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Research Methods in Psychology Core Concepts and Skills V.1.0 by Paul C. Price – Test Bank

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Research Methods in Psychology Core Concepts and Skills V.1.0 by Paul C. Price – Test Bank

Chapter 8

True/False Items

Section 1

  1. Every experiment has one dependent variable.

False; Easy

  1. Many experiments have more than one dependent variable.

True; Easy

  1. A manipulation check is usually done at the beginning of an experimental procedure.

False; Easy

  1. A manipulation check is a measure of the independent variable.

True; Moderate

  1. The same construct can be measured in different ways in the same experiment.

True; Moderate

  1. In the study by Schnall et al. (2008), the primary dependent variable was the harshness of people’s moral judgments.

True; Moderate

Section 2

  1. A 2 × 4 factorial design has 8 independent variables.

False; Moderate

  1. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design has three independent variables

True; Moderate

  1. In a study with two independent variables, there are two main effects to consider.

True; Easy

  1. In a study with two independent variables, there are two interactions to consider.

False; Moderate

  1. There is an interaction between two independent variables if the effect of one depends on the level of the other.

True; Easy

Section 3

  1. A correlation matrix is a kind of table.

True; Easy

  1. A correlation matrix shows the relationship between one pair of variables.

False; Easy

  1. Correlational research has shown that people who are lower in socioeconomic status tend to be more generous.

True; Easy

  1. Complex correlational research can prove that a particular independent variable is the cause of a particular dependent variable.

False; Moderate

  1. Factor analysis is a way of computing the correlation between a pair of variables.

False; Moderate

  1. Factor analysis identifies clusters of highly correlated variables within a larger set of variables.

True; Moderate

Multiple-Choice Items

Section 1

  1. Which of the following is clearly true of a study on the effect of ambient odor on creativity and mood?
  2. The study is a correlational.
  3. There is no true independent variable.
  4. There are multiple independent variables.
  5. There are multiple dependent variables.

D; Moderate

  1. Which of the following is the most obvious reason to include multiple dependent variables in an experiment?
  2. You can control more extraneous variables.
  3. You can answer more questions with little additional effort.
  4. You can eliminate carryover effects.
  5. You can learn about interactions between variables.

B; Easy

  1. A manipulation check is a measure of which of the following?
  2. the independent variable
  3. participants’ moods
  4. a confounding variable
  5. an extraneous variable

A; Easy

  1. Which of the following independent variables is most likely to require a manipulation check?
  2. room temperature
  3. whether or not a stimulus person is wearing glasses
  4. people’s anxiety levels
  5. none of the above

C; Moderate

  1. When is a manipulation check usually done?
  2. at the beginning of the experimental procedure
  3. throughout the experimental procedure
  4. at the end of the experimental procedure
  5. at least a week before an experiment begins

C; Easy

  1. Multiple dependent variables in the same experiment can be which of the following?
  2. unrelated constructs
  3. similar constructs
  4. different measures of the same construct
  5. all of the above

D; Easy

Section 2

  1. Which of the following is clearly true of a study on the effect of ambient odor and room temperature on creativity?
  2. The study is correlational.
  3. There is no true independent variable.
  4. There are multiple independent variables.
  5. There are multiple dependent variables.

C; Moderate

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of conducting an experiment with multiple independent variables?
  2. It controls more extraneous variables.
  3. It eliminates carryover effects.
  4. It allows the researcher to detect interactions.
  5. none of the above

C; Easy

  1. A researcher combines two independent variables in a factorial design. How many conditions are there?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 4
  5. You cannot tell from this description.

D; Difficult

  1. How many independent variables are there in a 2 × 4 factorial design?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 4
  5. 8

B; Difficult

  1. How many conditions are there in a 3 × 5 factorial design?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 8
  5. 15

D; Easy

  1. A confederate stands near a participant at a bus stop and drops some papers. The dependent variable is whether the participant helps the confederate pick them up. In a factorial design, one independent variable is whether the confederate is male or female and the other is whether the confederate has a cane or not. Which of the following describes a potential main effect in this experiment?
  2. Participants help the confederate more when he or she has a cane.
  3. Participants help the confederate at a fairly high rate.
  4. Participants help the male confederate more when he has a cane but they help the female confederate at the same rate regardless of whether she has a cane.
  5. Many participants refuse to help.

A; Difficult

  1. A confederate stands near a participant at a bus stop and drops some papers. The dependent variable is whether the participant helps the confederate pick them up. In a factorial design, one independent variable is whether the confederate is male or female and the other is whether the confederate has a cane or not. Which of the following describes a potential interaction effect in this experiment?
  2. Participants help the confederate more when he or she has a cane.
  3. Participants help the confederate at a fairly high rate.
  4. Participants help the male confederate more when he has a cane but they help the female confederate at the same rate regardless of whether she has a cane.
  5. Many participants refuse to help.

C; Difficult

  1. Which of the following statements describes a statistical interaction?
  2. Extroverts are very outgoing but introverts are very shy.
  3. Extroverts concentrate better when they consume a little caffeine; introverts concentrate worse when they consume a little caffeine.
  4. People who drink coffee in the morning tend to be extroverted; those who do not drink coffee in the morning tend to be introverted.
  5. A small amount of caffeine helps people to concentrate.

B; Difficult

Section 3

  1. What is the correlation between a variable and itself?
  2. 0
  3. .5
  4. 1
  5. infinity

C; Moderate

  1. What does a correlation matrix show?
  2. the relationship between two quantitative variables
  3. correlations between all possible pairs of variables in a larger set of variables
  4. all the computations required to find a particular Pearson’s r value
  5. the means and standard deviations of a large set of variables

B; Moderate

  1. The entries in a correlation matrix are typically which of the following?
  2. Pearson’s r values
  3. means
  4. Cohen’s d values
  5. standard deviations

A; Easy

  1. How did Piff et al. (2011) determine that the relationship between socioeconomic status and generosity was not caused by religiosity?
  2. They reasoned that being religious does not necessarily cause someone to be generous.
  3. They statistically controlled for religiosity.
  4. They used only religious participants.
  5. They used only nonreligious participants.

B; Moderate

  1. Factor analysis could be used to do which of the following?
  2. identify two distinct dimensions of risk seeking: physical risk seeking and social risk seeking
  3. manipulate people’s level of risk seeking to observe its effect on other variables
  4. prove that risk seeking has a genetic component
  5. show that men are more risk seeking than women

A; Moderate

  1. What does it mean to statistically control a potential third variable?
  2. average the results across all levels of that variable
  3. hold it constant in the context of the study
  4. limit participants to people who have exactly the same score on that variable
  5. measure it and take it into account in the statistical analyses

D; Moderate

  1. Complex correlational research can do which of the following?
  2. completely eliminate the directionality and third variable problems
  3. prove that certain variables are the cause of other variables
  4. rule out certain variables as the causes of other variables
  5. all of the above

C; Difficult

Short-Answer / Essay Items

Section 1

  1. Imagine an experiment on the effect of people’s moods (positive vs. negative) on how much they spend at the grocery store. Describe one way in which you might include more than one dependent variable in this study and why you might do it.

Answers may vary. One might, for example, measure how many items they buy and how much they spend. Or one might include a manipulation check for mood.

Easy

  1. What is a manipulation check and why would you include one in an experiment?

It is a measure of the independent variable to be sure that it was successfully manipulated.

Easy

Section 2

  1. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, the independent variables are psychotherapy type (A vs. B) and psychotherapist sex (male vs. female). Would it make the most sense for this to be a between-subjects, within-subjects, or mixed design? Why?

A between-subjects design would make the most sense because each participant would get one type of psychotherapy administered by one psychotherapist.

Moderate

  1. What is an interaction between independent variables? Give an example.

There is an interaction when the effect of one independent variable depends on the level of another independent variable. Examples may vary.

Moderate

  1. Imagine an experiment in which participants read an editorial supporting the idea that public school teachers should be paid more money. One independent variable is whether the editorial is said to be written by a teacher or by a construction worker. A second independent variable is whether the editorial only presents arguments in favor of its position or whether it also presents (and addresses) arguments against its position. Sketch a graph showing some hypothetical results of this study and explain what these results are in terms of main effects and interactions.

Answers may vary. It is important, however, that the explanation fit what the graph shows.

Difficult

Section 3

  1. Make a correlation matrix showing some hypothetical among depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Explain in words what your correlation matrix shows.

Answers may vary. In general, though, it would make sense for the matrix to show a positive correlation between depression and anxiety and negative correlations between those variables and self-esteem.

Moderate

  1. Imagine a complex correlational study in which three independent variables are measured along with one dependent variable. Imagine that X1 is strongly related to the dependent variable but that X2 and X3 are not. Does this prove that X1 is a cause of the dependent variable? Why or why not?

No. This only rules out the third variables that were measured. There are others that were not measured, and directionality remains an issue.

Difficult

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