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Sexuality Today 11th Edition by Kelly – Test Bank

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Sexuality Today 11th Edition by Kelly – Test Bank

Chapter 8: Sexual Individuality and Sexual Values

Multiple Choice

  1. The categories that scientists use to understand the world are
  2. abstract, intellectual tools without practical, concrete effects.
  3. artificial and ever-changing.
  4. determined by evolution.
  5. innate.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 184

  1. The labels applied by scientists to sexual behavior
  2. are attempts to shape human behavior.
  3. are simply names free of value judgments.
  4. have no effect beyond aiding communication.
  5. may reflect the values of their own societies.

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 185

  1. The contemporary consensus in medicine and psychology holds that masturbation is a(n)
  2. immature way of obtaining sexual pleasure and gratification.
  3. major cause of sexual dysfunctions and deviations.
  4. marginally acceptable alternative to normal sexual expression.
  5. widespread and generally harmless form of sexual expression.

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 185

  1. Self-pleasuring is a label often used in current books about sex to refer to
  2. any sexual act undertaken for the sake of self-gratification.
  3. heterosexual intercourse.
  4. masturbation.
  5. unsafe sexual practices.

Answer: c

Type: Factual

Page 185

  1. The term deviation is
  2. no longer used because the term refers to conditions that no longer exist.
  3. no longer widely used by sexologists because the term took on negative connotations.
  4. widely used by scientists to refer to sexual behaviors that are considered politically incorrect.
  5. widely used by sexologists to refer to unusual sexual behaviors.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 185

  1. A paraphilia is a
  2. dependence on sexual behaviors or sexual fantasies involving stimuli that are considered unusual or unacceptable.
  3. love of sexual activity.
  4. person who is addicted to sexual activities.
  5. person who pursues pleasure relentlessly.

Answer: a

Type: Conceptual

Page 185

  1. Mitchell can experience orgasm only if he is wearing and touching leather garments. This behavior is an example of
  2. a paraphilia.
  3. a psychosis.
  4. biphobia.
  5. foreplay.

Answer: a

Type: Applied

Page 185

  1. The terms deviation, variation, and paraphilia all
  2. imply some aberration from an accepted sexual standard.
  3. imply the existence of an absolute standard of behavior.
  4. refer to an outdated way of viewing the world.
  5. refer to criminal behaviors.

Answer: a

Type: Factual

Page 185

  1. Sexual activities that precede vaginal penetration by the penis are called
  2. foreplay.
  3. onanism.
  4. paraphilias.
  5. self-pleasuring.

Answer: a

Type: Conceptual

Page 186

  1. Heterosexual standard, coital standard, orgasmic standard, and two-person standard are labels that describe
  2. key laws governing sexual behavior in the United States.
  3. key norms established by psychologists to evaluate sexual behavior.
  4. several universal norms of sexual behavior.
  5. some of the values regarding sexual behavior that have permeated Western culture.

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Pages 186

  1. Which of the following has NOT been a sexual standard in traditional Western culture?
  2. Exclusively heterosexual attractions
  3. Orgasm as the ultimate goal
  4. Sex intertwined with romance
  5. Sexual behavior as a spiritual ideal

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Pages 186

  1. In one society, some individuals engage in sexually arousing activities for extended periods in order to achieve spiritual transformation by extended arousal. This practice conflicts with the traditional Western standard called the
  2. deviation standard.
  3. heterosexual standard.
  4. orgasmic standard.
  5. safe sex standard.

Answer: c

Type: Applied

Page 186

  1. Which of the following is an accurate description of the Universal Declaration of Sexual Rights?
  2. It was adopted by the World Association for Sexology.
  3. It was a document proposed by the U.S. Department of State.
  4. It was a proposal submitted by the Democratic Party.
  5. It was a resolution passed by the United Nations.

Answer: a

Type: Factual

Page 187

  1. The Universal Declaration of Sexual Rights includes
  2. rights to sexual autonomy, sexual equity, and responsible reproductive choices.
  3. rights to sexual freedom, sexual pleasure, and sexual health care.
  4. rights to sexual integrity, sexual privacy, and comprehensive sexual education.
  5. All of these

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Pages 187

  1. The tendency to assume that one’s own sexual values and behaviors are superior to others is called
  2. egocentricy.
  3. erotocentricity.
  4. self-centeredness.
  5. the continuum of normalcy.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 188

  1. If you decide that masturbation or oral-genital sex is normal because a vast majority of the population engages in the behavior, you are judging normality in terms of
  2. legal normalcy.
  3. moral normalcy.
  4. normalcy by expert opinion.
  5. statistical normalcy.

Answer: d

Type: Applied

Page 188

  1. Louise and Marty prefer to center their sexual activity around the use of various sexual “toys.” They never have intercourse, but both feel satisfied. If you evaluate their behavior as normal because it is safe, exploits no one, and is consensual, then you are using which approach to normalcy?
  2. A continuum of normalcy
  3. Moral normalcy
  4. Normalcy by expert opinion
  5. Statistical normalcy

Answer: a

Type: Applied

Page 188

  1. As professionals use the term today, a person’s sexual orientation
  2. can be determined by analyzing the levels of various hormones in a person’s bloodstream.
  3. includes their sexual behavior, affectional preferences, and self-identification, along with other variables.
  4. is defined by their sexual activities.
  5. is determined only by which people a person finds sexually attractive.

Answer: b

Type: Conceptual

Page 190

  1. The term sexual individuality refers to
  2. all of the ways in which our sexual characteristics vary from the norm.
  3. our gender roles and sources of sexual attraction.
  4. our sexual needs, sexual activities, gender identity, sources of arousal, sexual preferences, and sexual fantasies and dreams.
  5. sexual characteristics that are determined at birth.

Answer: c

Type: Conceptual

Page 190-191

  1. Research indicates that a person’s sexual attractions are
  2. influenced to some extent by his or her parents.
  3. not affected by his or her parents.
  4. to a great extent shaped by identification with his or her parents.
  5. to a great extent shaped by the relationship with his or her parents.

Answer: a

Type: Factual

Pages 191

  1. The sexual preferences expressed by adults
  2. are very fluid until middle age.
  3. can be predicted on the basis of their parents’ preferences.
  4. often are rooted in a single important event.
  5. tend to be a continuation and confirmation of earlier sexual feelings.

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 191

  1. Research indicates that social networks
  2. are extremely significant in shaping sexual attitudes and behaviors.
  3. have some influence on sexual behavior, but the influence is not likely to be profound.
  4. influence sexual attitudes but not sexual behavior.
  5. influence the sexual attitudes and behavior of adolescents but not the attitudes or behavior of adults.

Answer: a

Type: Factual

Page 191-192

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the basic variables in Klein’s system for describing a person’s sexual identity?
  2. Emotional preference
  3. Moral values
  4. Self-identification
  5. Sexual attraction

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 192

  1. An important shortcoming of Klein’s original model of sexual identity was that it
  2. failed to consider how factors might change over time.
  3. neglected parental influences during childhood.
  4. omitted factors such as emotional and social preferences.
  5. overlooked the physiological basis of sexual identity.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 193

  1. Analysis of the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) found that almost half of the population believed that sex should be part of a loving relationship and did not condemn premarital sex. This group was labeled
  2. libertarian.
  3. recreational.
  4. relational.
  5. traditional.

Answer: c

Type: Factual

Page 194

  1. Among those who believed that sex and love did not need to be connected, the NHSLS researchers identified two subgroups, which they labeled
  2. pro-choice and conventional.
  3. pro-life and libertarian.
  4. recreational and libertarian.
  5. relational and contemporary.

Answer: b

Type: Conceptual

Page 194

  1. The NHSLS research indicated that
  2. a majority of the American public are libertarians.
  3. few Americans accept premarital sex within a loving relationship.
  4. more men than women hold traditional attitudes.
  5. there is no clear-cut system of American attitudes toward sexuality.

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 194

  1. According to the NHSLS research, which factor was associated with a greater likelihood of traditional sexual attitudes?
  2. Geographic region
  3. Greater religiousness
  4. Higher educational attainment
  5. Membership in an ethnic minority group

Answer: b

Type: Conceptual

Page 194

  1. According to the NHSLS, frequency of sexual activity
  2. declined greatly among those with traditional attitudes.
  3. did not seem to be linked with an attitudinal group.
  4. was clearly linked to recreational attitudes.
  5. was lowest among those in the conventional subgroup.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 194

  1. Judging a sexual behavior as right or wrong depending on its motivations and consequences is characteristic of which approach to sexual morality?
  2. Asceticism
  3. Hedonism
  4. Recreational
  5. Situation ethics

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 198

  1. Situation ethics emphasizes the
  2. benefits of self-denial and self-discipline.
  3. changing nature of human needs and values.
  4. inherent good of pleasure.
  5. unique context of each decision.

Answer: d

Type: Conceptual

Page 198

  1. Asceticism emphasizes
  2. analysis of context.
  3. discipline, celibacy, and self-denial.
  4. pursuit of emotional well-being.
  5. pursuit of physical pleasure.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Pages 198

  1. Two important theorists in the area of the moral development of children are
  2. Freud and Watson.
  3. Klein and Coleman.
  4. Money and Gagnon.
  5. Piaget and Kohlberg.

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 200

  1. According to Piaget and Kohlberg, when children are 8 to 10 years old, they typically progress from obeying rules in order to satisfy their own needs to following moral codes in order to
  2. avoid punishment.
  3. be perceived as good people.
  4. contribute to the betterment of society.
  5. live up to their own standards.

Answer: b

Type: Conceptual

Page 200

  1. Which of the following is NOT widely accepted in U.S. society as a principle of sexual morality?
  2. Noncoercion
  3. Nondeceit
  4. Respect for the beliefs of others
  5. Treatment of people as means

Answer: d

Type: Factual

Page 201

  1. Which of the following is NOT a recommended step in establishing healthy sexual values?
  2. Consider your responsibility to other people.
  3. Find values that will not create conflicts with your peers.
  4. Recognize that communication is important in any sexual relationship.
  5. Think ahead about sexual situations and issues.

Answer: b

Type: Conceptual

Pages 203-204

  1. Stan is visually impaired. What materials are available to help him learn about male and female anatomy?
  2. Audiotapes
  3. Captioning services
  4. Life-size plastic models
  5. Oral instruction

Answer: c

Type: Factual

Page 205

  1. Spinal cord injuries interfere with sexual functioning
  2. only insofar as they cause depression, which decreases sexual desire.
  3. to a degree that depends on the location and extent of the injury.
  4. to the extent that male victims are incapable of sexual responses.
  5. to the extent that victims are incapable of sexual sensations.

Answer: b

Type: Factual

Page 206

Fill in the Blank

  1. The view that sexual intercourse between a man and a woman is the ultimate sexual act is known as the _____________________ standard.

Answer: coital

Type: Factual

Page 186

  1. Using one’s own culture to judge others and assuming that it is superior to all others is known as

_____________________.

Answer: ethnocentricity

Type: Factual

Page 188

  1. The form of ethnocentricity that assumes that one’s own sexual values, standards, and activities are best is called _____________________.

Answer: erotocentricity

Type: Factual

Page 188

  1. The standard reference work that includes descriptions and classifications of those sexual activities which American psychiatrists consider psychological disorders is the _______________________.

Answer: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM

Type: Conceptual

Page 188

  1. The term _____________________ refers to females who have a predominantly same-gender sexual orientation and identity.

Answer: lesbian

Type: Factual

Page 190

  1. NHSLS researchers gave the label _____________________ to describe the attitudes of those who do not believe that sex and love need to be connected.

Answer: recreational

Type: Factual

Page 194

  1. Prejudice toward transgender individuals has been called _____________________.

Answer: transphobia

Type: Factual

Page 197

True/False

  1. As the term is currently defined, a paraphilia interferes with an individual’s life and causes clinical levels of distress.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 185

  1. Research indicates that people who have sex with members of their own gender are remarkably similar to heterosexuals.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 189

  1. Parents and parental relationships are much less important in determining sexual orientation than is commonly believed.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Pages 191

  1. It seems most likely that inborn factors create predispositions that influence sexual orientation and sexual preferences.

Answer: T

Type: Conceptual

Page 191

  1. Social networks appear to be very important in shaping and maintaining sexual attitudes and behaviors.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 191-192

  1. The NHSLS found that over half the population do not feel that love and sex need to be connected.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Pages 193-194

  1. The NHSLS research clearly indicates that people’s attitudes have little effect on their behavior and that most people do not have firmly held attitudes regarding sex.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Pages 193-194

  1. College athletics is one area of American life in which homophobia has been largely eradicated.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Page 196

  1. Participating in sexual activities that are contrary to one’s values may cause an individual to experience conflict and guilt.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Page 197

  1. Most disabling conditions affect an individual’s sexual needs and ability to function sexually.

Answer: F

Type: Factual

Page 206

  1. Brain scans of women with spinal cord injuries suggest that genital stimulation may create signals that bypass the injury and travel directly to the brain.

Answer: T

Type: Factual

Pages 206

Short Answer

  1. How is masturbation regarded by contemporary scholars and practitioners in the area of human sexuality?

Answer: It is seen as a widespread, generally harmless, and normal form of sexual expression.

Type: Factual

Page 185

  1. What is a paraphilia?

Answer: A paraphilia is a sexual attachment or dependency on an unusual stimulus which may be tangible or exist in fantasy. The attachment interferes with the individual’s life and is considered at least somewhat pathological.

Type: Factual

Page 185

  1. What does use of the term foreplay for noncoital sexual activity imply?

Answer: It implies that the activity is not a goal or pleasurable in itself but only the preamble to intercourse.

Type: Factual

Page 186

  1. Explain the concept of erotocentricity.

Answer: The term refers to the belief that one’s own sexual standards, values, and activities are best. It is a type of ethnocentricity.

Type: Factual

Page 188

  1. What is meant by statistical normalcy?

Answer: It is one way of defining what is normal. By the standard of statistical normalcy, a behavior is normal if it is widespread in a particular population.

Type: Factual

Page 188

  1. According to current models of sexual orientation, what are six variables that should be considered when describing a person’s sexual orientation?

Answer: Variables to take into account are (a) sexual behavior, (b) sexual attractions, (c) self-identification, (d) life style, (e) frequency of sex with different partners, and (f) changes over time.

Type: Factual

Page 192

  1. What are the elements of sexual individuality?

Answer: It is made up of our gender identity, gender role, what we find sexually attractive or arousing, our preferences for certain sexual behaviors, and sexual fantasies and dreams.

Type: Conceptual

Pages 190-191

  1. What were two of the most significant findings of the NHSLS research?

Answer: Two key findings were that (a) there is no clear-cut system of American values, and (b) there is a clear link between people’s attitudes and their sexual behaviors. (Students might mention other findings.)

Type: Conceptual

Page 193-194

  1. Describe what is meant by a social constructionist perspective on sexual ethics.

Answer: According to this approach, social forces form moral values, including those related to sexuality, and those values may change as societies change.

Type: Factual

Page 198-199

  1. How do internalized and externalized homophobia and biphobia manifest themselves?

Answer: Externalized homophobia and biphobia manifest themselves in name-calling, discrimination, or prejudice toward others. Internalized homophobia and biphobia manifest themselves in discomfort with one’s own feelings, desires, or behaviors.

Type: Conceptual

Pages 197

  1. What is the principle of normalization?

Answer: This principle holds that programs for those with disabilities should aim to help them adapt to the norms of mainstream social life.

Type: Conceptual

Page 205

  1. What determines the sexual functioning of paraplegics?

Answer: The primary determinant is the extent and location of the spinal cord injury. Many paraplegics demonstrate penile erection or vaginal lubrication because these are partially controlled by localized spinal reflexes. For many paraplegics, direct stimulation can result in arousal and orgasm.

Type: Conceptual

Pages 206

Essay

  1. Think of a familiar or popular movie or novel. Apply the six sociocultural standards for sexual arousal and behavior to that work. How well do they apply?

Answer: Responses will vary, but the six standards to be mentioned are (a) the heterosexual standard; (b) the coital standard; (c) the orgasmic standard; (d) the two-person standard; (e) the romantic standard; and (f) the safe-sex standard.

Type: Applied

Pages 186

  1. Neither Steven nor his wife, Angela, has ever really enjoyed penile-vaginal intercourse. They prefer to engage in mutual masturbation or oral-genital sex. List and apply various criteria to evaluate the normalcy of their behavior.

Answer: Responses will certainly vary, but the criteria for normalcy that might be applied include (a) statistical normalcy; (b) normalcy by expert opinion; (c) moral normalcy; and (d) the continuum of normalcy.

Type: Applied

Pages 188

  1. What is a key objection to labeling someone as a homosexual, lesbian, or transvestite?

Answer: Too often these labels are used as if they define the person’s entire identity instead of only a small part of the individual’s personality. In fact, research indicates that these labels predict nothing about other characteristics of a person, such as psychological adjustment, but the labels may be used to draw inaccurate, negative inferences about people and to marginalize them. Labels can have great power to guide thinking and behavior.

Type: Conceptual

Page 189

  1. What was the largest population group identified by the NHSLS, and what were their general attitudes regarding sex and sexual choices?

Answer: About half of the population was identified as relational. They believed sex should be part of a loving relationship but not necessarily reserved for marriage. As a result, they did not see premarital sex as wrong but were likely to view extramarital sex as wrong. The relational group included (a) a religious subgroup, which was guided by religious beliefs and opposed same-gender sex, teenage sex, and abortion; (b) a conventional subgroup, which was more tolerant toward teenage sex, pornography, and abortion but still opposed same-gender sex; and (c) a contemporary religious subgroup which was more tolerant of same-gender sex than the conventional subgroup.

Type: Factual

Page 193-194

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