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Sensation And Perception 9th Ed.By Goldstein – Test Bank

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Sensation And Perception 9th Ed.By Goldstein – Test Bank

Test Bank—Chapter 9: Perceiving Color

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. The signaling function of color can be exemplified by

a.

knowing that a banana is ripe when it is yellow.

b.

knowing to stop at a red light.

c.

both knowing to stop at a red light and knowing banana ripeness.

d.

none of these; signaling is not a function of color.

ANS: C REF: What Are Some Functions of Color Vision?

MSC: Conceptual

  1. A monkey with good color vision

a.

would have difficulty with figure-ground segregation.

b.

would have a better chance of surviving than a color-blind monkey.

c.

would be equally able to survive as a color-blind monkey.

d.

is impossible; all monkeys are color-blind.

ANS: B REF: What Are Some Functions of Color Vision?

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Adding more white to a color changes the color’s

a.

hue.

c.

brightness.

b.

wavelength.

d.

saturation.

ANS: D REF: What Colors Do We Perceive? MSC: Factual

  1. The basic colors in the color circle are

a.

red, white, blue and green.

c.

red, green, and blue.

b.

black, white, and gray.

d.

red, green, blue and yellow.

ANS: D REF: What Colors Do We Perceive? MSC: Conceptual

  1. By changing _______, we can create about a million (or more) discriminable colors.

a.

saturation

c.

wavelength

b.

intensity

d.

saturation, intensity, and wavelength

ANS: D REF: What Colors Do We Perceive? MSC: Factual

  1. The reflectance curve is a plot of the light reflected off a surface as a function of

a.

spatial frequency.

c.

wavelength.

b.

contrast.

d.

orientation.

ANS: C REF: Reflectance and Transmission MSC: Factual

  1. The reflectance curve for a white piece of paper would

a.

reflect mostly short wavelengths, a moderate amount of medium wavelengths, and a little of the long wavelengths.

b.

reflect mostly long wavelengths, a small amount of medium wavelengths, and a little of the short wavelengths.

c.

reflect a little of short wavelengths, a large amount of medium wavelengths, and a little of the long wavelengths.

d.

reflect long, medium and short wavelengths equally.

ANS: D REF: Reflectance and Transmission MSC: Factual

  1. The reflectance curve for a purple piece of paper would

a.

reflect short wavelengths.

c.

reflect all wavelengths equally.

b.

reflect long wavelengths only.

d.

reflect long and short wavelengths.

ANS: D REF: Reflectance and Transmission MSC: Conceptual

  1. Yellow and Blue light are projected on a white screen. What color will the screen appear to be?

a.

white.

c.

green.

b.

gray.

d.

purple.

ANS: A REF: Mixing Lights MSC: Conceptual

  1. When light is mixed it is referred to as _______

a.

an electromagnetic color mixture.

c.

a subtractive color mixture.

b.

an additive color mixture.

d.

a transitive color mixture.

ANS: B REF: Mixing Lights MSC: Factual

  1. When paint is mixed it is referred to as _______

a.

a viscous color mixture.

c.

a subtractive color mixture.

b.

an additive color mixture.

d.

a pigmentive color mixture.

ANS: C REF: Mixing Paints MSC: Factual

  1. Blue and yellow paints mixed together yield

a.

white.

c.

green.

b.

gray.

d.

purple.

ANS: C REF: Mixing Paints MSC: Conceptual

  1. The major theories of color vision were first proposed

a.

in the 1800s, based on behavioral evidence only.

b.

in the 1930s, based on some psychophysical data and lesioning studies.

c.

in the 1960s after Hubel and Wiesel’s pioneering research.

d.

in the 1990s when technologically advanced brain imaging studies could be conducted.

ANS: A REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Factual

  1. The trichromatic theory of color vision is also known as the _________ theory.

a.

Seurat-Signac

c.

Young-Helmholtz

b.

Hering

d.

Young-Adhart

ANS: C REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Factual

  1. Color matching experiments show that if a person with full color vision is given at least ____ wavelengths to mix together, the person can match any single wavelength.

a.

2

c.

4

b.

3

d.

5

ANS: B REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Factual

  1. The trichromatic theory of color vision states that color perception is due to

a.

the pattern of activity in four different receptors.

b.

the activity pattern in the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortical lobes.

c.

the pattern of activity in three different receptors.

d.

processing in layers 1,2, and 3 in the LGN.

ANS: C REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Conceptual

  1. The maximum absorption for the short-wavelength cone pigment is at ____ nm.

a.

308

c.

531

b.

419

d.

558

ANS: B REF: Cone Pigments MSC: Factual

  1. The maximum absorption for the long-wavelength cone pigment is at ____ nm.

a.

419

c.

558

b.

531

d.

747

ANS: B REF: Cone Pigments MSC: Factual

  1. The pattern of firing of receptor activity in response to red would be

a.

large firing from the S receptor, medium firing from the M receptor, and little firing from the L receptor.

b.

large firing from the S receptor, large firing from the M receptor, and little firing from the L receptor.

c.

little firing from the S receptor, a moderate firing from the M receptor, and large firing from the L receptor.

d.

large firing from the S receptor, large firing from the M receptor, and large firing from the L receptor.

ANS: C REF: Cone Responding and Color Perception

MSC: Applied

  1. Two stimuli that are physically different, but are perceptually identical, are called

a.

complements.

c.

metamers.

b.

Rayleigh stimuli.

d.

isomers.

ANS: C REF: Cone Responding and Color Perception

MSC: Factual

  1. The principle of ______ helps explain why a person with only one visual pigment can see all wavelengths as the same color (i.e., shade of gray) if light intensity is adjusted appropriately.

a.

intensity

c.

univariance

b.

adjustments

d.

unitization

ANS: C REF: Are Three Receptors Necessary for Color Vision?

MSC: Conceptual

  1. In order to distinguish between wavelengths independent of light intensity, one must have at least ______visual pigment(s).

a.

one

c.

three

b.

two

d.

no visual pigments are required.

ANS: B REF: Are Three Receptors Necessary for Color Vision?

MSC: Conceptual

  1. A monochromat experiences

a.

black, white, and grays.

c.

different shades of red.

b.

black, grays, and greens.

d.

different shades of blue.

ANS: A REF: Color Deficiency MSC: Factual

  1. A unilateral dichromat

a.

has trichromatic vision in one eye and dichromatic vision in the other eye.

b.

can only see black, white, and grays.

c.

can match any wavelength with three wavelengths in the comparison field, but is not as good as trichromats at discriminating small differences in wavelengths.

d.

is more common in the U.S. than protonopes.

ANS: A REF: Color Deficiency MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE about dichromatism?

a.

Males are more likely to be dichromats than females.

b.

Experience, not genetics, is the major cause of dichromacy.

c.

There are six major forms of dichromacy.

d.

There are nine major forms of dichromacy.

ANS: A REF: Color Deficiency MSC: Factual

  1. The neutral point for protonopes is approximately ___ nm.

a.

405

c.

570

b.

492

d.

690

ANS: B REF: Monochromatism MSC: Factual

  1. Physiological evidence shows that deuteranopes do not have the _____ wavelength cone pigment.

a.

short

c.

long

b.

medium

d.

short and long

ANS: C REF: Monochromatism MSC: Factual

  1. The rarest form of dichromatism is

a.

deuteranopia.

c.

tritanopia.

b.

protanopia.

d.

fruitopia.

ANS: C REF: Monochromatism MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following is behavioral support for the “opponent-process theory”?

a.

color afterimages

c.

visual pigment absorption rates

b.

color matching

d.

the univariance effect

ANS: A REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Factual

  1. Nora adapts to a yellow stimulus for about 30 seconds. She will then see an afterimage that appears to be

a.

a saturated yellow.

c.

blue.

b.

green.

d.

red.

ANS: C REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Applied

  1. Dr. Lanzilotti wants to create a stimulus that will produce an afterimage of a red heart shape against a white background. He should make the heart ______ and the background _______.

a.

red; green

c.

blue; white

b.

green; black

d.

pink; red

ANS: B REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following was NOT an opponent mechanism proposed by Hering?

a.

Black (-); White (+)

c.

Blue (+); Green (-)

b.

Red (+); Green (-)

d.

Blue (-); Yellow (+)

ANS: C REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following is phenomenological support for the “opponent-process theory” of color vision?

a.

color afterimages

c.

simultaneous color contrast

b.

visualizing color combinations

d.

all of these

ANS: D REF: Behavioral Evidence for the Theory

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Opponent neurons found in the ______ provide physiological support for the opponent-process theory.

a.

retina only

c.

superior colliculus only

b.

LGN only

d.

both the retina and LGN

ANS: D REF: Opponent Neurons MSC: Factual

  1. Which statement below best describes the current consensus on the theories of color vision?

a.

The physiological support for the trichromatic theory is greater than the support for the opponent-process theory.

b.

The physiological evidence for the opponent-process theory has shown that the trichromatic theory is incorrect.

c.

The psychophysical evidence for the trichromatic theory has shown that the opponent-process theory is incorrect.

d.

The physiology of the cone receptors and the discovery of opponent cells in the retina and LGN show that both theories are correct.

ANS: D REF: Opponent Neurons MSC: Conceptual

  1. The case of “Mr. I,” described in the beginning of the chapter, supports the idea that color is processed in

a.

the retina.

c.

both the retina and LGN.

b.

the LGN.

d.

a “color center” in the cortex.

ANS: D REF: Color in the Cortex MSC: Conceptual

  1. Cerebral achromatopsia is when a person

a.

has only one type of cone pigment due to genetic causes.

b.

has only two types of cone pigments.

c.

has normal cone functioning, but can not experience color due to a brain injury.

d.

paradoxically can experience color cortically from stimulation from the rods.

ANS: C REF: Color in the Cortex MSC: Factual

  1. The wavelength distributions from a light bulb and from sunlight are

a.

exactly the same.

b.

different, with the light bulb distribution having much higher amounts of energy at long wavelengths.

c.

different, with the light bulb distribution having much higher amounts of energy at short wavelengths.

d.

different, with the sunlight distribution having much higher amounts of energy at long wavelengths.

ANS: B REF: Color Constancy MSC: Factual

  1. Researcher Dorthea Jameson is quoted in the text as saying “A blue bird would not be mistaken for a goldfinch if it were brought indoors.” This supports the concept of

a.

anomalous trichromacy.

c.

color constancy.

b.

neutral point univariance.

d.

area centralis.

ANS: C REF: Color Constancy MSC: Applied

  1. Uchikawa et al. demonstrated how _________ can explain why color constancy occurs.

a.

chromatic adaptation

c.

isomerization

b.

the ratio principle

d.

neural circuitry

ANS: A REF: Chromatic Adaptation MSC: Conceptual

  1. Mark enters a supermarket that is lit by red lights. After fifteen minutes he enters the produce section and finds some red apples to purchase. Mark is able to see these apples as red because he has undergone

a.

chromatic adaptation.

c.

isomerization.

b.

re-adaption.

d.

corticalization.

ANS: A REF: Chromatic Adaptation MSC: Applied

  1. Color constancy works best when

a.

surrounding colors are masked.

b.

chromatic adaptation occurs.

c.

a color object is surrounded by one other color.

d.

a color object is surrounded by many different colors.

ANS: D REF: Effects of the Surroundings MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following is a finding that demonstrates the phenomenon of memory color?

a.

Participants recall words printed in red ink better than words printed in black ink.

b.

Participants can quickly identify the word “Blue” if printed in blue ink.

c.

Participants have difficulty reporting ink color if the word is the name of a color different than the ink color.

d.

Participants perceive a 620-nm pattern as being “redder” if that pattern has the shape of a stop sign rather than a mushroom shape.

ANS: D REF: Memory and Color MSC: Applied

  1. Ikya looks at a white surface under sunlight conditions and she perceives it to be white. When she looks at the white surface under a tungsten light, it looks ______ to her.

a.

reddish

c.

white

b.

yellowish

d.

violet

ANS: C REF: Lightness Constancy MSC: Applied

  1. According to the ratio principle

a.

lightness constancy will occur as long as the ratio of light reflected from a white surface and a black surface remain constant.

b.

lightness constancy will occur if the ratio of light reflected from a white surface and a black surface increases as the overall light intensity increases.

c.

lightness constancy will occur if the ratio of light reflected from a white surface and a black surface decreases as the overall light intensity increases.

d.

lightness constancy can never occur.

ANS: A REF: Intensity Relationships: Ratio Principle

MSC: Conceptual

  1. The edge between a dark shadow and an illuminated checkerboard is a(n)

a.

reflectance edge.

c.

ratio edge.

b.

illumination edge.

d.

Ishihara border.

ANS: B REF: Lightness Perception: Uneven Illumination

MSC: Conceptual

  1. If you cover the penumbra with a black marker, the perception of the border

a.

remains constant.

b.

changes from an illumination edge to a reflectance edge.

c.

changes from a reflectance edge to an illumination edge.

d.

can be predicted from the ratio principle.

ANS: B REF: Demonstration: Penumbra and Lightness Perception

MSC: Applied

  1. If you look at a folded index card though a pinhole, you see the border as a(n) ________ because the card looks _______.

a.

illumination edge; flat

c.

reflectance edge; flat

b.

illumination edge; 3-D

d.

reflectance edge; 3-D

ANS: C REF: Demonstration: Perceiving Lightness at a Corner

MSC: Applied

  1. Newton’s quote of “The Rays …are not colored” means that

a.

we can determine the accuracy of color perception by measuring the wavelength of the light.

b.

colors are created by our perceptual system.

c.

the experience of color is not arbitrary.

d.

a 450 nm pattern will look the identical shade of blue to all human trichromats.

ANS: B REF: Color is a Construction of the Nervous System

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Honeybees have a cone pigment that maximally absorbs _____ wavelengths.

a.

short

b.

medium

c.

long

d.

None of the above; visible light for honeybees and humans are the same range of wavelengths.

ANS: A REF: Color is a Construction of the Nervous System

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Bornstein et al. habituated a four-month-old infants to a 510 nm (“green”) stimulus, then presented a 480nm (“blue”) stimulus or a 540nm (“green”) stimulus. The infants in this study dishabituated to

a.

the 480 nm stimulus.

b.

the 540 nm stimulus.

c.

both of the 480nm and 540nm stimulus.

d.

neither the 480 nm nor the 540 nm stimulus.

ANS: B REF: Development: Infant Color Vision MSC: Factual

ESSAY

  1. Explain (with examples) the difference between additive color mixture and subtractive color mixture.

ANS: Answer not provided.

  1. Contrast the three types of dichromatism, in regard to rates, neutral points, color experience, and proposed physiological cause.

ANS: Answer not provided.

  1. Describe three demonstrations that support the opponent-process theory of color vision.

ANS: Answer not provided.

  1. Does retinal physiology support the trichromatic theory, opponent-processing theory, or both? Support your answer.

ANS: Answer not provided.

  1. Evaluate Newton’s claim that the light “rays …are not coloured.”

ANS: Answer not provided.

  1. Discuss the methods and results of Uchikawa et al.’s (1989) research on chromatic adaptation and color constancy.

ANS: Answer not provided.

  1. (a) What is the difference between an illumination edge and a reflectance edge?

(b) Discuss what the “penumbra” demonstration and the “folded card” demonstration reveal about perception of these types of edges.

ANS: Answer not provided.

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