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Rang & Dale’s Pharmacology by Humphrey P. Rang – Test Bank

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Rang & Dale’s Pharmacology by Humphrey P. Rang – Test Bank

Rang: Rang & Dale’s Pharmacology, 7th Edition

Test Bank

Chapter 7: Method and measurement in pharmacology

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. A statistical technique used to pool data from several independent but related studies is called
  1. double-blind technique
  2. randomization
  3. sequential studies
  4. meta-analysis
  5. high-powered trial

Answer d: meta-analysis

  1. The main problem with all types of bioassay is
  1. human error
  2. inadequate instrumentation
  3. biological variation
  4. high cost compared to other techniques
  5. inability to determine potency

Answer c: biological variation

  1. If the dose-response curves of two drugs are parallel in a bioassay, it usually indicates that the two drugs
  1. have the same potency
  2. act on the same type of receptors
  3. are identical
  4. are clinically effective
  5. produce a quantal response

Answer b: act on the same type of receptors

  1. Quantal dose-response curves are obtained when studying
  1. all-or-nothing responses
  2. submaximal responses
  3. bimodal responses
  4. partial agonists
  5. pain intensity

Answer a: all-or-nothing responses

  1. The double-blind technique is employed in clinical trials to
  1. facilitate meta-analysis
  2. confuse regulatory agencies
  3. avoid bias in assigning subjects to treatment groups
  4. avoid bias of patients and investigators
  5. obviate the need for a control group

Answer d: avoid bias of patients and investigators

  1. Transgenic mice that overexpress mutated forms of amyloid precursor protein provide a useful model for studying
  1. Alzheimer’s disease
  2. Parkinson’s disease
  3. Huntington’s disease
  4. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  5. multiple sclerosis

Answer a: Alzheimer’s disease

  1. Transgenic animal models referred to as “knock-outs”
  1. result from insertion of new genes
  2. result from substitution of one gene for another
  3. result from inactivation of an existing gene
  4. result from mutation of an existing gene
  5. typically cause overexpression of proteins

Answer c: result from inactivation of an existing gene

Rang: Rang & Dale’s Pharmacology, 7th Edition

Test Bank

Chapter 8: Drug absorption and distribution

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Concerning the effect of pH on the urinary excretion of drugs, it can be correctly stated that
  1. urinary acidification accelerates excretion of weak acids and bases
  2. urinary alkalinization accelerates excretion of weak acids and bases
  3. urinary acidification accelerates excretion of weak acids
  4. urinary alkalinization accelerates excretion of weak acids
  5. urinary alkalinization has no effect on excretion of weak bases

Answer d: urinary alkalinization accelerates excretion of weak acids

  1. Bioavailability is defined as the proportion of ingested drug that
  1. is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
  2. reaches the systemic circulation in an active form
  3. crosses the blood-brain barrier
  4. is unbound to plasma proteins
  5. is distributed to the target tissue

Answer b: reaches the systemic circulation in an active form

  1. The rectal route of administration
  1. provides nearly 100 percent bioavailability
  2. is only used for localized effects
  3. is suitable for persons with nausea and vomiting
  4. is subject to a high degree of first-pass metabolism
  5. is used for administration of nitroglycerin

Answer c: is suitable for persons with nausea and vomiting

  1. The passage of drugs across the blood-brain barrier
  1. is facilitated by a high degree of drug ionization
  2. is most rapid for drugs with low lipid solubility
  3. occurs more readily in the chemoreceptor trigger zone
  4. is reduced by inflammation of the meninges
  5. is rapid with aminoglycoside antibiotics

Answer c: occurs more readily in the chemoreceptor trigger zone

  1. A calculated volume of distribution greater than total body water is most likely to occur with drugs that are
  1. highly ionized
  2. highly lipid soluble
  3. subject to a high degree of first-pass inactivation
  4. highly bound to plasma proteins
  5. very large molecules

Answer b: highly lipid soluble

  1. Drugs are most readily absorbed across cells of the
  1. gastrointestinal tract
  2. renal tubules
  3. vascular endothelium
  4. lung parenchyma
  5. liver

Answer c: vascular endothelium

  1. The binding of drugs to plasma albumin
  1. is usually irreversible
  2. is saturable
  3. is most important for basic drugs
  4. accelerates drug metabolism
  5. accelerates drug excretion

Answer b: is saturable

  1. Most drugs are absorbed across cell membranes of the gut by the process of
  1. diffusing through lipid
  2. pinocytosis
  3. diffusing through aqueous pores
  4. carrier-mediated transport
  5. ion trapping

Answer c: diffusing through lipid

  1. Which drug is absorbed by a membrane carrier that transports phenylalanine?
  1. insulin
  2. propranolol
  3. levodopa
  4. aspirin
  5. penicillin

Answer c: levodopa

  1. Transdermal drug administration
  1. is most suitable for highly polar drugs
  2. is not subject to first-pass hepatic metabolism
  3. provides rapid and complete absorption
  4. is only used for localized effects
  5. is most suitable for unconscious persons

Answer b: is not subject to first-pass hepatic metabolism

Rang: Rang & Dale’s Pharmacology, 7th Edition

Test Bank

Chapter 9: Drug metabolism and elimination

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Hepatic cytochrome P450 drug-metabolizing enzymes are primarily found in
  1. cell nuclei
  2. plasma membranes
  3. the cytoplasm
  4. the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  5. mitochondria

Answer d: the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  1. Phase II drug metabolism
  1. includes hydrolytic reactions
  2. produces low molecular weight products
  3. usually forms inactive metabolites
  4. takes place mainly in the kidneys
  5. requires NADPH as a cofactor

Answer c: usually forms inactive metabolites

  1. Ketoconazole produces non-competitive inhibition of cytochrome P450 by
  1. binding to the ferric form of heme iron
  2. binding to the active site of the enzyme
  3. causing enzyme autolysis
  4. oxidizing NADPH
  5. binding covalently to the P450 protein

Answer a: binding to the ferric form of heme iron

  1. In first-order drug elimination
  1. drug half-life is directly proportional to drug concentration
  2. the rate of elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration
  3. drug clearance is directly proportional to plasma drug concentration
  4. the rate of elimination is constant
  5. the rate of elimination is unpredictable

Answer b: the rate of elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration

  1. If a drug is administered repeatedly at the same dose and dosage interval, the time required to reach the steady-state plasma drug concentration is proportional to the
  1. dose
  2. route of administration
  3. dosage interval
  4. bioavailability
  5. elimination half-life

Answer e: elimination half-life

  1. If a drug exhibits saturation (zero-order) kinetics, then
  1. the rate of drug elimination is constant
  2. drug half-life is constant
  3. drug clearance is constant
  4. plasma drug concentration is constant
  5. plasma drug concentration falls exponentially

Answer a: the rate of drug elimination is constant

  1. In the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model, orally administered drugs are
  1. absorbed into the peripheral compartment
  2. distributed from the central to the peripheral compartment
  3. metabolized in the central compartment
  4. excreted in the peripheral compartment
  5. none of the above

Answer b: distributed from the central to the peripheral compartment

  1. Which of the following will be increased if the rate of drug absorption from the gut is reduced?
  1. oral bioavailability
  2. volume of distribution
  3. peak plasma drug concentration
  4. elimination half-life
  5. duration of action

Answer e: duration of action

  1. The volume of plasma from which a drug is eliminated in a unit of time is known as the
  1. volume of elimination
  2. volume of distribution
  3. clearance
  4. elimination rate constant
  5. kinetic volume

Answer c: clearance

  1.  Inactive prodrugs have been developed to
  1. reduce drug toxicity
  2. increase drug half-life
  3. decrease hepatic drug metabolism
  4. increase drug absorption
  5. slow drug excretion

Answer d: increase drug absorption

Rang: Rang & Dale’s Pharmacology, 7th Edition

Test Bank

Chapter 10: Pharmacokinetics

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Hepatic cytochrome P450 drug-metabolizing enzymes are primarily found in
  1. cell nuclei
  2. plasma membranes
  3. the cytoplasm
  4. the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  5. mitochondria

Answer d: the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  1. Phase II drug metabolism
  1. includes hydrolytic reactions
  2. produces low molecular weight products
  3. usually forms inactive metabolites
  4. takes place mainly in the kidneys
  5. requires NADPH as a cofactor

Answer c: usually forms inactive metabolites

  1. Ketoconazole produces non-competitive inhibition of cytochrome P450 by
  1. binding to the ferric form of heme iron
  2. binding to the active site of the enzyme
  3. causing enzyme autolysis
  4. oxidizing NADPH
  5. binding covalently to the P450 protein

Answer a: binding to the ferric form of heme iron

  1. In first-order drug elimination
  1. drug half-life is directly proportional to drug concentration
  2. the rate of elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration
  3. drug clearance is directly proportional to plasma drug concentration
  4. the rate of elimination is constant
  5. the rate of elimination is unpredictable

Answer b: the rate of elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration

  1. If a drug is administered repeatedly at the same dose and dosage interval, the time required to reach the steady-state plasma drug concentration is proportional to the
  1. dose
  2. route of administration
  3. dosage interval
  4. bioavailability
  5. elimination half-life

Answer e: elimination half-life

  1. If a drug exhibits saturation (zero-order) kinetics, then
  1. the rate of drug elimination is constant
  2. drug half-life is constant
  3. drug clearance is constant
  4. plasma drug concentration is constant
  5. plasma drug concentration falls exponentially

Answer a: the rate of drug elimination is constant

  1. In the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model, orally administered drugs are
  1. absorbed into the peripheral compartment
  2. distributed from the central to the peripheral compartment
  3. metabolized in the central compartment
  4. excreted in the peripheral compartment
  5. none of the above

Answer b: distributed from the central to the peripheral compartment

  1. Which of the following will be increased if the rate of drug absorption from the gut is reduced?
  1. oral bioavailability
  2. volume of distribution
  3. peak plasma drug concentration
  4. elimination half-life
  5. duration of action

Answer e: duration of action

  1. The volume of plasma from which a drug is eliminated in a unit of time is known as the
  1. volume of elimination
  2. volume of distribution
  3. clearance
  4. elimination rate constant
  5. kinetic volume

Answer c: clearance

  1.  Inactive prodrugs have been developed to
  1. reduce drug toxicity
  2. increase drug half-life
  3. decrease hepatic drug metabolism
  4. increase drug absorption
  5. slow drug excretion

Answer d: increase drug absorption

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