,   
percent of total % ,
,
number of degrees
    
 
 
 ° °   
(c)
40. (a) Travel % of   
 
 
°
°
°

Apparel, accessories, and footwear
 % of 
 
 
°
°
°

Computer hardware and software
 % of 
 
 
°
°
°

Autos and auto parts % of   
 
 
°
°
°

Home furnishings % of   
 
 
°
°
°

(b)
41. The total number of adults surveyed is
            
%
Percent for
Work/school
for
Work/school
(a)
° °
    


  
Degrees  
%
Percent for
for
Place of Worship
Place of Worship
    


  
Degrees ° °  
%
Percent for
for
Online dating site
Online dating site
    


   
Degrees ° ° 
%
Percent for
for
Friend/family member
Friend/family member
    


   
Degrees ° ° 
%
Percent for
for
Bar/club/social event
Bar/club/social event
    


   
Degrees ° ° 
%
Percent for
for
Other
Other
    


   
Degrees ° ° 
Work/school
Place of Worship
Online dating site
Friend/family member
Bar/club/social eve
How They Met Survey
Number in




nt
Other


8.2 Bar Graphs and Line Graphs 307
How They Met of Total Degrees
Percent Number of
Work/school % ( ) ( )
Place of Worship % ( ) ( )
Online dating site % ( )
   
   
  
°
°
° ( )
Friend/family member % ( ) ( )
Bar/club/social event % ( ) ( )
Other % ( ) ( )

   
   
   
°
°
°
(b) Total percent 
% % % % % % %            
No. The total is % due to rounding. 
(c) Total degrees 
° ° ° ° ° ° °            
No. The total is ° due to rounding. 
8.2 Bar Graphs and Line Graphs
8.2 Margin Exercises
1. (a) The bar for 2010 rises to , showing that the 
number of members was
    ,.
(b) 2009: , members      
(c) 2013: , members      
(d) 2012: , members      
2. (a) 1st quarter, 2012:
    , subscribers
1st quarter, 2013:
    , subscribers
(b) 3rd quarter, 2012:
    , subscribers 
3rd quarter, 2013:
    , subscribers 
(c) 4th quarter, 2012:
    , subscribers 
4th quarter, 2013:
    , subscribers 
(d) The tallest bar rose to , showing ,   
subscribers for the 4th quarter of 2013.
3. (a) June
The dot is at on the vertical axis. 
  , , trout    
(b) May: , , trout       
(c) April: , , trout       
(d) July: , , trout       
4. (a) The number of desktop computers sold:
2009:     ,
2011:     ,
2012:     ,
2013:     ,
(b) The number of laptop computers sold:
2009: ,      
2010: ,      
2011: ,      
2012: ,      
(c) The number of laptop computers sold was
greater than the number of desktop computers sold
when the red line was above the blue line. The
first full year in which this happened was 2012.
8.2 Section Exercises
1. A double-bar graph can be used to compare two
sets of data, so the statement is . false
2. A line graph is often useful for showing a trend, so
the statement is true.
3. The country which had the highest percent of
income spent on food was India, which spent
% of household income.
4. The country which had the lowest percent of
income spent on food was the USA, which spent
% of household income.
5. The countries in which less than % of household 
income is spent, on average, for food are the USA,
Britain, and Australia.
6. The countries in which more than % of 
household income is spent, on average, for food
are Israel, Mexico, and India.
308 Chapter 8 Statistics
7. What is % of days?  
   

days
 days (rounded)
8. What is % of days?  
   

days
 days (rounded)
9. The month of May in 2013 had the greatest
number of plants shipped. The total was ,  
plants shipped.
10. In January of 2012, plants were shipped. 
11. Plants shipped in February of 2013  
Plants shipped in February of 2012  
    
There were more plants shipped in February 
of 2013.
12. In March of 2012, plants were shipped. 
In March of 2013, plants were shipped. 
There were fewer plants     
shipped in March of 2012 than in March of 2013.
13. The number of plants shipped increased from 
in February of 2012 to in April of 2013 The  
increase was plants shipped.     
14. In January of 2013, plants were shipped. 
In June of 2013, plants were shipped. 
The increase from January to June, 2013 was
     plants shipped.
15. , gallons of supreme unleaded gasoline 
were sold in 2009.
16. In 2012, , gallons of super  •    
17. The greatest difference occurred in 2009.
The difference was
, , , gallons.       
18. In 2013, the sales of supreme unleaded gasoline
surpassed the sales of super unleaded gasoline.
19. , gallons of supreme unleaded gasoline 
were sold in 2013. , gallons of supreme  
unleaded gasoline were sold in 2009.
, , ,       
There was an increase of , gallons of  
20. In 2009, the sales were  •   ,
gallons.
In 2013, the sales were ,  •    
gallons.
Increase , ,
, gallons
     
  
21. The number of PCs sold in 1990 was  million
or , , .   
22. The number of PCs sold in 1995 was  million
or , , .   
23. The increase in the estimated number of PCs to be
sold in 2015 from the number sold in 2005 is
     million or , , .   
24. The increase in the number of PCs sold in 2000
from the number sold in 1990 was
     million or , , .   
25. Answers will vary. Some possibilities are:
greater demand as a result of lower price; more
uses and applications for the owner; improved
technology; multiple computers in each location;
more laptop computers sold.
26. Answers will vary. Some possibilities are:
Fewer people will want a computer because they
already own one; new technology will replace the
computer with something better.
27. Store A sold , MP3 players in  •    
2013.
28. Store A sold , MP3 players in  •    
2012 .
29. In 2011, the annual sales for Store A were
 •   , MP3 players. 
30. Store B sold , MP3 players in  •    
2013.
31. Store B sold , MP3 players in  •    
2012.
32. Store B sold , MP3 players in  •    
2011.
33. Probably Store B with greater sales. Predicted
sales might be , MP3 players to ,    
MP3 players in 2014.
34. Some possible answers are that Store B may have
started to: do more advertising; keep longer store
hours; give better training to its staff; employ more
help; give better service than Store A.
35. A single bar or a single line must be used for each
set of data. To show multiple sets of data, multiple
sets of bars or lines must be used.
8.3 Frequency Distributions and Histograms 309
36. You would use a set of bars or a set of lines for
each set of data. Examples will vary.
37. The total sales in 2013 were
 • \$ \$ , .    
38. The total sales in 2012 were
 • \$ \$ , .    
39. The total sales in 2011 were
 • \$ \$ , .    

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