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Single Subject Research Applications in Educational and Clinical Settings, 2nd Edition by Richards – Test Bank

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Single Subject Research Applications in Educational and Clinical Settings, 2nd Edition by Richards – Test Bank

Test Bank

for

Richards/Taylor/Ramasamy/Richards, Single Subject Research: Application in Educational and Clinical Settings, 2nd Edition

Chapter 1…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

Chapter 2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Chapter 3…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Chapter 4…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Chapter 5…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Chapter 6 (no questions)……………………………………………………………………………………. N/A

Chapter 7…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

Chapter 8 (no questions)……………………………………………………………………………………. N/A

Chapter 9…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

Chapter 10 (no questions)………………………………………………………………………………….. N/A

Chapter 11…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

Chapter 12 (no questions)………………………………………………………………………………….. N/A

Chapter 13…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Chapter 1: Historical Aspects and Important Concepts in Single-Subject Research

  • In a single-subject design, the _______________ variable is used to encourage (or maintain) change in behavior.
  1. dependent
  2. independent
  3. extraneous
  4. confounding

ANS: B

  • What is the name of the phase in a study that measures the target behavior before implementation of an intervention?
  1. Baseline Phase
  2. Follow-up Phase
  3. Changing Phase
  4. Intervention Phase

ANS: A

  • In a single-subject design, the ________________ variable is used to determine the changes in the target behavior.
  1. dependent
  2. independent
  3. extraneous
  4. confounding

ANS: A

  • What phase is intended to measure the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable over time and following the achievement of the criterion for the dependent variable?
  1. Starting Phase
  2. Follow-up Phase
  3. Superlative Phase
  4. Baseline Phase

ANS: B

  • What refers to a believable demonstration that events controlled by the researcher account for the presence or absence of the behavior in question?
  1. Behavioral
  2. Applied
  3. Target
  4. Analytic

ANS: D

  • What are notations used for in a single-subject design?
  1. Used to demonstrate how an intervention works
  2. Used as decoration for the phases
  3. Used to label certain phases or aspects of a design
  4. Used to denote changes in the dependent variable

ANS: C

  • What does IDEA stand for?
  1. Individuals with Disturbances Education Act
  2. Infants who are Disabled Education Act
  3. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  4. Individuals with Direct Education Act

ANS: C

  • What do broken vertical lines depict in a graph?
  1. A change in independent variable
  2. A complete phase change
  3. The end of the phases
  4. A change in the dependent variable

ANS: A

  • What type of graph is more typically used to depict the quantitative data collected in single-subject research?
  1. Intervention graph
  2. X-Y line graph
  3. Bar graph
  4. Pictogram

ANS: B

  • How does a follow-up phase strengthen a study?
  1. Demonstrates the effectiveness of an intervention over time
  2. Gives the researcher ideas to implement in their next design
  3. Provides social and ecological validities for the study
  4. Both A and C

ANS: D

Chapter 2: Methods for Changing Target Behaviors

  • What term describes the delivery of a potential reward before a behavior in the hope that the behavior will be performed?
  1. Negative reinforcement
  2. Positive reinforcement
  3. Bribery
  4. Positive punishment

ANS: C

  • When there is an unexpected occurrence of a target behavior that had been previously extinguished, it is called ___________________.
  1. spontaneous recovery
  2. extinction
  3. overcorrection
  4. shaping

ANS: A

  • A reinforcement schedule that requires the individual to emit an average number of correct responses to obtain reinforcement is called a(n) _____________________.
  1. fixed ratio schedule
  2. interval schedule
  3. response duration schedule
  4. variable ratio schedule

ANS: D

  • In this chapter, the term satiation
  1. occurs when repeated exposure to a reinforcing consequence results in loss of the reinforcing quality
  2. is when the access to the stimulus is controlled
  3. is used to teach new behaviors
  4. is when the individual repeatedly performs more adaptive behaviors or performs an exaggerated adaptive response when the target behavior occurs

ANS: A

  • Arguments against the use of punishment include __________.
  1. that the individual learns what not to do, rather than what to do
  2. that it may create a model of aggression and physical control to be emulated by the individual
  3. that it may inflict pain or hardship on the individual
  4. All of the above

ANS: D

  • Suzie vandalized the school by writing on the walls, and she was required to restore not only the areas of walls that she wrote on, but other areas of the wall as well. What type of method was used to decrease Suzie’s behavior?
  1. Response interruption
  2. Restitutional overcorrection
  3. Positive practice overcorrection
  4. Simple restitution

ANS: B

  • When walking into a room, Jacob repeatedly slams the door each time. After talking to Jacob about his behavior, Mrs. Fergy requires Jacob to repeatedly practice closing the door quietly each time he slams a door. What type of method did Mrs. Fergy use to decrease Jacob’s behavior of slamming the door?
  1. Response interruption
  2. Restitutional overcorrection
  3. Positive practice overcorrection
  4. Simple restitution

ANS: C

  • Which of the following is an example of the Premack Principle?
  1. “You can play outside but afterwards you definitely need to do your homework.”
  2. “If you don’t go to school today, you need to go to school tomorrow.”
  3. “Practice the piano for 45 minutes and then you can go to the movies.”
  4. “When you get home, you’re in big trouble!”

ANS: C

  • What type of schedule is used to establish new behaviors and is not resistant to extinction (i.e., a continuance of the behavior is unlikely in the absence of reinforcement)?
  1. Fixed Ratio Schedule
  2. Interval Schedule
  3. Continuous Schedule
  4. Variable Ratio Schedule

ANS: C

  • In art class, Jackie spills paint on the floor and is required to clean up her mess. What type of method overcorrection method is this?
  1. Restitutional overcorrection
  2. Simple restitution
  3. Positive practice overcorrection
  4. Response interruption

ANS: B

Chapter 3: Methods for Recording Behavior

  • _________________ is a method of estimating the frequency of the target behavior using a period that has been divided into equal intervals of time for individual observations.
  1. Cumulative recording
  2. Blind interval recording
  3. Task analysis recording
  4. Partial interval recording

ANS: D

  • What is the term used to describe the correctness of how a behavior is performed or how it looks?
  1. Topography
  2. Frequency
  3. Magnitude
  4. Rate

ANS: A

  • Which of the following is NOT a method of interval recording?
  1. Whole Interval Recording
  2. Partial Interval Recording
  3. Predicted Interval Recording
  4. Momentary Time Sampling

ANS: C

  • Which of the following is NOT true about trials to criterion?
  1. Used to obtain an idea of how quickly the individual acquires a skill
  2. Requires the same number of opportunities be available during each session
  3. Refers to measuring the number of responses needed by the individual to achieve some preset level of acceptable performance
  4. Useful in determining which type of instruction affected the criterion performance in the fewest number of trials

ANS: B

  • In which system does the observer look at (or listen to) the student at the end of an interval and record whether or not the behavior is occurring at that moment?
  1. Momentary Time Sampling
  2. Partial Interval Recording
  3. Whole Interval Recording
  4. Predicted Interval Recording

ANS: A

  • In which system does the observer divide the observation period into an equal number of intervals and then record an occurrence if and only if the target behavior is emitted for the entire interval?
  1. Momentary Time Sampling
  2. Partial Interval Recording
  3. Whole Interval Recording
  4. Entire Interval Recording

ANS: C

  • In general, which system of recording provides the better estimate of frequency?
  1. Momentary Time Sampling
  2. Partial Interval Recording
  3. Whole Interval Recording
  4. Predicted Interval Recording

ANS: B

  • In time-based methods of recording and reporting behavior, duration recording involves __________________.
  1. measuring the length of time from the delivery of an antecedent stimulus that should elicit the target behavior, to the actual beginning of the target behavior
  2. observing the amount of assistance or help required to admit the target behavior
  3. using the number of opportunities to perform target behaviors
  4. measuring the length of time from when a behavior begins to its termination

ANS: D

  • Two or more observers record the target behavior independently and simultaneously, then later compare the results to determine if the target behavior was measured with reliability. What is this called?
  1. Interobserver reliability
  2. Whole interval recording
  3. Latency recording
  4. Internal validity
    ANS: A
  • How do you record and report behavior?
  1. Event-based methods
  2. Time-based methods
  3. Perceptual methods
  4. Both A and B

ANS: D

Chapter 4: Issues in Single Subject Research

  • The notion that if there is no effect attributable to the independent variable, then the dependent variable’s data path will remain unchanged is called _________.
  1. verification
  2. stability
  3. prediction
  4. reliability

ANS: C

  • When a researcher engages in the process of repeating the observed predictions and verifications within the same study, he/she is practicing what?
  1. Replication
  2. Reinforcement
  3. Reliability
  4. Observation

ANS: A

  • ________ is important to establishing the believability of a functional relationship which, therefore, establishes confidence in the results that are obtained.
  1. External validity
  2. Interobserver reliability
  3. Internal validity
  4. Existential reliability

ANS: C

  • An individual being observed and altering his or her behavior as a response to being observed is known as _________.
  1. consciousness
  2. presence
  3. reactivity
  4. observer drift

ANS: C

  • ______ refers to anything that may affect the demonstration of the functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
  1. Intrinsic variables
  2. Extraneous variables
  3. Compound variables
  4. Intervening variables

ANS: B

  • The passage of time as well as both unforeseen and foreseen events that arise is known as ____________.
  1. maturation
  2. attrition
  3. development
  4. history

ANS: D

  • Treatment interference might occur when more than one _________ is used.
  1. dependent variable
  2. independent variable
  3. extraneous variable
  4. confounding variable

ANS: B

  • _______ involves varying the conditions from an earlier study, but still obtaining similar results.
  1. Systematic replication
  2. Interactive replication
  3. Intrapositive replication
  4. Direct replication

ANS: A

  • This is the term used when a subject becomes unavailable during the course of a study: ___________.
  1. treatment drift
  2. cancellation
  3. attenuation
  4. attrition

ANS: D

  • Single subject studies ____________.
  1. may incorporate elements of qualitative and quantitative procedures
  2. are rigid and do not allow for the use of a variety of data collection techniques
  3. may incorporate robust and powerful methods for influencing an individual’s behavior
  4. Both A and C

ANS: D

Chapter 5: Overview of Withdrawal Designs

  • A typical withdrawal design is usually designated by the letters (where A represents baseline and B represents intervention) _____________.
  1. A-B
  2. B-A-A-A
  3. A-B-A
  4. A-B-A-B

ANS: D

  • The demonstration of a functional relationship between the target behavior and intervention by withdrawing (and reintroducing) the treatment is called what?
  1. Target intervention
  2. Basic goal of intervention
  3. Objective intervention
  4. Purposeful intervention factor

ANS: B

  • _______ occurs first when the change from baseline to intervention phase results in a desired change in responding.
  1. Verification
  2. Prediction
  3. Replication
  4. Reversal

ANS: A

  • Withdrawal designs can be used in the following situations ______________.
  1. when the nature of the target behavior is such that it can be reversed when the treatment is withdrawn
  2. when the nature of the treatment is such that its effects are present on the target behavior after it is withdrawn
  3. when withdrawal of treatment does not compromise ethics
  4. Both A and C

ANS: D

  • When an individual’s behaviors during subsequent baseline conditions are negatively affected by resentment over having the treatment withdrawn, it is called what?
  1. Withdrawal demoralization
  2. Resentful withdrawal
  3. Resentful demoralization
  4. None of the above

ANS: C

  • The major disadvantages of the withdrawal design have to do with which the following situations?
  1. When the target behavior is reversible
  2. When the treatment effects will not continue after the treatment is withdrawn
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above

ANS: D

  • The A-B-C design is known as what?
  1. Changing conditions
  2. Repeated withdrawals
  3. Alternating conditions
  4. Sequential conditions

ANS: A

  • This design is preferable because the study ends with the intervention condition in effect:
  1. A-B-A
  2. A-B-C-A
  3. B-A-B
  4. A-B-A-BC-A

ANS: C

  • This occurs when the return to the treatment phase results in a similar pattern as the previous treatment phase:
  1. Replication
  2. Verification
  3. Duplication
  4. Repetition

ANS: A

  • This is an example of a multiple treatment design:
  1. B-A-B
  2. A-B-A
  3. A-B-A-B
  4. A-B-A-C

ANS: D

Chapter 7: Overview of Multiple Baseline Designs

  • A multiple baseline design should be used in all the following situations EXCEPT ____________.
  1. when withdrawal designs are not feasible due to ethical concerns
  2. when there is more than one target behavior, settings, or individual in need of treatment
  3. when you want to determine the relative effectiveness of more than one treatment on a given behavior
  4. when the effects of the independent variable cannot be withdrawn or reversed

ANS: C

  • What are the advantages of a multiple baseline design?
  1. Withdrawal of treatment is not required
  2. Sequential implementation of the independent variable parallels the practice of teachers
  3. Generalization of behavior change is monitored within the design
  4. All of the above

ANS: D

  • Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of implementing a multiple baseline design?
  1. Possibility of covariance of dependent variables
  2. The design is simply conceptualized
  3. There is typically only one intervention phase with each dependent variable
  4. Reducing the opportunities to study the functional relationship with each dependent variable

ANS: B

  • The basic goal of multiple baseline design is _________.
  1. a demonstration of a functional relationship between the target behavior and intervention by replicating the intervention effects with two or more behaviors, in two or more settings, or with two or more individuals
  2. a comparison of the effects of two or more treatments on the same behavior
  3. to evaluate the effects of a treatment on the gradual increase or decrease of a single target behavior
  4. None of the above

ANS: A

  • After the baseline data are stable, the _______________ would be that there would be no change in the data path for the dependent variables if there was no intervention effect.
  1. covariance
  2. replication
  3. Verification
  4. prediction

ANS: D

  • This occurs when baseline measures change in the same direction as during an intervention phase, although the intervention has not yet been implemented with that dependent variable:
  1. Covariance
  2. Replication
  3. Verification
  4. Prediction

ANS: A

  • What type of design is used when a withdrawal design no longer is possible or when other behaviors, settings, or individuals emerge that are in need of intervention?
  1. Multiple probe design
  2. Alternating treatment design
  3. Delayed multiple baseline design
  4. Changing criterion design

ANS: C

  • Which type of design may be used as an adaptation to designs addressing multiple behaviors, settings, or individuals?
  1. Multiple probe design
  2. Alternating treatment design
  3. Extended multiple baseline design
  4. Changing criterion design

ANS: A

  • What term is used to describe when the data path changes predictably for the dependent variable when an intervention is implemented?
  1. Predication
  2. Verification
  3. Replication
  4. Covariance

ANS: B

  • The basic design of a multiple baseline design includes _____________.
  1. one A-B design where baseline data are simultaneously measured
  2. an intervention that is applied to multiple behaviors only that are similar in nature but functionally independent
  3. phases that are introduced with criterion levels that vary
  4. two or more A-B designs where baseline data are simultaneously measured and the intervention is introduced to one behavior, in one setting, or with one individual at a time

ANS: D

Chapter 9: Overview of Alternating Treatments Designs

  • The basic goal of alternating treatment designs is ______________.
  1. demonstration of a functional relationship between the target behavior and intervention by replicating the intervention effects with two or more behaviors, in two or more settings, or with two or more individuals
  2. comparison of the effects of two or more treatments on the same behavior
  3. to evaluate the effects of a single treatment on the gradual increase or decrease of a single target behavior
  4. None of the above

ANS: B

  • What is an advantage of an alternating treatment design?
  1. Withdrawal of treatment is not required
  2. Sequential implementation of the independent variable parallels the practice of teachers
  3. Generalization of behavior change is monitored within the design
  4. Collection of baseline data is not necessary

ANS: D

  • What are some disadvantages of alternating treatment design?
  1. The possibility of multiple treatment interference when the treatments interact
  2. It is not the best to use with behaviors that change slowly
  3. It can sometimes be difficult to implement (e.g., counterbalancing the treatments)
  4. All of the above

ANS: D

  • An alternating treatment design should be used in all of the following situations EXCEPT ____________.
  1. when you want to determine the relative effectiveness of more than one treatment on a given behavior
  2. when the treatments are sufficiently different from each other
  3. when there is a possibility of covariance of dependent variables
  4. when the subjects can discriminate the treatment conditions

ANS: C

  • What type of treatment design is also called the concurrent schedules design?
  1. Simultaneous treatment design
  2. Adapted alternating treatment design
  3. Delayed multiple baseline design
  4. Changing criterion design

ANS: A

  • What type of treatment design includes the intervention being applied to multiple behaviors that are similar in nature but functionally independent?
  1. Simultaneous treatment design
  2. Adapted alternating treatment design
  3. Delayed multiple criteria design
  4. Changing criterion design

ANS: B

  • Which of the following is TRUE about alternating treatment designs?
  1. It is necessary to collect baseline data
  2. It does not require rapid alternation of two or more distinct treatments
  3. It does not require the collection of baseline data
  4. None of these statements are true

ANS: C

  • What is the reason for counterbalancing in alternating treatment designs?
  1. Helps to eliminating sequencing effects
  2. Can be used to determine which results are the baseline data
  3. Makes the design look validated
  4. Creates a good environment for the child you are working with

ANS: A

  • The last point for each condition in an alternating treatment design best serves as _______________.
  1. validation for the design
  2. predictor for next data point
  3. the end of the treatment
  4. the final phase of the design

ANS: B

  • What is a reason that alternating treatment designs may have good internal validity?
  1. The patterns of response vary with the alternating treatment conditions, so there is minimal overlap among data in the conditions.
  2. If one treatment is consistently associated with an improved level of responding, then the design demonstrates good experimental control.
  3. It does not provide replication of the relative effects of the different treatments.
  4. Both A and B

ANS: D

Chapter 11: Overview of Changing Criterion Designs

  • What is a disadvantage of a changing criterion design?
  1. The possibility of multiple treatment interference when the treatments interact
  2. It is not the best to use with behaviors that change slowly
  3. It can sometimes be difficult to implement (e.g., counterbalancing the treatments)
  4. Target behavior must be able to change in a gradual, stepwise fashion

ANS: D

  • What is the basic goal of a changing criterion design?
  1. Demonstration of a functional relationship between the target behavior and intervention by replicating the intervention effects with two or more behaviors, in two or more settings, or with two or more individuals
  2. Comparison of the effects of two or more treatments on the same behavior
  3. Evaluate the effects of a treatment on the gradual increase or decrease of a single target behavior
  4. None of the above

ANS: C

  • How long should each phase be in a changing criterion design?
  1. Phases should be long enough to allow stable responding
  2. The length of the phase should be varied if possible
  3. Phases should be brief enough to see a positive response
  4. Both A and B

ANS: D

  • Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the changing criterion design?
  1. Withdrawal of treatment is not necessary
  2. Generalization of behavior change is monitored within the design
  3. It is a good design to evaluate contingency programs to increase/decrease behavior
  4. Gradual change in target behavior results in poor outcomes for maintenance

ANS: C

  • A changing criterion design would be appropriate to use in the following instances EXCEPT:
  1. When the target behavior can change gradually in a step-wise fashion
  2. When the behavior is already in the subject’s repertoire and needs to be increased or decreased
  3. When the treatments are sufficiently different from each other
  4. When the effects of contingent reinforcement or punishment procedures need to be evaluated

ANS: C

  • If the required change is too large, what is a possible problem that can occur?
  1. There might not be enough phases to demonstrate experimental control in the study
  2. It might be difficult to determine if the change was due to other factors
  3. Requiring drastic changes might contradict good instructional practices
  4. Both A and C

ANS: D

  • What does the number of criterion changes refer to?
  1. The number of phases (subphases) that should be included in the study
  2. The number of changes that were made to the target behavior
  3. The number of times the intervention was withdrawn
  4. The number of phases that did not impact the behavior

ANS: A

  • What provides additional evidence of the functional relationship between the treatment and the target behavior?
  1. Reinstate baseline conditions
  2. Reversal to a previous criterion level
  3. The lack of change in the target behavior to a previous criterion level
  4. The number of the criterion changes within the baseline phase

ANS: B

  • What is the term used to describe a more radical reversal of conditions than just returning to a previous criterion level?
  1. Reinstate baseline conditions
  2. Reversal to a previous criterion level
  3. Magnitude of the criterion changes
  4. Interval baseline changes

ANS: A

  • _______________ occurs when stable responding within each phase predicts the behavioral levels of subsequent phases.
  1. Replication
  2. Verification
  3. Prediction
  4. Reversal

ANS: C

Chapter 13: Methods for Analyzing Data

  • Visual analysis may be applied primarily in these ways:
  1. To inspect changes within a phase or condition
  2. To inspect changes across phases or conditions
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above

ANS: C

  • ______ is determined by examining the direction of the data path.
  1. Trend
  2. Baseline
  3. Level
  4. Baseline phase

ANS: A

  • You should use visual analysis when _____________.
  1. the data is not graphically depicted
  2. the researcher wishes to make formative and summative analyses
  3. when continuous numerical data are not gathered
  4. All of the above

ANS: B

  • The performance of the target behavior and where along the y-axis the data points fall is called ___________.
  1. level of behavior
  2. variability in performance
  3. statistical analysis
  4. None of the above

ANS: A

  • Changes in the direction of the data path between baseline and intervention phases are called ___________.
  1. directional changes
  2. immediate changes in level
  3. correlations
  4. trend changes

ANS: D

  • This error is when the researcher infers there is a significant intervention effect when, in fact, there is not one ____________.
  1. type I error
  2. type II error
  3. type effect error
  4. type criterion error

ANS: A

  • This parametric procedure is used to test for mean performance differences (typically across phases):
  1. Time series analysis
  2. Tukey’s mean test
  3. t test or ANOVA
  4. None of the above

ANS: C

  • Some limitations to statistical analysis include ____________.
  1. assumptions for use may be violated
  2. one may obtain a Type I or Type II error
  3. required knowledge and use of statistical computer packages
  4. All of the above

ANS: D

  • This occurs because the individual data collection observations in single subject research may not yield independent observations:
  1. Autocorrelation
  2. Trend
  3. Randomization
  4. Bias

ANS: A

  • Mixed methods research would include?
  1. Quantitative methods
  2. Qualitative methods
  3. Cumulative methods
  4. Both A and C

ANS: D

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