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Sensation And Perception 1st Edition By Bennett L. Schwartz – Test Bank

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Sensation And Perception 1st Edition By Bennett L. Schwartz – Test Bank

Test Bank – Chapter 6

  1. Gabriele Jordan and her colleagues in England have shown that at least some women with 4-cone systems in their retinae are:
  2. Color deficient
    b. Unable to discriminate wavelengths at all
    *c. Able to discriminate colors that normal people would see as the same
    d. Better able to sustain damage to the occipital lobe and avoid visual agnosia

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.1
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Introduction
Question type: MC

  1. The band of wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm that people with normal vision can detect is known as the:
  2. Visual Bandwidth
    b. Electrovisual Range
    *c. Visible Spectrum
    d. Electromagnetic Resonance

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.1
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Wavelengths of Light and Color (138)
Question type: MC

  1. The ratio of light reflected by an object at each wavelength is known as the:

*a. Spectral Reflectance
b. Resonance properties
c. Color Spectrometry
d. Spectre of Bond

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.1
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Wavelengths of Light and Color (139)
Question type: MC

  1. White light, consisting of many wavelengths, is known as _____, whereas light consisting of one wavelength is known as ___________.

*a. heterochromatic; monochromatic
b. Incandescent; Fluorescent
c. UV; Infrared
d. neural; peripheral

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.1
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Wavelengths of Light and Color (139)
Question type: MC

  1. An object that reflects all light of all wavelengths from its surface will be perceived as:
  2. Red
    b. Blue
    c. Black
    *d. White

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.1
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Wavelengths of Light and Color
Question type: MC

  1. The color quality of light, corresponding to the color names we use such as orange, green, indigo, and cyan, is known as:
  2. Saturation
    b. Intensity
    *c. Hue
    d. Brightness

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.2
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Hue, Saturation, Lightness, and Brightness (140)
Question type: MC

  1. Colors that are associated with particular wavelengths are called:

*a. Monochromatic colors
b. Quality colors
c. Hue-situational colors
d. Saturation-neutral colors

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.1
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Wavelengths of Light and Color (139)
Question type: MC

  1. The more saturated the stimulus, the stronger the color experience, and the less saturated, the more it appears white or gray or black, that is, achromatic. Which pair refers to a more saturated/less saturated?
  2. Gold/green
    b. Green/red
    *c. Red/pink
    d. Blue/silver

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.2
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Hue, Saturation, Lightness, and Brightness (140)
Question type: MC

  1. Lightness usually refers to:
  2. The total amount of light divided by the wavelengths represented
    *b. The amount of light that gets reflected by a surface
    c. The saturation of a color
    d. None of the above

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.2
Cognitive domain:Knowledge
Answer location: Hue, Saturation, Lightness, and Brightness (141)
Question type: MC

  1. In this color circle, what dimension of color is represented by the perimeter of the circle?
  2. Saturation
    *b. Hue
    c. Brightness
    d. Lightness quality

Learning objective number (if applicable): 5.2
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Hue, Saturation, Lightness, and Brightness (141)
Question type: MC

  1. What is the difference between additive and subtractive color mixing?
  2. Additive mixing involves mixing similar colors of different brightness, whereas subtractive mixing involves mixing disparate colors of similar brightness.
    *b. Additive color mixing is what happens when we mix lights of different colors, whereas subtractive color mixing occurs when we mix paints or other colored materials.
    c. The only difference is that additive color mixing creates new colors, whereas subtractive replicates existing colors.
    d. Additive color mixing occurs at the level of the retina, whereas subtractive color mixing occurs at the level of V4 in the occipital cortex.

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.3
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Additive and Subtractive Color Mixing (142)
Question type: MC

  1. Color mixing in which a new color is made by the removal of wavelengths from a light with a broad spectrum of wavelengths is known as:

*a. Subtractive color mixing
b. Additive color mixing
c. Multiplicative color mixing
d. Metameric color mixing

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.3
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Additive and Subtractive Color Mixing (142)
Question type: MC

  1. Additive color mixing is used in which of the following technologies?
  2. Designing paints for artists
    b. Re-creating color vision for color-deficient individuals
    *c. Simulating a full range of colors on television screens
    d. None of the above

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.3
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Additive and Subtractive Color Mixing
Question type: MC

  1. A psychophysical color match between two patches of light that have different sets of wavelengths is known as:
  2. An additive color match
    b. A subtractive color match
    c. Photon equivalence
    *d. A metamer

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.3
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Color-Matching Experiments (145)
Question type: MC

  1. In an experiment in color matching, an observer is shown two patches of light. One is called the test patch, and the other is called the comparison patch. The test patch is a single wavelength of an unchanging illumination or brightness. The comparison patch is composed of three primary colors, such as the red, green, and blue used in a television. The observer has control over the intensities of the three lights in the comparison patch. The observer should be able to:
  2. Control the colors so that they simulate real colors in the world
    *b. Control the comparison patch so that it looks identical to the test patch in color
    c. Control the test patch so that its brightness matches the brightness of the colored patch
    d. Mix the colors in the test patch so that the comparison patch no longer has chromatic qualities

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.3
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Color-Matching Experiments (145)
Question type: MC

  1. The S-cone has its name because it:
  2. Is maximally sensitive to all light relative to other cones
    *b. Responds best to short wavelength light
    c. Works on subtractive color mixing
    d. Shifts between higher responses to low and high brightness

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.4
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: The Retina and Color (146)
Question type: MC

  1. Which type of cone is least common in the retinae?
  2. R-cone
    b. M-cone
    c. L-cone
    *d. S-cone

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.4
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: The Retina and Color (146)
Question type: MC

  1. The M-cone class has a maximum response to light at ___ nm, and the L-cone class has a maximum response to light at ____ nm.
  2. 200; 600
    b. 407; 675
    *c. 535; 565
    d. 24; 2000

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.4
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: The Retina and Color (146)
Question type: MC

  1. A light of 485 nm is presented to a person’s visual system. What best describes what happens next?
  2. A cone system that responds to specific wavelength will respond, while other cone systems will be silent.
    b. The light will not be responded to at all because that wavelength is invisible.
    *c. All three cone systems will respond at varying strengths. Color is perceived from the mix of those responses.
    d. Only the S-cone will respond to this light, as it is out of the range of sensitivity from the other cone systems.

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.4
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: The Retina and Color (147)
Question type: MC

  1. The principle
 whereby any single cone system is colorblind, in the sense that different combinations of wavelength and intensity can result in the same response from the cone system, is known as:
  2. Cone specificity
    b. Color deficient theory
    *c. Univariance
    d. Chromatic resonance

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.4
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Univariance, or Why More Than One Receptor is Necessary to See in Color (148)
Question type: MC

  1. That the color of any light is determined by the output of the three cone systems in our retinae is known as the:
  2. Opponent theory of color vision
    b. Competitive theory of color vision
    c. Hering-Osbourne theory of color vision
    *d. Trichromatic theory of color vision

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.5
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: The Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision (149)
Question type: MC

  1. The theory that color perception arises from three opponent mechanisms, for red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white, is known as the:

*a. Opponent theory of color vision
b. Competitive theory of color vision
c. Hering-Osbourne theory of color vision
d. Trichromatic theory of color vision

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: The Opponent Theory of Color Perception (150)
Question type: MC

  1. If you stare at a bright incandescent light bulb for even a short time and then close your eyes, you will continue to see an afterimage of that light bulb for a relatively brief period of time. But you will notice that although the light bulb has a yellowish hue, your afterimage will appear somewhat blue. 
This supports which theory of color vision?
  2. The Trichromatic theory of color vision
    *b. The Opponent theory of color vision
    c. The Competitive theory of color vision
    d. The Ancillary theory of color vision

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Application
Answer location: The Opponent Theory of Color Perception
Question type: MC

  1. A phenomenon that occurs when our perception of one color is affected by a color that surrounds it is known as:
  2. Hue cancellation
    b. Opponent afterimages
    *c. Simultaneous color contrast
    d. Chromatic inversion

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Findings that Support Opponent Theory (151)
Question type: MC

  1. A green square surrounded by red looks more green
 than if surrounded by a neutral color. Similarly, a yellow square looks more yellow when surrounded by a blue background than a neutral background. This phenomena supports which view of color perception?
  2. The Competitive theory of color vision
    b. The Hue cancellation principle
    c. The law of Chromatic abnormalities
    *d. The opponent theory of color vision

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Findings that Support Opponent Theory
Question type: MC

  1. Hurvich and Jameson (1957) developed
 an experiment in which observers cancel out the perception of a particular color by adding light of the opponent color. This procedure is known as:
  2. Afterimage detection
    *b. Hue cancellation
    c. Simultaneous color contrast
    d. None of the above

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Hue Cancellation
Question type: MC

  1. In this figure, the two inner circles are identical physically. That the surroundings make them appear to have different colors is an example of:
  2. Hue cancellation
    b. Chromatic profiling
    *c. Simultaneous color contrast
    d. Afterimage detection

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Application
Answer location: Findings that Support Opponent Theory
Question type: MC

  1. Unique colors are:

*a. Colors that can be described only with a single color term—red, green, blue, and yellow
b. Colors that are seen only in response to monochromatic light
c. Colors that can be perceived by color-deficient individuals
d. All of the above

Learning objective number (if applicable): .6
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Hue Cancellation (152)
Question type: MC

  1. Neurons that are excited by the input from one cone type in the center, but inhibited by the input from another cone type in the surround, are known as:
  2. Chromatic cells
    *b. Cone-opponent cells
    c. Trichromatic cells
    d. Color inhibition cells

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Opponent Cells in the LGN and V1 (152)
Question type: MC

  1. Double opponent cells are:
  2. Neurons that are excited by one color but multiplied when combined with another color
    *b. Neurons that are excited by the input from one cone type in the center, but inhibited by the input from another cone type in the surround
  3. Neurons that are excited by the input from rods, but not cones in terms of their receptive fields
    d. Color neurons located outside the fovea

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Opponent Cells in the LGN and V1 (152)
Question type: MC

  1. The function of double opponent cells is thought to be:

*a. Useful for detecting color edges, that is, where one colored object ends and a differently colored object begins, by enhancing color divisions at the edges of objects
b. Useful for determining the wavelengths of unusual colors
c. Useful for detecting unique colors
d. Useful for detecting the edges of achromatic colors that do not activate normal opponent cells

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Opponent Cells in the LGN and V1 (152)
Question type: MC

  1. This image is known as a ___________ and it serves to determine if a person is ___________.

*a. Ishihara plate; color deficient
b. Ishihara plate; rod monochromat
c. Hering image; color deficient
d. Hering image; rod monochromat

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Color Deficiency (154)
Question type: MC

  1. Which of the following is a problem for rod monochromats?
  2. They do not see in color.
    b. They are very sensitive to bright light.
    c. They have poor visual acuity.
    *d. All of the above

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Color Deficiency (154)
Question type: MC

  1. Which of the following is true about rod monochromats?
  2. They can see some colors at twilight.
    b. They are completely dependent of photopic vision.
    c. Rod monochromats cannot learn to read.
    *d. Rod monochromats only see the world in black, white, and grays.

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Rod Monochromancy (154)
Question type: MC

  1. Cone monochromats:
  2. Have rods but no cones
    *b. Lack two cone types but have one present
    c. Are color deficient because of damage to V4 not to the cones in the retina
    d. Are functionally equivalent to rod monochromats

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Cone Monochromancy (155)
Question type: MC

  1. Protanopia is:
  2. A condition in which opponent processes fail
    *b. A lack of L-cones, leading to red-green deficiency
    c. A sex-linked deficit, leading to blue-yellow deficiency
    d. The technical term for cone monochromats

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Dichromacy (155)
Question type: MC

  1. A lack of S-cones, leading to blue-yellow color deficiency, is known as:

*a. Tritanopia
b. Protanopia
c. Deuteranopia
d. Anosoanopia

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Dichromancy (155)
Question type: MC

  1. The presence of dichromacy in one eye but normal trichromatic vision in the other is known as:
  2. Deuteranopia
    b. Pre-anopia
    *c. Unilateral dichromacy
    d. Anomalous trichromacy

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Tritanopia (157)
Question type: MC

  1. Unilateral dichromacy has allowed scientists to determine:
  2. Whether color deficiency occurs equally in women and men
    b. If people with four cone types in their retinae see more colors than normal individuals
    *c. What colors appear like to color deficient individuals
    d. All of the above

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Tritanopia (157)
Question type: MC

  1. Loss of color vision due to damage to the occipital lobe is known as:
  2. Anomalous trichromacy
    b. Deuteranopia
    *c. Cortical achromatopsia
    d. Occipital color dichromacy

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Cortical Achromatopsia (158)
Question type: MC

  1. The ability to perceive an object as the same under different conditions is known as:
  2. Objectivism
    b. Philosophical realism
    *c. Constancy
    d. Object permanence

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.8
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Constancy: Lightness and Color Constancy (159)
Question type: MC

  1. An object appears red despite the fact that it is illuminated by a green light or a yellow light. This phenomenon is known as:

*a. Color constancy
b. Lightness constancy
c. Color invariance
d. Lightness invariance

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.8
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Constancy: Lightness and Color Constancy (159)
Question type: MC

  1. The distribution of wavelengths in sunlight changes across the day. Evening light has more long-wavelength light than light earlier in the day. This means:
  2. We see objects as redder in the evening
    *b. Color constancy must correct for the change in the distribution of light
    c. Object permanence is compromised
    d. Cortical achromatopsia will develop in those who do not rise early each morning

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.8
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Color Constancy
Question type: MC

  1. A phenomenon whereby an intensely lit black object appears to be gray or white in a homogeneously dark space is known as:
  2. Lightness constancy
    *b. The Gelb effect
    c. The Ponzo illusion
    d. Phenomenological lightness

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.8
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Lightness Constancy (162)
Question type: MC

  1. If an object is reflecting 50% of the light that hits it, it will be seen as ___ with 100 units of light illuminating it and as ____ with 1000 units of light illuminating it.
  2. black; white
    b. white; white
    *c. gray; gray
    d. None of the above

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.8
Cognitive domain: Analysis
Answer location: Lightness Constancy (162)
Question type: MC

  1. That the perceived lightness of an object is explained by the ratio of light it reflects rather than the absolute amount of light it reflects, assuming even illumination across the visual scene, is known as the:
  2. Gelb effect
  3. Lightness inconstancy
    c. Color-lightness invariance
    *d. Ratio principle

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.8
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Lightness Constancy (162)
Question type: MC

  1. ______ is a spectral color that we see at the very shortest wavelengths of the visual spectrum, shorter even than blue. ______, by contrast, is a nonspectral color that cannot be generated by a single wavelength of light.

*a. Violet; Purple
b. Amber; Silver
c. Ochre; Indigo
d. All of the above

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.9
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: In Depth: The Color Purple (163)
Question type: MC

  1. In order to be purple an object must:

*a. Absorb light in the central or green part of the visual spectrum but reflect light in the red and blue portions at the ends of the visual spectrum
b. Absorb all light but the light of the highest visible wavelengths
c. Reflect purple light in the purple range of the visual spectrum
d. Be created by artificial means as there are no natural purples

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.9
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: In Depth: The Color Purple (163)
Question type: MC

  1. A lack of M-cones, leading to red-green deficiency, is known as:
  2. Cortical achromatopsia
    *b. Deuteranopia
    c. Protanopia:
    d. Anomalous trichromacy

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Dichromacy (153)
Question type: MC

  1. Why is color deficiency more common in men than women?
  2. Because color vision is more important in women.
    *b. Because the genes for the cone systems are on the X-chromosome and men only have one X-chromosome.
    c. Because men are more likely to experience in utero damage to the retina.
    d. Because color constancy is learned earlier in women.

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Dichromacy (153)
Question type: MC

  1. Cats are truly “color blind,” meaning that they have a one-cone color system, compared with our three-cone system.
  2. True
    *b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable):
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Introduction
Question type: TF

  1. As we age, we tend to lose our ability to see long wavelengths, but we do not lose our ability to see short wavelengths.
  2. True
    *b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.1
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Wavelengths of Light and Color
Question type: TF

  1. Spectral reflectance is the ratio of light reflected by an object at each wavelength.

*a. True
b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.1
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Wavelengths of Light and Color
Question type: TF

  1. Additive color mixing is the creation of a new color by a process that adds one set of wavelengths to another set of wavelengths.

*a. True
b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.3
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Additive and Subtractive Color Mixing (142)
Question type: TF

  1. A Metamer is a psychophysical color match between two patches of light that have identical sets of wavelengths but are perceived as different colors due to the surrounding.
  2. True
    *b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.3
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Color-Matching Experiments (145)
Question type: TF

  1. The Trichromatic theory of color vision states that the color of any light is determined by the output of the three cone systems in our retinae.

*a. True
b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.5
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: The Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision
Question type: TF

  1. Cone-opponent cells are found in the lateral-geniculate nucleus, but color-opponent cells are found in V1 of the cerebral cortex.

*a. True
b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.6
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: Opponent Cells in the LGN and V1 (152)
Question type: TF

  1. People with Protanopia and Deuteranopia are both considered red-green color-deficient.

*a. True
b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.7
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Dichromacy (155)
Question type: TF

  1. The Gelb effect is a phenomenon whereby an intensely lit black object appears white in a homogeneously dark space, thereby demonstrating the principle of lightness constancy.
  2. True
    *b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.8
Cognitive domain: Knowledge
Answer location: Lightness Constancy (162)
Question type: TF

  1. Purple is a spectral color consisting of light at about 500 nm. combined with light at about 650 nm.
  2. True
    *b. False

Learning objective number (if applicable): 6.9
Cognitive domain: Comprehension
Answer location: In Depth: The Color Purple
Question type: TF

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