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Santrock Adolescence 16Th Ed By John W Santrock – Test Bank

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Santrock Adolescence 16Th Ed By John W Santrock – Test Bank

Chapter 08

Families

  1. Today’s parent-adolescent relationships are viewed as
  2. one-way processes.
  3. collaborative.
  4. adversarial.
  5. D.
  1. Bianca’s parents fight constantly. As a result, they ignore her. Lately Bianca has begun to stay out late and to hang out with much older friends. Bianca’s parents’ conflict is having a(n) _____ effect on her behavior.
  2. A. indirect
  3. direct
  4. overt
  5. covert
  1. Which of the following statements regarding the link between marital relationships and parenting is NOT true?
  2. Marital satisfaction is often related to good parenting.
  3. B. When parents have more intimacy in their marriage, they are less affectionate to their children and adolescents.
  4. Marriage enhancement programs improve parenting.
  5. Happily married parents are more sensitive towards their children and adolescents.
  1. Which of the following is NOT a change in adolescence that can affect the parent-adolescent relationship?
  2. A. decreased idealistic thought
  3. puberty
  4. changes in schooling
  5. violated expectations
  1. Which of the following, according to research, is the MOST stressful to adolescents during the peak of pubertal growth?
  2. changes in schooling
  3. B. conflict with parents
  4. conflict with peers
  5. moving towards independence
  1. Annie’s mother tells her to change her shorts because they are too tight. Annie wants to know why she should have to change her outfit and says, “Everybody wears their shorts this way.” Annie is most likely in which developmental stage?
  2. early childhood
  3. B. adolescence
  4. middle childhood
  5. late childhood
  1. Cognitive changes in adolescence that contribute to change in parent-adolescent relationships include all of the following EXCEPT
  2. more logical reasoning.
  3. increased idealistic thought.
  4. changes in the expectations adolescents and parents have for each other.
  5. D. decreased cognitive sophistication.
  1. Socioemotional changes that affect parent-adolescent relationships include
  2. increased responsibility in school.
  3. increased initiative in school.
  4. development of more sophisticated friendships.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. Which of the following changes in parents contribute to parent-adolescent relationships?
  2. Parents feel a decreased economic burden when their children are in adolescence.
  3. B. Marital satisfaction increases after adolescents or emerging adults leave home.
  4. Parents feel a decreased economic burden when their children are emerging adults.
  5. Parents are increasingly comfortable with their own health and attractiveness.
  1. Which of the following is an example of an adult developmental trajectory?
  2. A. cohabitation
  3. entry into high school
  4. timing of child care
  5. All of these choices are correct
  1. Which of the following statements about the timing for beginning parenthood has been found to be TRUE?
  2. Parents who delayed childbearing have less egalitarian relationships with their adolescents than parents who had children earlier in life.
  3. Men who delayed having children until their early thirties were less involved in child care than those who became fathers earlier.
  4. C. The number of adolescent pregnancies increased considerably in the 1970s and 1980s.
  5. In the last two decades women have had children earlier than they did 50 years ago.
  1. According to research, when Kahlid, age 14, begins to question his parents’ authority and resist their standards, his parents may
  2. put pressure on him to conform.
  3. let him do as he pleases.
  4. calmly discuss his attitudes and behavior with him.
  5. D. do any of these.
  1. Elise’s parents give her information on an upcoming college fair and talk to her about her potential career choices. Elise’s parents are acting as
  2. co-parents.
  3. B.
  4. collaborators.
  5. controllers.
  1. Which of the following statements regarding parents as managers is NOT true?
  2. A. Fathers are more likely than mothers to have a managerial role in parenting.
  3. Mothers are more likely than fathers to have a managerial role in parenting.
  4. Family management practices are positively related to students’ grades.
  5. Family management practices are negatively related to school problems.
  1. Family organization and routine has been shown to be positively related to all of the following factors EXCEPT
  2. A. school-related problems.
  3. school attendance.
  4. school achievement.
  5. paying attention in class.
  1. Supervising adolescents’ friends, activities, and academic efforts is known as
  2. structuring.
  3. B.
  4. managing.
  5. controlling.
  1. Lower rates of parental monitoring have been associated with all of the following problems EXCEPT
  2. increased likelihood of sexual risk taking behahviors among Iranian teens.
  3. Increased risk of substance use during adolescence.
  4. Increased risk of adolescent depression.
  5. D. Decreased participation in extra-curricular activities in high school.
  1. Parental monitoring has all of the following affects EXCEPT
  2. decreased likelihood of alcohol abuse during the college years.
  3. B. Increased likelihood of attending religious services.
  4. decreased likelihood of substance use during adolescence.
  5. increased academic success among ethnic minorities.
  1. Which of the following statements regarding adolescents’ disclosure to parents about their activities is TRUE?
  2. A. Disclosure is linked to positive adolescent adjustment.
  3. Younger adolescents are more likely than older adolescents to lie to parents if they are concerned about parental disapproval.
  4. Older adolescents are more likely than younger adolescents to disclose engagement in risk-taking behavior.
  5. Adolescents are more likely to disclose information on matters of privacy than risky actions.
  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the parenting styles described by Diana Baumrind?
  2. authoritative
  3. authoritarian
  4. neglectful
  5. D. incompetent
  1. Michael’s parents never discuss their rules. If he asks for an explanation, they answer, “Because I said so; that’s all the explanation you need.” Michael’s parents are using which style of parenting?
  2. A. authoritarian
  3. authoritative
  4. neglectful
  5. indulgent
  1. Research has found that the result of authoritarian parenting is often adolescents who are
  2. angry and hostile.
  3. antisocial.
  4. obsessive-compulsive.
  5. D. socially incompetent.
  6. Maureen’s parents have clear, reasonable rules, which they communicate and enforce. They also are warm and nurturing towards Maureen and her siblings. Maureen’s parents are using which of Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting?
  7. indulgent
  8. collaborative
  9. C. authoritative
  10. authoritarian
  1. Delany’s parents are uninvolved in her life. She comes and goes as she pleases and she has the sense that she doesn’t matter very much to her parents. Delaney’s parents are using which of Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting?
  2. authoritative
  3. authoritarian
  4. C. neglectful
  5. incompetent
  1. Adolescents whose parents are not involved with their lives and who do not monitor their activities in any way tend to
  2. lack self-efficacy.
  3. B. lack self-control.
  4. be shy and withdrawn.
  5. be socially competent.
  1. Bryan’s parents give him anything he wants and do not expect anything from him. They tried to involve him in family chores, but he just ignored them. Bryan’s parents are using which of Diana Baurind’s parenting styles?
  2. authoritative
  3. incompetent
  4. authoritarian
  5. D. indulgent
  1. Indulgent parenting has been associated with _____ in adolescents.
  2. appreciation
  3. altruism
  4. social competence
  5. D. lack of self-control
  1. Which of the following statements about authoritative parents is NOT true?
  2. They establish an appropriate balance between control and autonomy.
  3. They provide warmth and parental involvement.
  4. C. Their children are less receptive to parental influences than other styles of parenting.
  5. They are likely to encourage expression of adolescents’ views.
  1. Ruth Chao argues that Asian-American parents are more likely to use the parenting style of ______, rather than authoritarian parenting.
  2. guidance
  3. affiliation
  4. C. training
  5. obedience
  1. Which of the following statements about parenting is TRUE?
  2. Consistent parenting is recommended.
  3. Many parents use a combination of techniques.
  4. Parents and adolescents socialize each other.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. Recent research regarding father involvement in adolescent development has indicated
  2. A. time with dad is positively related to social skill.
  3. time with dad is negatively related to self-worth.
  4. father absence is positively related to high school graduation.
  5. father absence is negatively related to aggression.
  1. Jeremy is a dad to an adolescent boy and girl. If Jeremy is like most dads of adolescent children, he will
  2. spend less time with his son.
  3. Work to socialize his son to be responsible.
  4. C. Be concerned with the intellectual development of his son.
  5. Use different parenting styles with each chid.
  1. Which of the following statements regarding adolescents and their fathers is TRUE?
  2. Adolescents in countries such as Japan and Australia spend more time with their fathers than they do with their mothers.
  3. African American and Latino fathers spend more time with their children than do non Latino white fathers.
  4. The amount of time that fathers spend with their children has decreased in recent years.
  5. D. S. adolescents spend more time with their mothers than their fathers.
  1. Don is an African American teen who lives in a low-income neighborhood with his parents. Don’s father works two jobs to provide for his family but he always has time to listen to Don, and their weekly “burger and bowling” night is something that they both enjoy. According to research, Don is more likely than his counterparts who do not have a close relationship with their fathers to
  2. go to college.
  3. stay out of jail.
  4. have good mental health.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. Jasmine’s parents undermine each other when it comes to the discipline of their children. All of the children know that if Mom says, “No,” they just have to ask Dad, and they will get what they want. Jasmine’s father frequently refers to her mother as “the wimp,” and the children know that their father has no respect for their mother. This type of parenting is likely to result in children who are
  2. bullies and aggressive towards their peers.
  3. B. at developmental risk.
  4. socially competent despite their dysfunctional parents.
  5. None of these choices are correct.
  1. Ricardo’s parents use a co-parenting model whereby they show parental solidarity and cooperation. As a result Ricardo is likely to have
  2. prosocial behavior.
  3. competence in peer relationships.
  4. positive attitudes towards males and females.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. Which of the following statements about conflict between adolescents and parents is TRUE?
  2. Parent-adolescent conflict increases from early adolescence to late adolescence.
  3. Recent research shows that Hall’s conception of adolescence as a time of “storm and stress” is probably true.
  4. Parent-child conflict is stronger than parent-early adolescent conflict.
  5. D. Conflict between parents and adolescents is highest in early adolescence.
  1. Lori and her parents frequently have conflict over the amount of time she spends talking on the phone to her friends. Carl’s parents nag him about how much time he spends text messaging his buddies. Both Lori and Carl are experiencing conflicts with their parents that are
  2. A. fairly typical of the issues that lead adolescents and their parents to be in conflict.
  3. atypical; most parents focus on larger issues like drinking or truancy.
  4. atypical in that the conflicts are common; most parents rarely have conflict with their teens.
  5. None of these choices are correct.
  1. Adolescents are most likely to have conflict with their
  2. fathers.
  3. siblings.
  4. C.
  5. romantic partners.
  1. Intense parent-adolescent conflict is related to all of the following EXCEPT
  2. A. more empathy.
  3. depression.
  4. membership in cults.
  5. anxiety
  1. Two countries where parent-adolescent conflict is lower than in the United States are India and
  2. China.
  3. Spain.
  4. Kenya.
  5. D.
  1. Eva, age 15, insists that she is going to spend her summer vacation with her best friend at the lake house owned by the friend’s family. Eva does not want to go on the vacation that her family has planned and says that they can’t make her. Her parents should understand that Eva is
  2. asserting her autonomy.
  3. challenging her parents’ authority.
  4. closer to her friends’ parents than her own parents.
  5. D. A or B
  1. The ability to relinquish childlike dependencies on parents is called
  2. familial independence.
  3. financial autonomy.
  4. C. emotional autonomy.
  5. None of these choices are correct.
  1. Which of the following statements regarding autonomy in adolescence is NOT true?
  2. Boys are given independence more than girls are.
  3. Expectations about the timing of adolescent autonomy vary across cultures.
  4. C. Expectations for early autonomy are prevalent in Latinos.
  5. Expectations for early autonomy are prevalent in single parents.
  1. Suki is a Japanese adolescent living in the United States. Which of the following is probably TRUE of Suki?
  2. A. She will not seek autonomy from her parents as early as her non Latino White counterparts.
  3. She will seek autonomy from her parents at approximately the same time as her non Latino White peers.
  4. She will get her own apartment as soon as she transitions into adulthood.
  5. She will not be as closely monitored by her parents as her non Latino White peers.
  6. The transition from high school to college is especially difficult for adolescents who
  7. continue to live at home and commute to college.
  8. move more than 100 miles away from home to go to college.
  9. C. have parents that are divorced or separated.
  1. Which of the following statements about the transition from high school to college is NOT true?
  2. Female students show more psychological dependency on their parents than do male students.
  3. B. Male students show more psychological dependency on their parents than do female students.
  4. Freshmen show more psychological dependency on their parents than do upperclassmen.
  5. Freshmen show poorer social adjustment than do upperclassmen.
  1. Which of the following statements about adolescent runaways is NOT true?
  2. Runaways are often the victim of physical or sexual abuse at home.
  3. Some runaways have parents who are not able to meet their needs for food and clothing.
  4. C. Running away is usually an impulsive decision.
  5. Many runaways simply disappear.
  1. Which of the following teens is most likely to run away from home?
  2. Ali, who wants to be with her boyfriend, but is banned by her parents from seeing him.
  3. Jeff, whose parents are heroin addicts and often have no food in the house.
  4. Jeremy, whose parents fight constantly, to the point that he feels like he is living in a “war zone.”
  5. D. All of these teens are likely to run away from home.
  1. Which of the following is NOT associated with runaway teens?
  2. being the victim of bullying.
  3. Presence of psychopathologies like depression.
  4. Being the victim of unwanted sexual intercourse
  5. D. being from a low SES family
  1. Caitlin, age 17, wants to move out of her home and move in with her 20-year-old friend, Liza. Caitlin’s parents have gradually allowed her to have a car and a part-time job and to make her own decisions about her activities, but they forbid her to move out at this time. No matter how hard Caitlin pushes, her parents remain firm. This example illustrates
  2. an authoritarian, controlling parenting style.
  3. B. relinquishing control in areas where the adolescent can make mature decisions.
  4. parental fear of the “empty nest.”
  5. alienation of family members.
  1. According to attachment theorists, secure attachment in infancy is linked to adolescents’ development of
  2. A. social competence.
  3. trust.
  4. self-efficacy.
  5. human agency.
  1. Myra, age 9 months, crawls away from her mother while visiting a friend’s home. Myra periodically looks back to see that her mother is there and then ventures out a little further into the new environment.

According to attachment theorists, Myra is displaying

  1. anxious attachment.
  2. B. secure attachment.
  3. resistant attachment.
  4. ambivalent attachment.
  1. Which of the following statements about insecure attachment is NOT true?
  2. Infants avoid the caregiver in insecure attachment situations.
  3. Infants may show ambivalence towards the caregiver in insecure attachment situations.
  4. C. Insecure attachment has little bearing on later development beyond infancy.
  5. Insecure attachment has been theorized to be related to later relationship difficulties.
  1. Joseph Allen and his colleagues found that secure attachment of adolescents to their parents can
  2. facilitate social competence in adolescents.
  3. decrease the risk of engaging in delinquent acts.
  4. increase the probability of good peer relationships.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. Jonathan, age 16, has a secure attachment to his parents. According to Joseph Allen and his colleagues, Jonathan should have
  2. A. a high capacity for intimacy.
  3. a slightly higher risk for experimenting with alcohol than peers with different attachment styles.
  4. fewer friends than his peers, because he spends more time with his parents.
  5. high grades in school.
  1. Eli has an insecure attachment to his parents. According to Joseph Allen and his colleagues, Eli’s attachment situation makes him more likely to experience
  2. good peer relationships.
  3. B.
  4. successful autonomy.
  5. None of these choices are correct.
  1. Many studies that assess secure and insecure attachment in adolescence use the
  2. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
  3. Jung Typology.
  4. C. Adult Attachment Interview (AAI).
  5. Adolescent Attachment Survey (AAS).
  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the insecure attachment categories on the Adult Attachment Interview?
  2. dismissing/avoidant attachment
  3. B. secure-autonomous attachment
  4. preoccupied/ambivalent attachment
  5. unresolved/disorganized attachment
  1. Brett, age 14, has a positive relationship with his parents. As a baby, he formed a secure attachment. According to research, Brett probably has
  2. social competence.
  3. leadership skills.
  4. extensive peer relationships.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. The type of insecure attachment in which the adolescent and the parent may mutually distance themselves from each other is
  2. preoccupied/ambivalent attachment.
  3. autonomous attachment.
  4. symbiotic attachment.
  5. D. dismissing/avoidant attachment.
  1. Cody has tried for years to get close to his parents, but now at age 16, he has decided that the effort is not worth it. At this point, he basically shares a living space with them with very little interaction. This is an example of which type of attachment?
  2. laissez-faire
  3. unresolved/disorganized
  4. C. dismissing/avoidant
  5. symbiotic
  1. Research has shown that adolescents who have a dismissing/avoidant attachment to their parents may display
  2. disorientation.
  3. anger.
  4. confusion.
  5. D.
  1. Yasmine’s parents are inconsistently available to her. When she tries to get close to them and they don’t have time for her, she becomes angry. Yasmine has a(n) ________ attachment to her parents.
  2. mixed
  3. hostile
  4. unresolved/disoriented
  5. D. preoccupied/ambivalent
  1. The attachment type that is most associated with traumatic experiences is
  2. dismissing/avoiding.
  3. B. unresolved/disorganized.
  4. preoccupied/ambivalent.
  5. None of these choices are correct.
  1. The old model of parent-adolescent relationships suggests that _____, while the new model suggests that _____.
  2. parent-adolescent conflict is moderate; parent-adolescent conflict is intense
  3. as adolescents mature, they move towards their parents for continued support; as they mature, adolescents detach themselves from parents
  4. C. conflict between parents and adolescents is intense; conflict between parents and adolescents is moderate
  5. parents serve as support systems that allow adolescents to explore a more complex social world; parents are invested in keeping adolescents as close to home as possible
  1. The majority of adults describe their attachment styles as
  2. ambivalently attached.
  3. insecurely attached.
  4. C. securely attached.
  5. avoidantly attached
  1. Gina, age 22, is securely attached to her parents. Recent research on attachment and the emerging adult would suggest that Gina should have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
  2. more satisfied relationships
  3. longer lasting relationships
  4. C. poor coping skills under stress.
  5. emotional control.
  1. Which of the following benefits have researchers found to be associated with secure attachment in emerging adulthood?
  2. emotional control
  3. positive romantic relationships
  4. less sleep problems
  5. D. All of these choices are correct
  1. Recent research has found that insecure attachment of one or both partners places couples at risk for
  2. alcohol abuse.
  3. B. relationship problems.
  4. depression.
  5. Which of the following statements about insecure attachment and relationships is NOT true?
  6. Attachment categories are somewhat stable in adulthood.
  7. B. Adults have a very limited capacity to change their attachment thinking and behavior.
  8. Attachment styles make a moderate contribution to relationship functioning.
  9. Other factors besides attachment behavior contribute to the satisfaction in relationships.
  1. Greg, age 23, moves back home with his parents in order to save money to buy a house. If Greg and his parents are like many families that experience this “boomerang” phenomenon, Greg will complain that his parents
  2. A. restrict his independence.
  3. do too much for him.
  4. are angry at him for moving back home.
  5. None of these choices are correct.
  1. Marcia and John’s 25-year-old daughter, Serena, moves back in with them after graduate school. She cannot find a job in her field and works part-time as a waitress while searching for jobs. If Marcia and John are like many parents whose emerging adult children move back home with them, they will
  2. A. experience a disequilibrium in the family.
  3. have few or no complaints about Serena moving back home.
  4. try to avoid interaction with Serena and just continue their life as before.
  5. overcompensate for Serena’s lack of financial independence by pampering her.
  1. Which of the following is good advice for parents and emerging adult children who are considering living together?
  2. Agree on conditions ahead of time.
  3. Treat each other as adults.
  4. Address any concerns that arise before hard feelings develop.
  5. D. All of these are good advice.
  1. Lily calls her son Mark, age 22, at least three times each day. She says she’s just “checking in” to see that he ate lunch and that he’s studying for his exams in graduate school. Lily is engaged in
  2. symbiotic neurosis.
  3. enmeshed parenting.
  4. C.
  5. protective, but not excessive, parenting.
  1. Which of the following statements about intergenerational relationships is TRUE?
  2. There is no evidence to show that early supportive relationships with parents are linked to the quality of the parent-young adult relationship.
  3. Individuals who spent quality time with their parents as children provided as much support to older parents as did children who spent little time with their parents.
  4. C. Females have an especially important role in connecting family relationships across generations.
  5. Sons who experienced long-term lack of trust during adolescence were more alienated from their parents than daughters who had the same experience.
  1. Which of the following characteristics is involved in sibling relationships?
  2. conflict
  3. teaching
  4. rivalry
  5. D. All of these choices are correct
  1. Which of the following statements about sibling relationships is NOT true?
  2. A. When siblings talk, the main focus is on their relationship with their parents.
  3. Siblings spend an average of 10 hours a week together.
  4. Mexican-American adolescents spend as much as 17 hours of week with their siblings.
  5. Siblings most often talk about the media, school, and extracurricular activities.
  1. Judy Dunn has described three important characteristics of sibling relationships: familiarity and intimacy of the relationship, variation in sibling relationships, and
  2. parent favoritism between and among siblings.
  3. B. emotional quality of the relationship.
  4. trust level of the relationship.
  5. conflict level of the relationship.
  1. Research has shown that parents favoring one sibling over another is linked to
  2. anger and rebellion in the less-favored sibling.
  3. eating disorders in the less-favored sibling.
  4. C. sadness and lower self-esteem in the less-favored sibling.
  5. anxiety in the more-favored sibling.
  1. Ben, age 14, is close to his older brother Sam, who is 16. According to research, Sam will be
  2. less of a socializing agent for Ben than their parents.
  3. less of a socializing agent for Ben than their 20-year-old sister.
  4. C. more of a socializing agent for Ben than his peers.
  5. None of these choices are correct.
  1. Recent longitudinal studies on the effects of sibling conflict found that increased sibling conflict was linked to all of the following EXCEPT
  2. A. increased peer competence.
  3. depression.
  1. Helena is the first-born child in her family. According to research on birth order, Helena is likely to be
  2. liberal.
  3. B.
  4. overly dependent.
  5. diplomatic.
  1. Which of the following statements about later-born children is NOT true?
  2. Characterizing later-borns is difficult, because they can occupy many different sibling positions.
  3. A boy with an older sister is more likely to develop “feminine” interests than a boy with an older brother.
  4. C. Later-borns usually enjoy poorer peer relations than firstborns.
  5. Middle-borns tend to be more diplomatic.
  1. Research has shown that an only child is usually
  2. a spoiled brat.
  3. dependent.
  4. self-centered.
  5. D. achievement-oriented.
  1. Which of the following statements about birth order is TRUE?
  2. Birth order is a strong predictor of adolescent behavior.
  3. The importance of birth order has been underestimated.
  4. C. Birth order shows a limited capacity to predict adolescent behavior.
  5. Birth order has not been adequately studied.
  1. Which of the following adolescents is MOST likely to have a positive relationship with a sibling?
  2. Hannah, whose easy temperament is the opposite of her brother’s difficult temperament.
  3. Elsie, whose difficult temperament is the same as her sister’s difficult temperament.
  4. C. Colleen, who shares an easy temperament with her brother.
  5. Hayden, whose parents treat her and her sister differently.
  1. Which of the following factors have researchers determined is important in influencing adolescents’ behavior?
  2. peer influences
  3. parental models of competency
  4. school influences
  5. D. All of these choices are correct
  1. It is likely that what percentage of children born to married parents will experience their parents’ divorce?
  2. 20 percent
  3. 30 percent
  4. C. 40 percent
  5. 50 percent
  1. In a study on the effects of divorce on children conducted by Hetherington and colleagues, what percentage of the children from divorced families were found to have emotional problems?
  2. 10 percent
  3. 15 percent
  4. 20 percent
  5. D. 25 percent
  1. What percentage of emerging adults studied whose parents divorced had emotional problems?
  2. 15 percent
  3. B. 20 percent
  4. 25 percent
  5. 30 percent
  1. Heidi, age 23, is an emerging adult whose parents divorced when she was 12. Heidi admits that she has some emotional scarring from the divorce. According to Hetherington’s research, Heidi is likely to be
  2. A. clinically depressed.
  3. caring and empathetic to young adolescents from divorced families.
  4. responsible and a good worker.
  5. careful in making her decisions.
  1. Adolescents and emerging adults from divorced families are more likely than those whose parents did not divorce to do which of the following?
  2. have academic problems
  3. show acting-out behavior and delinquency
  4. experience anxiety and depression
  5. D. All of these choices are correct
  1. A recent study revealed that adolescent girls with divorced parents were especially vulnerable to
  2. dating violence.
  3. anorexia nervosa.
  4. C.
  5. bulimia.
  1. Penny’s parents are still married but they have a high degree of marital conflict. According to research, Penny is more likely than her peers whose parents are happily married to
  2. engage in self-injurious behaviors, like cutting.
  3. B. develop emotional problems.
  4. develop an eating disorder.
  5. develop substance-abuse problems.
  1. A teen from an intact family with high level of marital conflict are at an increased risk for
  2. A. risky sexual behaviors.
  3. peer problems.
  4. academic difficulties
  5. low self-esteem.
  1. Research suggests all of the following are possible consequences of divorce EXCEPT that
  2. A. the majority of adolescents and emerging adults have significant adjustments if their parents divorced.
  3. the majority of adolescents and emerging adults do not have significant adjustment problems if their

parents divorced.

  1. marital conflict, with or without divorce, has negative consequences for emotional development.
  2. most adolescents and emerging adults cope well with parental divorce.
  1. According to research, which of the following statements about divorce among parents of adolescents is TRUE?
  2. Prolonged conflict between divorced parents was linked to emotional problems in adolescents.
  3. Adolescents with secure attachment cope better with their parents’ divorce.
  4. Disequilibrium occurs in the year following a divorce.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. Which of the following statements about disengagement from parents is TRUE?
  2. A. About 10 percent of adolescents from nondivorced families become disengaged.
  3. About 60 percent of adolescents from divorced families become disengaged.
  4. Disengagement is higher for girls than for boys in divorced families.
  5. Even with the presence of supportive mentors, disengagement from families is a poor choice.
  1. The most common pattern of parenting that was found in a study of parenting behaviors in 186 countries around the world was
  2. A. warm and controlling.
  3. restrictive and punitive.
  4. permissive and indulgent.
  5. permissive and neglectful.
  1. Which of the following statements about custody arrangements in divorced families is NOT true?
  2. Children benefit from joint custody.
  3. Girls adjust better in mother-custody families.
  4. C. Boys adjust better in mother-custody families.
  5. Boys adjust better in father-custody families.
  1. Jeremy’s parents have divorced. If Jeremy’s situation is typical of many divorced families, he can expect that
  2. A. his mother will have less money than when she was married.
  3. his mother will have more money than when she was married, due to child support and alimony payments.
  4. his standard of living will increase slightly.
  5. none of these will happen.
  1. The three types of stepfamilies are stepfather, stepmother, and
  2. A.
  3. mixed.
  4. adjusted.
  5. None of these choices are correct.
  1. Chris gained custody of his three biological children after his divorce. After three years, he married Jennifer who had no children from her previous marriage. Chris and Jennifer’s new family is a
  2. father-headed family.
  3. complex family.
  4. blended family.
  5. D. stepmother family.
  1. Kathy has one son, Mitchell. Six years after her divorce, Kathy marries Dan. Dan has never been married before and has no children. Kathy, Mitchell, and Dan make up what kind of family?
  2. mother-headed
  3. B. stepfather
  4. complex
  5. blended
  1. Sherry and Jason have two children each from previous marriages. When they marry, they create a
  2. co-parenting family.
  3. B. blended family.
  4. extended family.
  5. kin-oriented family.
  1. Before Justin’s father remarried, Justin was responsible for mowing the grass, putting the dishes in the dishwasher, and doing his own laundry. Now that Kim has married into the family, Justin is not sure which of his responsibilities he should continue to do. Justin is experiencing
  2. boundary strain.
  3. role discontinuity.
  4. C. boundary ambiguity.
  5. cognitive dissonance.
  1. Toby’s mother, Jill, works as a nanny and housekeeper to an extremely demanding family. The mother in the family is a lawyer who never comes home on time and the father, a stockbroker, won’t allow Jill to leave the children until his wife comes home. Consequently, Jill comes home late, exhausted, and irritable. Toby is more likely than his peers whose lives are less stressed to
  2. receive less effective parenting from his mother.
  3. have lower grades in school.
  4. have more behavior problems.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. Which statement is TRUE regarding the effect of parental unemployment on adolescent health?
  2. Father’s unemployment is positively related to adolescent health.
  3. B. Father’s unemployment is negative related to adolescent health.
  4. Mother’s unemployment is positively related to adolescent health.
  5. Mother’s unemployment is negatively related to adolescent health.
  1. The most important factor to consider when examining the effect that parental employment has on adolescent development is
  2. one or both parents in the workforce.
  3. B. parental satisfaction with work.
  4. amount of income from employment.
  5. All of the above are important.
  1. The term “latchkey children” refers to those children who
  2. A. are unsupervised from after school until their parents return from work.
  3. go to after-school programs for two hours and then are alone at home for less than one hour.
  4. are watched by their neighbors after school.
  5. remain at school in special programs, called “latchkey programs,” until a parent gets them.
  1. Which of the following adoption applicants would probably be disqualified today?
  2. Amanda, a 40-year-old, single college professor.
  3. Bill, a 43-year-old single, gay security guard.
  4. Jay and Wendy, a married couple who need food stamps to make ends meet.
  5. D. None of these choices are correct.
  1. Research shows that which of the following statements about adoptive children and adolescents is TRUE?
  2. A. The earlier adoption occurred, the fewer the problems the adoptees had.
  3. Children adopted after seven years of age had the most problems.
  4. Being adopted had no impact on the psychological health of the adoptees.
  5. Being adopted had no impact on the academic performance of adoptees.
  1. Regarding the effects of open vs. closed adoptions, most research supports the finding that
  2. A. Adoptive parents were more satisfied with open adoptions.
  3. Biological moms had more unresolved grief with closed adoptions.
  4. Adoptive children were less satisfied with open adoptions.
  5. Biological moms were less satisfied with open adoptions.
  1. Which of the following statements regarding gay and lesbian parents is FALSE?
  2. Gay and lesbian parents are more egalitarian in terms of child rearing responsibilities as compared to heterosexual parents.
  3. Children of gay parents are as popular as children of heterosexual parents.
  4. Gay and lesbian parents are often more positive in their parenting practices than heterosexual parents.
  5. D. Heterosexual parents are less likely to have children with externalizing problems than gay and lesbian parents.
  1. All of the following are recommendations of the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development EXCEPT
  2. A. professionals who work with adolescents should aim to increase their contact time with the adolescents and decrease the time that they spend with the parents.
  3. community institutions should become more involved in providing after-school programs.
  4. employers should extend the benefits now afforded to parents of young children to parents of adolescents.
  5. All of these are recommendations.
  1. Recent research has shown that which of the following factors is likely to affect how ethnic minority families deal with stress?
  2. immigrant status of the parents
  3. socioeconomic status
  4. specific national origin
  5. D. All of these choices are correct
  1. Which of the following statements concerning ethnic and cultural differences among families is NOT true?
  2. Ethnic minority children and adolescents are more likely than non Latino White adolescents to come from low-income parents.
  3. B. There are very few differences between ethnic minority families and non Latino White families.
  4. Non Latino White adolescents are less likely than ethnic minority adolescents to interact with extended family members.
  5. The two ethnic groups that tend to place the largest emphasis on family duty and obligation are Asian Americans and
  6. African Americans.
  7. B.
  8. Native Americans.
  9. non Latino Whites.
  1. In Arab countries, parenting tends to be
  2. authoritative.
  3. dominated by the mother’s rule.
  4. dominated by the grandparents’ rule.
  5. D. focused on family loyalty and codes of conduct.
  1. Adopted adolescents are more likely than nonadopted adolescents to
  2. have internalizing problems
  3. have attention problems.
  4. have problems with aggression.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.
  1. Parents of adopted children have the additional challenges of
  2. dealing with children’s inevitable antisocial behaviors at some point.
  3. protecting the children from contact with their birth parents.
  4. C. supporting the adolescent’s search for identity and self.
  5. dealing with academic problems and learning disabilities.
  1. The largest group of adolescents with gay and lesbian parents are likely those who
  2. were adopted.
  3. were conceived though artificial insemination.
  4. C. were born in the context of heterosexual relationships of one of their parents.
  5. are in foster care.
  1. Ashley, age 17, lives with her biological mother and her mother’s lesbian partner, Daryl. According to researchers, Ashley is likely to
  2. A. develop a heterosexual identity.
  3. develop a bisexual identity.
  4. suffer more mental health problems than her peers raised in heterosexual homes.
  5. have fewer friends than her peers being raised in heterosexual homes.
  1. Which of the following is NOT a trend in cultural change in families around the world?
  2. A. more families migrating to rural areas
  3. greater family mobility
  4. smaller families
  5. fewer extended families
  1. Define what is meant by the term reciprocal socialization and by referring to the family as “a system.”

Reciprocal socialization is the process by which children and adolescents socialize parents, just as parents socialize them. As a social system, the family can be thought of as a constellation, or grouping, of subsystems, defined in terms of generation, gender, and role. Divisions of labor among family members define specific subunits, and attachments define others. Each family member is a participant in several subsystems. Marital relations, parenting, and adolescent behavior can have both direct and indirect effects on each other.

  1. Describe at least five changes in adolescents and five changes in parents that can influence parentadolescent relationships.

Among the changes in the adolescent that can influence parent-adolescent relationships are puberty, expanded logical reasoning, increased idealistic thought, violated expectations, changes in schooling, peers, friendships, dating, and movement towards independence. With increased cognitive skills, adolescents want to know why they are being disciplined and often find deficiencies in their parents’ reasoning. Adolescents spend more time with peers and they develop more sophisticated friendships than in childhood.

Parents, too, are going through some changes that affect their relationships with adolescents. Some of these changes include marital satisfaction, economic burdens, and career reevaluation, and health and body concerns as well as different time perspectives from their adolescents. In general, parents experience greater marital satisfaction when their adolescent or emerging adult children leave home. In addition, parents feel an increased economic burden when their children are in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Parents of adolescents may be preoccupied with their own health, body integrity, and sexual attractiveness.

  1. What functions might parents provide if they are serving as “managers”?

Parents who function as managers of their adolescents’ opportunities are monitors of their social relationships, social initiators, and arrangers. Parents can assist their adolescents by finding information, making contacts, providing guidance, and helping to structure choices. They also mange the home environment to be sure that there is sufficient structure and organization for the adolescent to thrive. Adolescents do better in school when there is structured time for homework, chores, bedtimes, etc. than when the home is more loosely run. A key aspect of the managerial role of parents is the monitoring of their adolescents’ social lives and academic activities.

  1. Briefly describe the four styles of parenting identified by Diana Baumrind, and summarize potential outcomes for the child who is parented using these styles.

Diana Baumrind emphasizes four styles of parenting that are associated with different aspects of the adolescent’s social behavior. These four styles are authoritarian, authoritative, neglectful, and permissive parenting. Authoritarian parents are restrictive, punitive individuals who demand that the adolescent follow directions and who respect work and effort. They are controlling, place firm limits on their children, and do not encourage verbal exchange. Authoritarian parenting is associated with socially incompetent behaviour among adolescents. In addition, adolescents of authoritarian parents often are anxious about social comparison, fail to initiate activity, and have poor communication skills.

Authoritative parents encourage adolescents to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. These parents encourage verbal give-and-take and are warm and nurturing toward their children. Authoritative parenting is associated with adolescents who are socially competent, self-reliant, and socially responsible.

Neglectful parenting is a style in which parents are very uninvolved in the adolescent’s life. These adolescents tend to be socially incompetent, show a lack of self-control, and do not handle independence well. The last parenting style, indulgent parenting, is a style in which parents are highly involved with their adolescents but place few demands or controls on them. They allow adolescents to do pretty much whatever they want to do. The frequent result is that the adolescent never learns to control his or her own behavior and always expects to get his or her own way.

  1. Discuss how the authoritarian style of parenting might be used in different ethnic groups.

Aspects of traditional Asian child-rearing practices are often continued by Asian American families. In some cases, these practices have been described as authoritarian. However, this style of parenting can be conceptualized as a type of training in which parents are concerned and involved in their children’s lives, rather than reflective of strict or authoritarian control. The positive outcomes of the training parenting style in Asian American families occur in the high academic achievement of Asian American children. Researchers have found that African American parents are more likely than non Latino White parents to use physical punishment. Unlike children from other ethnic groups, African American children who are disciplined with physical means do not show evidence of externalized problems such as aggression. This may be because African American parents need to enforce rules in the dangerous environments in which they are more likely to live.

  1. Explain the major similarities and differences between the roles of mothers and the roles of fathers in families today.

The main responsibility for children and adolescents still falls on the mother. In general, mothers are more involved in parenting than fathers, and society still blames mothers more than fathers for any shortcomings of children and adolescents. Fathers spend only a small portion of their time with their adolescents. Although the amount of time that fathers spend with their children has increased over the last decade, it is still far less than the time that mothers spend with both children and adolescents. This gender difference in parenting occurs in non Latino White parents, Latino parents, and African American parents. Cross-cultural studies have revealed that fathers in many other countries also spend less time with their children than do mothers.

  1. What is meant by the term co-parenting, and how does it differ from more traditional parenting?

Co-parenting is parenting that is characterized by parental solidarity, cooperation, and warmth toward the children. Parents show mutual respect, balanced communication, and attunement to each others’ needs. Children parented in this manner develop positive attitudes towards both males and females. In contrast, poor coordination, active undermining and disparagement of the other parent, lack of warmth, and disconnection by one parenting partner are conditions that place children and adolescents at developmental risk.

  1. Discuss conflict between early adolescents and parents. Be sure to include the nature of conflict at this age.

Early adolescence is a time when parent-adolescent conflict escalates beyond parent-child conflict. This increase is due to a number of factors involving the maturation of the adolescent and the maturation of the parents, Parent-adolescent conflict decreases from early adolescence through late adolescence. Much of the conflict involves everyday events of family life, such as chores, dress, curfews, time on the phone, etc. The conflicts rarely involve major dilemmas, such as drugs or delinquency. Adolescents reported having more conflict with their mothers than with anyone else. A high degree of conflict exists for 20 to 25 percent of families with parents and adolescents. Prolonged, intense, repeated, and unhealthy conflict is associated with a number of adolescent problems, including moving away from home, juvenile delinquency, school dropout, early marriage, membership in religious cults, and substance abuse. Many times, these conflicts do not begin in adolescence but are carried on from childhood.

  1. Define the term autonomy, and discuss gender and cultural differences that have been found in adolescents’ autonomy.

Defining adolescent autonomy is more complex and elusive than it might seem at first. The term autonomy generally connotes self-direction and independence. One aspect of autonomy that is especially important is emotional autonomy, the capacity to relinquish childlike dependencies on parents. In developing emotional autonomy, adolescents increasingly de-idealize their parents, perceive them as people rather than simply as parenting figures, and become less dependent on them for immediate emotional support. Gender differences characterize autonomy granting in adolescence, with boys being granted more independence than girls are. This is especially true in those U.S. families with a traditional gender-role orientation. Also, Latino families protect and monitor daughters more closely than sons to a greater degree than is the case in non Latino White families. Expectations about the appropriate timing of adolescent autonomy often vary across cultures, parents, and adolescents. Approval of early autonomy on the part of adolescents is more prevalent in non Latino Whites, single parents, and adolescents themselves than in Asian Americans or Latinos, married parents, and parents themselves.

  1. List at least three reasons that adolescents run away from home.

Generally, adolescents who run away are unhappy at home. Many runaways are from families in which a parent or other adult beats or sexually exploits them. Their lives may be in daily danger. Parents of runaways may be drug addicts or alcoholics. In some cases, the family may be so poor that the parents are unable to feed and clothe their adolescents adequately. The parents may be so overwhelmed by their own emotional or material inadequacies that they fail to give the adolescents the attention and understanding that they need. Parents may fight or have conflict that the teen feels the need to escape. Not all teens run away because of parental reasons. Teenage lovers might decide to elope and make a life of their own rather than risk parental disapproval of their relationship.

  1. Describe the two main types of infant attachment and the type of adolescent who is likely to emerge from each attachment pattern.

Attachment theorists argue that the secure attachment in infancy is essential to the development of social competence. In secure attachment, the infant uses the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment. Secure attachment is theorized to be an important foundation for psychological development later in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In insecure attachment, infants either avoid the caregiver or show considerable resistance or ambivalence toward the caregiver. Insecure attachment is theorized to be related to difficulties in relationships and problems in later development.

Secure attachment to parents has been linked to adolescents’ social competence, well-being, self-esteem, emotional adjustment, and physical health. Other outcomes of secure attachment are good peer relations, successful autonomy, and fewer externalized issues such as delinquency and drug abuse.

There are three categories of insecure adolescent attachment: dismissing/avoidant attachment, preoccupied/ambivalent attachment, and unresolved/disorganized attachment. In dismissing/avoidant attachment, individuals deemphasize the importance of attachment. Caregivers consistently reject the attachment needs of those in their care. The result is often that parents and adolescents mutually distance themselves from each other. Sometimes this leads to violent and aggressive behavior on the part of the adolescent.

In preoccupied/ambivalent attachment, adolescents are hyperattuned to attachment experiences. Parents may be inconsistently available to the adolescent. The result may be a high degree of attachment-seeking behavior, mixed with angry feelings on the part of the adolescent.

In unresolved/disorganized attachment, the adolescent has an unusually high level of fear and may be disoriented. This may occur with traumatic experiences, such as abuse or a parent’s death.

  1. Discuss the outcome of the different types of attachment on emerging adults.

Although much of the research on attachment has focused on children and adolescents, researchers are now studying links between emerging adults’ current attachment and many aspects of their lives. Individuals who are securely attached have a well-integrated sense of self-acceptance, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. They have the ability to control their emotions, are optimistic, and are resilient. Facing stress and adversity, they activate cognitive representations of security. Insecure attachment places couples at risk for relationship problems. Depending on the pairing of the individuals and their attachment styles, the results could be couples who frustrate, anger, stress, or isolate themselves from each other.

  1. Based upon information in the textbook, what advice would you give to parents and their emerging adult children if the children return home to live?

The decision for the emerging adult to return home is one that affects both the young person and the parents. When emerging adults ask to return home, parents and the emerging adult children need to agree on the conditions and the time duration of the return to home. They should discuss and agree on such things as rent, chores, bill payment, freedom to come and go, and whether or not they will be allowed to drink alcohol at home or have overnight guests. Conflict will result if these issues are not brought out into the open and discussed honestly. Parents need to treat emerging adult children as adults, and the children need to view their parents as adults. While emerging adults do have many choices, if those choices conflict with the values and wishes of the parents, there will be miscommunication and conflict.

  1. Describe three important characteristics of adolescents’ sibling relationships as identified by Judy Dunn.

The first characteristic is the emotional quality of the relationship. Siblings often express both intense positive and intense negative emotions toward one another. Secondly, the familiarity and intimacy of the relationship can affect the degree to which siblings provide support or undermine each other. Finally, there are variations in sibling relationships. Some siblings describe their relationships more positively than others.

  1. Describe the characteristics of firstborn, later-born, middle-born, last-born, and only children.

Firstborn children tend to be the most intelligent, achieving, and conscientious. They have been described as more adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, and self-controlled. Characterizing later-borns is difficult because they may occupy a number of different positions in the family. Overall, later-borns enjoy better relations with peers than do firstborns. Middle-borns tend to be more diplomatic, often performing the role of negotiator in times of dispute. Last-born children are often described as the “baby,” and they run the risk of becoming overly dependent. Only children are often achievement-oriented and display desirable personalities, especially in comparison to later-borns and children from large families.

  1. Compare and contrast adolescents and emerging adults from divorced and nondivorced families.

Most researchers agree that children, adolescents, and emerging adults from divorced families show poorer adjustment than their counterparts in nondivorced families. A recent study by Mavis Hetherington and her colleagues revealed that 25 percent of children from divorced families had emotional problems, compared to 10 percent of children from nondivorced families. In this research, the 20 percent of emerging adults from divorced families who continued to have emotional problems were characterized by impulsive, irresponsible, antisocial behavior or were depressed. Toward the end of emerging adulthood, this troubled group was having problems at work and difficulties in romantic relationships. The 10 percent of emerging adults from nondivorced families who had emotional problems mainly came from homes where family conflict was high and authoritative parenting was rare. In another longitudinal study, parental divorce in childhood and

adolescence was linked to poor relationships with fathers, unstable romantic or marital relationships, and low levels of education in adulthood.

These who experienced multiple divorces are at greater risk. Adolescents and emerging adults from divorced families are more likely than adolescents from nondivorced families to have academic problems and to show externalized and internalized problems. In addition, they are less socially responsible, have less competent intimate relationships, and are more likely to drop out of school, become sexually active at younger ages, take drugs, associate with antisocial peers, and have low self-esteem.

  1. Describe the three common types of stepfamilies.

The three common types of stepfamilies by structure are: stepfather, stepmother, and blended or complex. In stepfather families, the mother typically had custody of the children and remarried, introducing a stepfather into her children’s lives. In stepmother families, the father usually had custody and remarried, introducing a stepmother into his children’s lives. In blended or complex stepfamilies, both parents bring children from previous marriages to live in the newly formed stepfamily.

  1. What are some of the negatives aspects associated with being a “latchkey” adolescent?

Adolescents who are left unsupervised for a period of time after school and during school vacations are more at risk than their supervised peers for delinquency, drug and alcohol use, and school problems. Without limits and supervision, latchkey children and adolescents may find it easier to get into trouble, possibly stealing, vandalizing, or abusing a sibling. There is, however, considerable variability in the experiences of latchkey adolescents. Parental monitoring and authoritative parenting may help adolescents to cope more effectively with latchkey experiences, especially in resisting peer pressure. Low monitoring has been linked to externalizing problems, such as acting out and delinquency, in young adolescents.

  1. Summarize the major changes that have taken place recently in adoption practices.

There has been a substantial decrease in the number of non Latino White infants available for adoption. This has forced parents seeking to adopt to look at adopting across racial lines and adopting children from other countries. Numbers of these types of adoptions are growing rapidly. Recently, however, it has become more difficult to adopt children from Romania, China, and Russia. Another trend has been that more people who provided foster care became adoptive parents. In many cases, these children were thought to have limited chances of being adopted, due to many factors including mental-health issues. Different parents have also been allowed to adopt. Until the last several decades of the twentieth century, most adoptive parents were of middle or upper socioeconomic status and married. Many other potential parents were routinely screened out from eligibility to adopt. Today, however, adoption agency policy and practice have moved in the direction of “screening in” as many different types of adoption applicants as possible. These changes open opportunities for many children and couples. The outcomes for both parents and children still need to be determined.

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