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Sense And Nonsense About Crime, Drugs, and Communities 8th Edition by Samuel Walker – Test Bank

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Sense And Nonsense About Crime, Drugs, and Communities 8th Edition by Samuel Walker – Test Bank

Test Bank and Answer Key

TRUE/FALSE

  1. The 2008 Heller ruling drastically changed the existing gun control laws in the U.S. by finding that the ban on handgun possession in the home violates the Second Amendment.

ANS: F

REF: 10-9

  1. The majority of Americans favor background checks for gun purchases and tough criminal penalties for crimes committed with a gun.

ANS: T

REF: 10-7

  1. African-Americans are more likely than whites to own guns.

ANS: F

REF: 10-8

  1. Walker argues that one of the biggest problems in the U.S. related to gun control is an insufficient number of gun control laws.

ANS: F

REF: 10-10

  1. The Brady Bill is a demand reduction strategy for guns.

ANS: F

REF: 10-5, 10-18

  1. There is no evidence that gun buyback programs reduce crime.

ANS: T

REF: 10-13, 10-14

  1. The Kansas City Experiment combined problem-oriented policing with a focus on hot spots.

ANS: T

REF: 10-32, 10-33

  1. Research shows that robbery victims used a gun to resist the offender in 1.2 percent of all robberies.

ANS: T

REF: 10-26

  1. Get-tough laws on crime like the one in Michigan are significantly influenced by the going rate and the trickle-up phenomenon.

ANS: T

REF: 10-31

  1. Operation Ceasefire implemented various strategies to reduce gun-related violence, including interagency collaboration and strict enforcement of probation and parole conditions.

ANS: T

REF: 10-34

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Walker summarizes the gun problem in the United States as

a.

exaggerated

c.

serious

b.

due to hunting rifles

d.

due to assault weapons

ANS: C

REF: 10-36

  1. The unconstitutionality of the Washington D.C. gun control law is based on

a.

the prohibition of possession of assault weapons

b.

the prohibition of possession of handguns in the home for purposes of defense

c.

the prohibition of weapons to persons with criminal records

d.

the right provided in the Second Amendment in and of itself

ANS: B

REF: 10-9

  1. According to the text, what is the major difference between supply reduction and demand reduction policies?

a.

supply reduction focuses on offenders, and demand reduction sees guns as the problem

b.

supply reduction sees guns as the problem, and demand reduction focuses on offenders

c.

supply reduction seeks to control gun ownership, and demand reduction seeks to preserve gun ownership as a universal right

d.

demand reduction seeks to control gun ownership, and supply reduction seeks to preserve gun ownership as a universal right

ANS: B

REF: 10-5

  1. A study of the impact of stand-your-ground laws found that
  2. they are associated with increases in homicides among white males
  3. they are associated with increases in homicides among African-American males
  4. the related incidents were self-defense situations in the face of serious threats to life
  5. most people accurately interpret the laws

ANS: A

REF: 10-29

  1. The Small Arms survey estimates that there are currently over ____(1)______ million firearms including _____(2)_____ million handguns in circulation in the U.S.

a.

(1) 30 (2) 15

c.

(1) 10 (2) 2

b.

(1) 297 (2) 200

d.

(1) 270 (2) 114

ANS: D

REF: 10-8

  1. Banning Saturday Night Specials would likely result in

a.

a substitution effect

b.

a trickle-up effect

c.

a decrease in violent crimes

d.

an increase in the use of other types of guns

ANS: A

REF: 10-15

  1. Evaluations of crime in cities that have banned possession of handguns have found

a.

both violent and property crime declined as a result

b.

no conclusive evidence regarding the impact of the laws

c.

more crimes were committed with rifles and shotguns

d.

no cities have actually banned possession of handguns

ANS: B

REF: 10-11, 10-12

  1. One of the major U.S. cities with a lot of violent crime that banned the possession of handguns was

a.

Kansas City

c.

Washington, D.C.

b.

Boston, Massachusetts

d.

none of the above

ANS: C

REF: 10-11

  1. Many people believe the __________ establishes a right to own a gun.

a.

First Amendment

c.

Fourth Amendment

b.

Second Amendment

d.

Fifth Amendment

ANS: B

REF: 10-9, 10-10

  1. One of the limits of attempting to outlaw possession of handguns is

a.

most gun crimes are not committed with handguns

b.

these laws violate Second Amendment rights

c.

most gun owners also own rifles or shotguns

d.

the large number of handguns in existence

ANS: D

REF: 10-12

  1. A federal ban on handgun possession

a.

would be supported by the majority of Americans

b.

would have similar consequences to bans on alcohol and drugs

c.

is predicted to be the best way to reduce crime

d.

would be supported by conservatives and liberals

ANS: B

REF: 10-13

  1. Banning the manufacture and sale of handguns

a.

would stimulate an international black market

b.

would have limited effect due to the number of guns already in existence

c.

is a creative and potentially effective way to reduce gun-related crime

d.

would be too invasive when the real problem is only assault weapons

ANS: A

REF: 10-13

  1. One of the problems with strategies to buy back handguns is

a.

the government does not have enough money to reimburse all handgun owners

b.

firearms are turned in by people who are the least likely to commit a gun crime

c.

offenders will simply switch to other weapons like knives

d.

this is a strategy with minimal problems and the potential to reduce crime

ANS: B

REF: 10-14

  1. Studies of gun buyback programs have found

a.

no one turned in any guns

b.

little evidence of the impact on gun assaults or homicides

c.

an unexpected trickle-up phenomenon

d.

the public were generally supported and gun-related crime declined significantly

ANS: B

REF: 10-14

  1. Banning “Saturday night specials”

a.

would require a federal law and intrusive enforcement procedures in order for it to be effective

b.

is one gun control strategy that both liberals and conservatives can agree on

c.

will not accomplish what is intended due to their exaggerated role and the potential for substitution effect

d.

has already occurred in the majority of states but it is too soon to assess the impact of this ban on crime

ANS: C

REF: 10-14—10-15

  1. The proposal to ban “Saturday night specials” suffers from the same problem of focusing on a small part of the problem as

a.

keeping guns out of the hands of “bad” people

b.

getting tough on gun-related offenders

c.

tightening Federal Firearms Licensing requirements

d.

prohibiting cop-killer bullets

ANS: D

REF: 10-15

  1. In 2012, _____% of Americans supported banning assault rifles.

a.

24

c.

44

b.

68

d.

54

ANS: C

REF: 10-16

  1. A study of the effectiveness of Federal Firearms Licensing laws found that

a.

few of the FFLs failed to comply with the federal regulations

b.

a small number of dealers were responsible for a high percentage of guns used in crime

c.

they were too expensive to implement and enforce in most states

d.

tightening the regulations had no effect on the number of FFLs or compliance with federal regulations

ANS: B

REF: 10-17

  1. One example of a policy designed to keep guns out of the hands of “bad” people is

a.

the Brady Bill

d.

all of the above

b.

the Kansas City Gun Experiment

e.

none of the above

c.

the Bartley-Fox Law

ANS: A

REF: 10-18

  1. One of the key strategies of the Brady Law is

a.

intensive enforcement of illegal carry laws

c.

mandatory sentences

b.

banning gun possession

d.

background checks

ANS: D

REF: 10-18

  1. One of the problems with gun control strategies like the Brady Bill is that

a.

enforcement of them requires serious intrusions on the part of the government

b.

it places stricter regulations on licensed dealers, but regulations are already strict

c.

few offenders obtain weapons from regulated retail outlet stores

d.

there are not enough laws of this type to be effective on a large scale

ANS: C

REF: 10-19

  1. The Brady Law is highly dependent upon

a.

federal funding for enforcement

c.

state-to-state variations in implementation

b.

official criminal history data

d.

BATF regulators

ANS: B

REF: 10-19—10-20

  1. The Kansas City Gun Experiment focused on

a.

mandatory prison terms for carrying a gun without a permit

b.

stricter punishment for violation of concealed weapons laws

c.

intensive enforcement of laws on the illegal carrying of handguns

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: C

REF: 10-32

  1. The Kansas City Gun Experiment seems to suggest that

a.

conservatives are right in their suggestion that guns don’t kill people, people kill people

b.

liberals are right in their suggestion that guns kill people

c.

tough mandatory sentences can deter offenders from using guns in the commission of crime

d.

a focused program to remove guns from the streets can reduce gun-related crime

ANS: D

REF: 10-33

  1. Laws that prohibit the carrying of a weapon on an airplane

a.

effectively achieve their goals

b.

are limited by the number of guns already in existence in society

c.

have not proven to effective at reducing gun-related crime on airplanes

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: A

REF: 10-24

  1. The gun show loophole is actually a small loophole because

a.

in most states, it is illegal to sell guns at gun shows

b.

people with a criminal history are barred from gun shows

c.

most dealers at gun shows have FFLs

d.

45 states require background checks of gun purchasers at gun shows

ANS: C

REF: 10-22

  1. The theory behind right-to-carry laws is that allowing people to carry concealed weapons

a.

can reduce fear of crime

b.

can deter violent crime

c.

can reduce the number of people violating laws that ban possession

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: B

REF: 10-26

  1. According to Walker, common sense tells us that increasing gun ownership for the purpose of self-defense

a.

would significantly decrease violent crimes

b.

would decrease confidence in the CJS

c.

its effectiveness is inconclusive

d.

would increase crime in high-violence neighborhoods

ANS: D

REF: 10-28

  1. Laws that seek to get tough on offenders convicted of using guns

a.

are supported by both crime victims and liberals

b.

are popular as most states have them

c.

are the only realistic policies for reducing gun-related crime

d.

are the only laws that do not violate Second Amendment rights

ANS: B

REF: 10-30

  1. The Michigan law advertised as “one with a gun gets you two”

a.

intensively enforced illegal carry laws

b.

reduced gun crime prior to implementation due to the announcement effect

c.

had no significant impact on minimum sentences for serious gun crimes

d.

combined problem-oriented policing strategies with mandatory sentences

e.

all of the above

ANS: C

REF: 10-31

  1. The trickle-up phenomenon refers to the tendency

a.

for “get tough” strategies to affect less serious crimes to a greater extent

b.

to get increasingly tougher in punishment strategies over time

c.

for mandatory sentences to produce diminishing returns

d.

for federal laws to encroach upon the protections offered by states

ANS: A

REF: 10-31

  1. Similar to other “get tough” strategies, attempts to get tough on gun-related crime

a.

are never implemented as intended because they are not fully funded

b.

significantly reduced crimes such as gun-related homicide, assault and robbery

c.

continue to be criticized by conservatives who argue they fail because they are not tough enough

d.

do not achieve their intended results because the system is already tough on serious crime

ANS: D

REF: 10-30

  1. Operation Cease Fire

a.

enforced a ban on gun possession in New York City

b.

attempted to reduce gun violence and gun-related homicide in Boston

c.

was an attempt to intensively enforce gun laws in Chicago

d.

was a liberal gun control strategy in Washington, D.C.

ANS: B

REF: 10-34

  1. Operation Cease Fire involved

a.

pulling levers on probationers and parolees

b.

interagency collaboration

c.

a significant reduction in youth homicide

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: D

REF: 10-34

  1. According to Walker, the greatest problem with trying to regulate the sale of firearms is that

a.

it abrogates a constitutional right, so regulation will be opposed by the Supreme Court

b.

too many Americans are opposed to the regulations

c.

people with criminal records go directly to the black market

d.

there are always a few states that will refuse to implement such laws

ANS: C

REF: 10-23

  1. Two explanations for the decline in gun incidents at school are The Great Crime Drop, and

a.

community policing initiatives that “pull levers” with local gang leaders

b.

decreased access to assault rifles by the general public

c.

“get tough” measures on offenders who enter schools with guns

d.

the implementation of a range of new security measures

ANS: D

REF: 10-25

SHORT ANSWER

  1. Assess the problem of gun-related violence in the U.S. by summarizing the evidence on gun ownership and gun-related violence.

REF: 10-2—10-4, 10-7—10-9

  1. Compare and contrast the various strategies that seek to ban guns and assess if each reduces crimes.

REF: 10-10—10-17

  1. Assess the usefulness of strategies that seek to keep guns out of the hands of “bad” people.

REF: 10-17—10-25

  1. Assess how the focused, proactive measures implemented at airports and schools can reduce gun-related violence in those areas.

REF: 10-24—10-25

  1. Explain why banning guns from the mentally ill is an impractical strategy for reducing gun violence.

REF: 10-20—10-21

  1. Describe the purpose of the Boston Gun Project, its strategy and its effectiveness to decrease the gun-related violence among young minority males.

REF: 10-33—10-35

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