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Research Methods A Modular Approach 2nd Edition by Jackson – Test Bank

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Research Methods A Modular Approach 2nd Edition by Jackson – Test Bank

Module 8

Survey Methods

Module Outline

Survey Construction
Writing the Questions
Arranging the Questions
Administering Surveys
Mail Surveys
Telephone Surveys
Personal Interviews
Sampling Techniques
Probability Sampling
Nonprobability Sampling
Summary

Review of Key Terms

Closed-ended Questions—Questions for which participants choose from a limited number of alternatives.

Cluster Sampling—A sampling technique in which clusters of participants that represent the population are used.

Convenience Sampling—A sampling technique in which participants are obtained wherever they can be found and typically wherever is convenient for the researcher.

Demographic Questions—Questions that ask for basic information such as age, gender, ethnicity, or income.

Double-barreled Question—A question that asks more than one thing.

Interviewer Bias—The tendency for the person asking the questions to bias the participants’ answers.

Leading Question—A question that sways the respondent to answer in a desired manner.

Likert Rating Scale—A type of numerical rating scale developed by Likert in 1932.

Loaded Question—A question that includes nonneutral or emotionally laden terms.

Mail Survey—A written survey that is self-administered.

Nonprobability Sampling—A sampling technique in which the individual members of the population do not have an equal likelihood of being selected to be a member of the sample.

Open-ended Questions—Questions for which participants formulate their own responses.

Partially Open-ended Questions—Closed-ended questions with an open-ended “Other” option.

Personal Interview—A survey in which the questions are asked face-to-face.

Probability Sampling—A sampling technique in which each member of the population has an equal likelihood of being selected to be part of the sample.

Quota Sampling—A sampling technique which involves ensuring that the sample is like the population on certain characteristics but which uses convenience sampling to obtain the participants.

Random Selection—A method of generating a random sample in which each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen as part of the sample.

Rating Scale—A numerical scale on which survey respondents indicate the direction and strength of their response.

Representative Sample—A sample that is representative of the population.

Response Bias— The tendency to consistently give the same answer to almost all of the items on a survey.

Sampling Bias—A tendency for one group to be overrepresented in a sample.

Socially Desirable Response—A response that is given because a respondent believes it is deemed appropriate by society.

Stratified Random Sampling—A sampling technique designed to ensure that subgroups or strata are fairly represented.

Telephone Survey—A survey in which the questions are read to participants over the telephone.

Relevant Articles from Handbook forTeaching Statistics and Research Methods (2nd ed.)

Walsh, J. F. Crafting questionnaire-style data: An SAS implementation. Pp. 6-8.

Articles for Discussion from Annual Editions: Research Methods 01/02

Chang, L. Quantitative attitudes questionnaire: Instrument development and validation, Educational and Psychological Measurement, December 1996. A study exploring the differing attitudes toward quantitative and qualitative research methods. A 20-item survey on this topic is included.

Thach, L. Using electronic mail to conduct research, Educational Technology, March/April, 1995. Reviews the potential of e-mail as a tool for conducting survey research.

Watson, S. C. A primer in survey research, The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, Winter, 1998. A paper providing basic information on survey research such as when to use it, the different types, the methods of gathering data, a step-by-step sequence for conducting survey research, and practical suggestions for improving response rate.

Web Resources

For step-by-step practice and information, have your students check out the Statistics and Research Methods Workshops at http://www. cengagecom/psychology/workshops. In addition, practice quizzes, vocabulary flashcards, and more are available at http://www.cengage.com/psychology/jackson

Answers to Module Exercises

  1. The researcher is using the personal interview method. She could use either open-ended, close-ended, partially open-ended, or Likert scale questions. However, close-ended and Likert scale questions would make it easier to record answers. The researcher is randomly sampling students who visit the student center. However, this is not a random sample of the entire university. A better way to sample would be to obtain a list of all students at the university and randomly select a sample of those students. She could then contact them regarding participating in the survey or, if she changed the type of survey (e.g., to a mail or phone survey) she could mail the survey to them or phone the random sample of students.
  1. a. This is a loaded questions because of the phrases “capitalist bankers” and “such high interest rates”. It would be better to simply ask “Do you believe bankers charge appropriate interest rates on credit card balances?”
  2. The problem with this question is in the alternatives. Students who charged an amount between the alternatives (e.g., $450) would not know which alternative to choose.
  3. This is a leading question. The phrase “Most Americans” leads the respondent to agree with the question. It would be better to simply ask “Do you believe that a credit card is a necessity?”
Test Items

Multiple Choice Questions

w1. Questions for which participants formulate their own responses are _____ questions.
a. leading
b. open-ended
c. closed-ended
d. loaded

Answer: b

  1. Questions for which participants choose from a limited number of alternatives are _____ questions.
    a. leading
    b. open-ended
    c. closed-ended
    d. loaded

Answer: c

  1. A numerical scale on which survey respondents indicate the direction and strength of their response is a ____.
    a. Likert scale
    b. rating scale
    c. nominal scale
    d. a Likert scale and a rating scale

Answer: d

  1. A question including non-neutral or emotionally laden terms is to _____ as a question that sways the respondent to answer in a desired manner is to _____.
    a. loaded question; leading question
    b. leading question; loaded question
    c. double-barreled question; leading question
    d. leading question double-barreled question

Answer: a

w5. A multiple choice question is to _____ as a short answer question is to _____.
a. leading question; loaded question
b. loaded question; leading question
c. open-ended question; close-ended question
d. close-ended question; open-ended question

Answer: d

  1. Consider the following survey question: “Do you consider a microwave to be fast and convenient?” This is an example of a _____ question.
    a. leading
    b. loaded
    c. rating scale
    d. double-barreled

Answer: d

  1. Which of the following is false?
    a. A loaded question is a question including non-neutral or emotionally laden terms.
    b. A leading question is a question that sways the respondent to answer in a desired manner.
    c. A close-ended question is a question for which participants formulate their own responses.
    d. A double-barreled question is a question on which more than one thing is asked.

Answer: c

  1. Questions that ask for basic information such as age, gender, ethnicity, or income are called _____ questions and should be placed at the _____ of a survey.
    a. demographic; end
    b. demographic; beginning
    c. double-barreled; end
    d. double-barreled; beginning

Answer: a

  1. The tendency to consistently give the same answer to almost all of the items on a survey is known as _____.
    a. response bias.
    b. sampling bias.
    c. experimenter effects.
    d. interviewer bias.

Answer: a

  1. A tendency for one group to be overrepresented in a study is known as _____.
    a. response bias.
    b. sampling bias.
    c. experimenter effects
    d. interviewer bias.

Answer: b

  1. Marnie keeps answering the questions on the survey she is taking as she thinks most others in society would answer them, rather than with her true responses. Marnie’s answers illustrate _____.
    a. interviewer bias.
    b. sampling bias.
    c. experimenter effects.
    d. socially desirable responses

Answer: d

  1. Mail surveys have the concern of _____ but have the advantage of _____.
    a. low return rate; eliminating interviewer bias
    b. interviewer bias; high return rate
    c. sampling bias; interviewer bias
    d. increasing socially desirable responses; high return rate

Answer: a

  1. Of the three survey methods discussed in the text, _____ surveys tend to have the highest response rate and the _____ expense.
    a. mail; lowest
    b. personal interview; highest
    c. telephone; lowest
    d. personal interview; lowest

Answer: b

  1. Telephone surveys have the concern of _____ but have the advantage of _____.
    a. socially desirable responses; possible question clarification
    b. the poorest return rate; possible question clarification
    c. lack of question clarification; increased response rate over mail surveys
    d. interviewer bias; socially desirable responses

Answer: a

  1. Mail surveys are to _____ are personal interviews are to _____
    a. good response rate; interviewer bias
    b. interviewer bias; good response rate
    c. poor response rate; interviewer bias
    d. sampling bias; poor response rate

Answer: c

w16. Rich is conducting a survey of student opinion of the dining hall at his university. Rich decided to conduct his survey using students enrolled in introductory psychology classes. The type of sampling technique that Rich is using is:
a. random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. stratified random sampling.
d. representative sampling.

Answer: b

  1. Rich is conducting a survey of student opinion of the dining hall at his university. In order to make sure that students from each major are adequately represented he should use the _____ sampling technique.
    a. random
    b. cluster
    c. stratified random
    d. convenience

Answer: c

  1. In order to generate a sample of students from her institution, Julie selected every 10th name off of the registrar’s alphabetical list of all students enrolled at her school. Julie is using the _____ sampling technique.
    a. random
    b. cluster
    c. stratified random
    d. convenience

Answer: a

  1. In order to generate a _____ sample, Pam selected every 10th name off of the registrar’s alphabetical list of all students at her university. All of the students at the university represent the _____ and Pam used the _____ sampling technique.
    a. random; sample; random
    b. representative; population; random
    c. representative; sample; cluster
    d. representative; population; cluster

Answer: b

w20. _____ sampling is a sampling technique in which each member of the population has an equal likelihood of being selected to be part of the sample.
a. Quota
b. Representative
c. Probability
d. Nonprobability

Answer: c

  1. _____ sampling is a sampling technique that involves ensuring that the sample is like the population on certain characteristics but uses convenience sampling to obtain the participants.
    a. Quota
    b. Random
    c. Stratified random
    d. Cluster

Answer: a

Short Answer/Essay Questions

  1. Explain how sampling bias, interviewer bias, and socially desirable responses are problematic for survey research.

    Sampling bias can lead researchers to draw conclusions about the population that are not true, simply because the sample was not representative of the population. Interviewer bias is problematic when using telephone surveys or personal interviews in that the interviewer may either knowingly or unknowingly influence the participants to answer in a certain way. Lastly, socially desirable responses can occur with any type of survey method, but are more problematic for telephone surveys and personal interviews because respondents might feel pressure to answer in a socially acceptable way when they are interacting with a live human interviewer.

  2. Briefly describe the differences in mail, telephone, and personal interview surveys. In addition, note advantages and disadvantages of each method.

    A mail survey is a written survey that is self-administered. It has the concerns of a sampling bias and poor return rate, however participants might answer more truthfully because interviewer bias is lessened. A telephone survey is a survey conducted by telephone in which the questions are read to the respondents. It has the concerns of interviewer bias, sampling bias, socially desirable responses, expense, and sometimes of return rate. However, this method allows the respondents to ask for question clarification. Lastly, a personal interview is a face-to-face interview of the respondent. It has the concerns of interviewer bias, socially desirable responses, and expense. It also allows the respondents to ask for question clarification.

  3. Explain the relationship between the terms population, sample, representative sample, random, selection, and random sample.

    In research, we use random selection to generate a random sample from the population. The sample is the group of people we study and the population is the larger group of people about whom we are trying to draw conclusions. When we randomly select, we are more likely to draw a sample that is representative of the population, or like the population on important characteristics.

  4. Identify and briefly describe probability sampling versus nonprobability sampling.

    Probability sampling is a sampling technique in which each member of the population has an equal likelihood of being selected to be part of the sample. Nonprobability sampling is a sampling technique in which the individual members of the population do not have an equal likelihood of being selected to be a member of the sample.

  5. Imagine that you are writing a survey on student perceptions of the food in the dining hall. Write one open-ended, one closed-ended, and one partially open-ended question concerning quality of the food in the dining hall.

    Open-ended question: Do you find the food in the dining hall satisfying?

    Closed-ended: Do you find the food in the dining hall satisfying?
    Yes____ No____ Sometimes____

    Partially open-ended: Which aspects of the food in the dining hall do you find satisfying?
    Quantity____
    Quality____
    Variety____
    Other___________________________________________

  6. Explain the difference between a loaded question and a leading question.

    A loaded question is one that includes nonneutral or emotionally laden terms whereas a leading question is a question that sways the respondent to answer in a desired manner.

  7. Explain what demographic questions are and why it is recommended that they appear at the end of the survey.

    Demographic questions ask for basic information, such as age, gender, ethnicity, or income. They appear at the end of the survey because many respondents view answering these questions as boring. Thus, it is best not to start a survey with these questions.

  8. What are the problems with the following survey questions?
  • Do you agree that Americans should be more concerned with conserving fuel and reducing pollution from auto emissions?
    This is a double-barreled question. It is asking about two things—conserving fuel and reducing emissions.
  • Do you favor reducing the outrageous number of administrators in the federal government?
    This is a loaded question. The word “outrageous” loads the question.
  • Most people believe that politicians are overpaid. Do you agree?
    This is a leading question. The phrase “most people believe” leads the respondents to agree with the question.

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