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Racial And Ethnic Groups 14th Edition By Schaefer – Test Bank

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Racial And Ethnic Groups 14th Edition By Schaefer – Test Bank

Chapter 9 – Latinos: The Largest Minority

Quick Quiz

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The development of solidarity between ethnic subgroups, such as Hispanics, is called ________.
  2. panethnicity
  3. ethnocentrism
  4. assimilation
  5. marginalization

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_01_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 209

  1. Which of the following statements is true about the identity of Hispanics?
  2. Latinos and Hispanics feel they share a common name since they share a common identity.
  3. Non-Hispanics often view the diverse group of Latino Americans as one collective group.
  4. Hispanics share a common historical identity.
  5. Hispanics share a common cultural identity.

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_02_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 209

  1. Which of the following statements about panethnicity is true?
  2. A majority of the Latinos in the U.S. tend to take on the label of being “White” or being “Black”.
  3. Younger immigrants tend to be more panethnic than their parents.
  4. The Cuban saying “No soy Hispano, soy Cubano” refers to a rejection of panethnicity.
  5. A majority of U.S.-born Latinos are viewed as a third collective group in addition to White and Black Americans.

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_03_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 209

  1. The sharp White–Black divide is absent in home countries of the Latinos, where race, if socially constructed, tends to be along a ________.
  2. conflict perspective
  3. functionalist perspective
  4. contact hypothesis
  5. color gradient

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_04_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 209

  1. A complicating factor for Latinos in educational attainment is ________.
  2. the exorbitant amount of tuition and admission fees
  3. the lack of Latino teachers to cater to the needs of Latino students
  4. the need for proficiency in English
  5. the limited aspirations of Latinos to continue their education

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_05_Education_Remember_LO 9.3

Learning Objective: 9.3: Understand the patterns of education and English language attainment.

Topic: Education

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 212

  1. In the context of Latinos’ political presence, the ________ have clearly garnered the allegiance of Hispanics.
  2. Republicans
  3. Dictators
  4. Democrats
  5. Communists

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_06_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 214

  1. What is the dry foot policy?
  2. It refers to the rule that allows asylum to Cubans who reach the United States.
  3. It refers to the law that makes new Cuban immigration illegal.
  4. It refers to the law that gives refugee status to any Cuban who leaves Cuba.
  5. It refers to the rule that allows asylum to Cubans who are picked up at sea.

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_07_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 217

Short Answer Questions

  1. ________ refers to a type of evangelical Christianity that is growing in Latin America and is clearly making a significant impact on Latinos in the United States.

Answer: Pentecostalism

Question Title: TB_09_08_Religion_Remember_LO 9.5

Learning Objective: 9.5: Summarize the role of religion for Latinos.

Topic: Religion

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 215

  1. Refugees of the third major migration, the 1980 Mariel boatlift, from Cuba to the United States are called ________, referring to Mariel, the fishing port from which the boats departed.

Answer: Marielitos

Question Title: TB_09_09_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. Immigration often produces a(n) ________, which is the immigration of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians to the United States from countries which are in great need of professional workers.

Answer: brain drain

Question Title: TB_09_10_Central and South Americans_Remember_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 221

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Nearly two-thirds of Hispanics in the United States are ________.
  2. Colombians
  3. Puerto Ricans
  4. Cuban Americans
  5. Mexican Americans

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_11_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 208

  1. Which of the following Latino communities are citizens by birth?
  2. Columbians
  3. Mexican Americans
  4. Puerto Ricans
  5. Cubans

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_12_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 208

  1. Legal status is a major issue within the Latino community, except for ________.
  2. Mexican Americans
  3. Columbians
  4. Cubans
  5. Puerto Ricans

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_13_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 208

  1. Which of the following states is home to the largest numbers of Hispanics?
  2. New York
  3. Montana
  4. Hawaii
  5. California

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_14_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 209

  1. Identify a panethnic name used to identify Americans of Spanish or Latin American origin.
  2. Guatemalans
  3. Puerto Ricans
  4. Hispanics
  5. Cubans

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_15_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 209

  1. A ________ places people along a continuum from light to dark skin color rather than in two or three distinct racial groupings.
  2. color gradient
  3. color hypothesis
  4. color perspective
  5. color paradox

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_16_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 210

  1. Terms such as mulattoColombians and mestizoHondurans refer to a(n) ________.
  2. biological race
  3. ethnic class
  4. color gradient
  5. social gradient

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_17_Latino Identity_Remember_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 210

  1. Which of the following economic trends is prevalent among Hispanics?
  2. Hispanics as a group have far overreached the number of White children in poverty.
  3. Poor Hispanic children are least likely to have a working parent than White or Black children.
  4. Hispanic households appear to have slightly lower levels of median wealth than the African American households.
  5. Hispanic households average more than 12 cents for every dollar in wealth owned by White non-Hispanic households.

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_18_The Economic Picture_Understand_LO 9.2

Learning Objective: 9.2: Describe the current economic picture.

Topic: The Economic Picture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 210

  1. ________ are characteristic of Hispanic households.
  2. Low levels of wealth
  3. High financial resources
  4. High levels of accountability
  5. Low indemnity levels

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_19_The Economic Picture_Remember_LO 9.2

Learning Objective: 9.2: Describe the current economic picture.

Topic: The Economic Picture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 210

  1. Which of the following statements is true about Latino groups in relation to their economic status?
  2. They have stronger financial resources to fall back on.
  3. They have stronger financial backgrounds than other cultural groups.
  4. Their income is on par with the average White income.
  5. Their income has gradually increased over the years.

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_20_The Economic Picture_Understand_LO 9.2

Learning Objective: 9.2: Describe the current economic picture.

Topic: The Economic Picture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 211

  1. Which of the following statements is true about the income and poverty trends of Latino households?
  2. Latinos are likely to continue to earn much more annually and also fall back on their many financial resources.
  3. The income of Latinos has grown at a faster rate than White Income.
  4. Latinos have a stronger financial background than other cultural groups.
  5. The gap between the Whites and the Latinos in both income and poverty levels has remained relatively constant.

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_21_The Economic Picture_Remember_LO 9.2

Learning Objective: 9.2: Describe the current economic picture.

Topic: The Economic Picture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 211

  1. When compared to African Americans, Latinos ________.
  2. do not send money abroad to help relatives
  3. have limited prospects of a brighter future
  4. are more geographically mobile
  5. have lower levels of median wealth

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_22_The Economic Picture_Remember_LO 9.2

Learning Objective: 9.2: Describe the current economic picture.

Topic: The Economic Picture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 211

  1. Which of the following statements is true about Latinos in relation to education?
  2. The most important complicating factor in educational attainment for Latinos is immigration status.
  3. Latinos are often stigmatized as being more academically challenged than their White and Asian American peers.
  4. The level of attainment by Latinos as measured by years of schooling completed beyond high school remains high.
  5. A negative side of Latinos is that they exhibit low aspirations in continuing school.

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_23_Education_Remember_LO 9.3

Learning Objective: 9.3: Understand the patterns of education and English language attainment.

Topic: Education

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 211

  1. Which of the following statements represent the educational trends prevalent amongst Latinos?
  2. They are more likely to succeed in completing college faster than their White classmates.
  3. They are more likely to agree that a college degree is unnecessary to get ahead in life.
  4. They are more likely to aspire to enroll in colleges compared to the Whites.
  5. They are more likely to have a bachelor’s degree than their White counterparts.

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_24_Education_Understand_LO 9.3

Learning Objective: 9.3: Understand the patterns of education and English language attainment.

Topic: Education

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 211

  1. ________ is key to both education and the future economic development of Hispanics.
  2. Cultural fragmentation
  3. Prejudiced perception
  4. Language acquisition
  5. Social discrimination

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_25_Education_Remember_LO 9.3

Learning Objective: 9.3: Understand the patterns of education and English language attainment.

Topic: Education

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 213

  1. ________ was a labor organizer who crusaded to organize migrant farmworkers.
  2. César Chávez
  3. Fidel Castro
  4. Reies López
  5. Vicente Fox

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_26_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 213

  1. The central political issue for Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans has been the ________.
  2. lack of recognition of the growing Latino presence by political parties
  3. residential status of their respective citizens
  4. political ambitions of their illegal immigrants
  5. political future of their respective island homelands

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_27_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 213

  1. Many Hispanics were ineligible to vote under the U.S. Constitution because ________.
  2. of the unavailability of bilingual voting information
  3. they were noncitizens
  4. they were not interested in voting
  5. political parties refrained from acknowledging them

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_28_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 213

  1. Established political parties began recognizing Latinos as a force in the election process primarily through the ________.
  2. poor Hispanic presence at the polls
  3. policies that have facilitated English voters
  4. growth of the Hispanic population
  5. Hispanic presence outside conventional political activities

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_29_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 213

  1. Federal law requires bilingual ballots in voting districts where at least ________.
  2. 50 percent of the population back up democratic candidates
  3. 5 percent voters do not speak English
  4. 71 percent voters in the district are ineligible to vote due to insolvency or lunacy
  5. 10 percent of the population is physically disabled or handicapped

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_30_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 213

  1. Which of the following statements is true about the political presence of Hispanics prior to the 2010 Congressional elections?
  2. The Hispanic presence at the polls had always lived up to the expectations.
  3. Hispanics were not interested in voting at the polls.
  4. Many Hispanics were ineligible to vote under the U.S. Constitution.
  5. Hispanics represented a majority among the electoral candidates.

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_31_The Political Presence_Understand_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 213

  1. The Democrats promoted policies that ________.
  2. allowed those who immigrated illegally as children a path to permanent residency
  3. encouraged self-deportation for those who immigrated illegally as children
  4. encouraged immediate deportation upon detection of illegal immigrants
  5. focused primarily on strict immigration laws with a motive to alienate Latinos

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_32_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 213-214

  1. The Hispanic community’s ________ influences politicians to try and gain their support.
  2. rapid growth in population
  3. increased commitment to a single party
  4. limited participation in elections
  5. decreased voter registrations

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_33_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 214

  1. Which of the following statements reflect the political trends prevalent amongst Latinos?
  2. Many Latinos resent that every four years the political movers and shakers rediscover that they exist.
  3. Majority of Hispanic voters in the United States prefer the Republicans over the Democrats.
  4. Many Hispanics are least interested in voting as they fear being deprived of their permanent residency status.
  5. Majority of the Latinos vote for political parties that promote policies with strict immigration laws.

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_34_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 214

  1. Latino community leaders derisively label candidates’ fascination with Latino concerns near election time as ________.
  2. Hispanic politics
  3. Marielitos
  4. Mestizo
  5. Fiesta politics

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_35_The Political Presence_Remember_LO 9.4

Learning Objective: 9.4: Address the present role of Latinos in politics.

Topic: The Political Presence

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 214

  1. The most important formal organization in the Hispanic community is the ________.
  2. court of law
  3. family
  4. Church
  5. government

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_36_Religion_Remember_LO 9.5

Learning Objective: 9.5: Summarize the role of religion for Latinos.

Topic: Religion

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 214

  1. Which of the following statements reflects the religious profile of Latinos?
  2. Majority of the first generation Latinos are Protestants.
  3. Majority of the third generation Latinos are Roman Catholics.
  4. Latinos are predominantly Catholics.
  5. Latinos are predominantly Evangelicals.

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_37_Religion_Remember_LO 9.5

Learning Objective: 9.5: Summarize the role of religion for Latinos.

Topic: Religion

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 215

  1. Religious Latinos who are not Catholic ________.
  2. do not attend storefront churches
  3. feel religion is very important in their daily lives
  4. tend to be older
  5. are least likely to attend services

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_38_Religion_Remember_LO 9.5

Learning Objective: 9.5: Summarize the role of religion for Latinos.

Topic: Religion

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 215

  1. Pentecostalism and similar faiths are attractive to many Latinos because ________.
  2. they hold beliefs against religious experiences such as faith healing
  3. they offer followers the opportunity to express their religious fervor openly
  4. they originate from the colonies of Central and South America
  5. they increase the likelihood of permanent residency to illegal immigrants

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_39_Religion_Understand_LO 9.5

Learning Objective: 9.5: Summarize the role of religion for Latinos.

Topic: Religion

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 215

  1. Which of the following is true about non-Catholic religious Latinos?
  2. They tend to be older.
  3. They attend independent churches.
  4. They are least likely to attend services.
  5. They refrain from associating religion to their daily lives.

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_40_Religion_Remember_LO 9.5

Learning Objective: 9.5: Summarize the role of religion for Latinos.

Topic: Religion

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 215

  1. Latinos adhering to ________ hold beliefs similar to those of evangelicals.
  2. Roman Catholicism
  3. Fundamentalism
  4. Pentecostalism
  5. Sectarianism

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_41_Religion_Remember_LO 9.5

Learning Objective: 9.5: Summarize the role of religion for Latinos.

Topic: Religion

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 215

  1. The third largest Hispanic minority group in the United States are ________.
  2. Puerto Ricans
  3. Mexican Americans
  4. Dominicans
  5. Cuban Americans

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_42_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 215

  1. Cuban immigration increased tremendously ________.
  2. after the 1959 Cuban Revolution
  3. with the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
  4. after Che Batista’s assumption of power
  5. after the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_43_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. Which of the following statements pertaining to the first wave of Cuban immigration to the United States is true?
  2. The first wave was started through a program of freedom flights—specially arranged charter flights from Havana to Miami.
  3. Regular commercial air traffic was halted due to the severing of diplomatic relations by the United States with Cuba.
  4. The first wave was considered to be the most controversial to the extent that these refugees were socially undesirable.
  5. The first wave stopped with the missile crisis of 1962, when all legal movement between the two nations was halted.

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_44_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. The second wave of Cuban immigration began in 1965 as a result of the outcome of a(n) ________ between Cuba and U.S.
  2. missile crisis
  3. territory purchase
  4. war
  5. agreement

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_45_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. The third wave of immigration from Cuba to the U.S. is referred to as ________.
  2. mulatto escape
  3. fiesta immigration
  4. freedom flotilla
  5. chain immigration

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_46_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. During the 1980 Mariel boatlift, prisoners, mental patients, and drug addicts were sent to the U.S. from ________.
  2. El Salvador
  3. Dominican Republic
  4. Haiti
  5. Cuba

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_47_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. The third wave of Cuban immigrants had a great deal of difficulty in adjusting to their new lives in the United States because ________.
  2. they were not welcomed by President Carter
  3. they lacked formal education and had fewer skills than previous groups
  4. they grew up with pro-American images and developed high expectations
  5. the legal movement between the two nations was halted

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_48_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. Marielitos refer to ________.
  2. clubs that maintain ties with Latin America
  3. the third wave refugees from Cuba
  4. immigrants from Puerto Rica
  5. foreign businesses that operate in Mexico

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_49_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. The term Marielitos applied to the third major migration from Cuba to the U.S. implies that these refugees were ________.
  2. undesirable
  3. highly talented
  4. Communists
  5. skilled professionals

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_50_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. Which of the following is a similarity between freedom flotilla and Irish immigration?
  2. They represent immigration based on difficult economic conditions.
  3. They represent immigration based on the presence of color gradients.
  4. The refugees of both these migrations were called Marielitos.
  5. The refugees of both these migrations were exploited for political reasons.

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_51_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. Which of the following statements is true about the transition phase of members of the freedom flotilla?
  2. Adapting to a new environment and culture was easy since it was a small core group.
  3. Government assistance to transitioned members was substantial.
  4. Most of the members failed to gain acceptance by the Hispanic community.
  5. Majority of the members found employment and applied for permanent residency.

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_52_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 216

  1. The wet foot policy refers to the rule that ________.
  2. allows Cuban nationals who manage to actually reach the United States to remain
  3. Cuban nationals picked up at sea will be sent back to Cuba
  4. grants highly trained and skilled Cuban nationals a permanent residency
  5. grants permanent residency to Cuban nationals based on their educational qualification

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_53_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 217

  1. The Cuban American presence is most notably felt in ________.
  2. Atlanta
  3. New York
  4. Miami
  5. El Paso

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_54_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 218

  1. Which of the following is true about the current picture of Cuban Americans?
  2. Differences between Cuban Americans are eliminated as they follow a single Cuban American lifestyle.
  3. The primary adjustment among South Florida’s Cuban Americans has been more to Whites than to Latinos.
  4. Cuban Americans have been able to immediately establish the kind of life they sought.
  5. The relations between Miami’s Cuban Americans and other groups have not been perfect.

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_55_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 218

  1. The early immigrants of the first Cuban wave ________.
  2. were mostly illiterates
  3. were predominantly Protestants
  4. had professional or managerial backgrounds
  5. did not have to make adjustments to the new life

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_56_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 218

  1. Which of the following events will most likely influence Cuban exiles in the United States to return to Cuba?
  2. illegal immigrants being deported to Cuba
  3. young Cuban Americans accepting Anglo culture
  4. Cuban Americans taking an anti-Castro stand
  5. the communist government being overturned

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_57_Cuban Americans_Understand_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 218

  1. Cuban Americans have selectively accepted ________.
  2. the policies promoted by the Republicans
  3. the wet foot policy
  4. Anglo culture
  5. being termed Marielitos

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_58_Cuban Americans_Remember_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 219

  1. Immigrants from Central and South America ________.
  2. form coalitions with Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, or Puerto Ricans
  3. lack formal education and shared modest skills
  4. have increased in numbers even faster than that of Mexicans or any other group
  5. share the same native tongue, Spanish

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_59_Central and South Americans_Remember_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 219

  1. In the context of placing people into racial groups, social relations among Central and South American groups with each other, Latinos, and non-Latinos defy ________.
  2. naturalization
  3. nationalization
  4. repatriation
  5. generalization

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_60_Central and South Americans_Remember_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 219

  1. Which of the following is a reason for the immigration of Central and South Americans to the United States?
  2. economic opportunities
  3. environmental degradation
  4. downward mobility
  5. political vendetta

Answer: a

Question Title: TB_09_61_Central and South Americans_Remember_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 219

  1. ________ are monies that immigrants send to their countries of origin.
  2. Tariffs
  3. Marielitos
  4. Remittances
  5. Bills

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_62_Central and South Americans_Remember_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 221

  1. ________ have the highest level among Hispanics in remittances.
  2. Puerto Ricans
  3. Cuban Americans
  4. Mexican Americans
  5. Salvadoran Americans

Answer: d

Question Title: TB_09_63_Central and South Americans_Remember_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 221

  1. Like Mexican Americans, the Salvadorans have created ________ or associations that relate to a specific village that receives remittances.
  2. colonias
  3. ethnonational clubs
  4. hometown clubs
  5. maquiladoras

Answer: c

Question Title: TB_09_64_Central and South Americans_Remember_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 221

  1. Central and South American immigrants ________.
  2. are always well-documented workers
  3. create a brain drain in their home countries
  4. experience lesser unemployment rates compared to Whites
  5. adapt to a new culture and urban life with ease

Answer: b

Question Title: TB_09_65_Central and South Americans_Remember_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1 – Easy

Page Reference: 221

Essay Questions

  1. Discuss color gradient as a social construction of race. Provide examples that reflect the continuum of color gradient.

Answer: A color gradient places people along a continuum from light to dark skin color rather than in two or three distinct racial groupings. The presence of color gradients is yet another reminder of the social construction of race. Terms such as mestizoHondurans, mulattoColombians, or AfricanPanamanians reflect this continuum of color gradient. In the United States, Latinos tend to avoid taking on the label of being “White” or “Black,” although lighter-skinned Hispanics generally distinguish themselves from Black Americans. Social scientists speculate whether in time, like the Irish almost a century ago, Latinos will come to be viewed as “White” rather than as a third collective group in addition to White and Black Americans.

Question Title: TB_09_66_Latino Identity_Understand_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 210

  1. Discuss the trends in education among contemporary Latinos.

Answer: Looking at education among contemporary Latinos is a study of contrasts. Progress has been significant but they are often stigmatized as being more academically challenged than their White and Asian American peers. Yet Latinos are more likely to aspire to continue their education with 49 percent of high-school graduates enrolled in college compared to 47 percent of Whites.

The level of attainment as measured by years of schooling completed beyond high school remains modest. As a group, 13 percent of Latinos 25 years and over have a bachelor’s degree compared to over 29 percent of Whites. On the positive side are the high aspirations that Latinos show for continuing school. About 88 percent of Latinos agree that a college degree is necessary to get ahead in life compared to 74 percent of the general population. A higher percentage of Hispanics leave high school to start college than the general population, and are now the largest minority group on four-year college campuses, and comprise one-quarter of all 18- to 24-year-old students enrolled in two-year colleges. As one might expect from these data, more and more Latino students are receiving their degrees but their success in completing college in a timely fashion is lower than that of their fellow White classmates. Clearly a complicating factor in educational attainment is becoming proficient in English. The importance is not lost on Latinos, who in 2007 cited language skills more frequently than immigration status, income, education, or skin color as an explanation for discrimination against them. In 2007, 46 percent said it was the biggest cause of discrimination.

Question Title: TB_09_67_Education_Understand_LO 9.3

Learning Objective: 9.3: Understand the patterns of education and English language attainment.

Topic: Education

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 211-213

Additional Essay Questions

  1. Do Hispanic Americans prefer a panethnic identity or an identity specific to their country of origin? What is the influence of social class and country of origin on their preferences?

Answer: Panethnicity is the development of solidarity between ethnic subgroups. Hispanics do not share a common historical or cultural identity. Non-Hispanics often give a single label to the diverse group of native-born Latino Americans and immigrants. This labeling by the outgroup is similar to how the dominant group views American Indians or Asian Americans as one collective group. The treating of all Hispanics alike is an unfortunate lack of attention to their history and the history of the United States.

While generally two-thirds of Latinos and Hispanics in the United State agree that they share a common culture that does not mean they feel they share a common name. Overall, about half would prefer to use country of origin to identify themselves, such as Mexican American; the balance is split between Hispanic or Latino and American. Among Hispanic youth aged 16–25, only a minority, about 20 percent, prefers to use panethnic names such as Hispanic or Latino. In Miami, Florida, bumper stickers proclaim “No soy Hispano, soy Cubano”: “I am not Hispanic, I am Cuban.” As might be expected, identity preferences vary according to whether one is an immigrant or is U.S.-born of U.S.-born Hispanics. About 72 percent of immigrant youth prefer country of origin compared to 32 percent of grandchildren.

An even trickier issue is how Latinos identify themselves in racial terms now and how they will in the future. Typically, the sharp White–Black divide is absent in their home countries, where race, if socially constructed, tends to be along a color gradient.

Question Title: TB_09_68_Latino Identity_Understand_LO 9.1

Learning Objective: 9.1: Discuss the characteristics of Latinos and explain panethnicity.

Topic: Latino Identity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 209

  1. Discuss the economic picture for Hispanic Americans as compared to other ethnic groups in the United States.

Answer: Among the many indicators of how well a group is doing economically in the United States, income is probably the best one. The high rate of poverty is very troubling.

A study released in 2011 documented the continuing high rise in the poverty rate from 1977 through 2010 except for some decline during the relative prosperity the nation experienced in the late 1990s. The government has measured poverty for generations and while Blacks have a higher rate, the largest group of children below the poverty level had always been Whites. In the last two years, however, Hispanics as a group have far overreached the number of White children in poverty. By 2010, 6.1 million Latino children were in poverty compared to 5 million White and 4.4 million Black children. Reflecting the low wages that Latinos often receive in the United States, poor Hispanic children are much more likely to have a working parent than either poor children in the White or Black communities.

The Latino incomes appear to be just the reverse of the White earnings. These data are limited to only full-time year-round workers, so they significantly understate the difference. Many more Latino workers are unemployed or work only seasonally and/or part-time. Income is just part of the picture. Low levels of wealth—total assets minus debt—are characteristic of Hispanic households. Although they appear to have slightly higher levels of median wealth than African American households, Hispanic households average less than 12 cents for every dollar in wealth owned by White non-Hispanic households. Also, the trend is not encouraging, with the Hispanic–non-Hispanic gap growing. Latinos not only are likely to continue to earn much less annually but also to have fewer financial resources to fall back on.

By studying the income and poverty trends of Latino households, we can see how much—but also how little—has been accomplished to reduce social inequality among ethnic and racial groups. Although the income of Latinos has gradually increased over the last 30 years, so has White income. The gap between the two groups in both income and poverty level has remained relatively constant. Indeed, the $39,005 income of the typical Latino household in 2012 was less than half of the typical 2002 White non-Hispanic household.

Question Title: TB_09_69_The Economic Picture_Understand_LO 9.2

Learning Objective: 9.2: Describe the current economic picture.

Topic: The Economic Picture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 210

  1. Describe the different stages of Cuban immigration to the United States. How does the economy and politics play a part in Cuban to U.S. migration?

Answer: Cuban immigration to the United States since the 1959 revolution has been continuous, but there were three significant influxes of large numbers of immigrants through the 1980s. First, the initial exodus of about 200,000 Cubans after Castro’s assumption of power lasted about three years. Regular commercial air traffic continued despite the United States’ severing of diplomatic relations with Cuba. This first wave stopped with the missile crisis of October 1962, when all legal movement between the two nations was halted.

An agreement between the United States and Cuba in 1965 produced the second wave through a program of freedom flights—specially arranged charter flights from Havana to Miami. Through this program, more than 340,000 refugees arrived between 1965 and 1973. Despite efforts to encourage these arrivals to disperse into other parts of the United States, most settled in the Miami area (Abrahamson 1996). The third major migration, the 1980 Mariel boatlift, has been the most controversial. In 1980, more than 124,000 refugees fled Cuba in the “freedom flotilla.” In May of that year, a few boats from Cuba began to arrive in Key West, Florida, with people seeking asylum in the United States. President Carter (1978:1623), reflecting the nation’s hostility toward Cuba’s communist government, told the new arrivals and anyone else who might be listening in Cuba that they were welcome “with open arms and an open heart.” As the number of arrivals escalated, it became apparent that Castro had used the invitation as an opportunity to send prison inmates, patients from mental hospitals, and drug addicts. However, the majority of the refugees were neither marginal to the Cuban economy nor social deviants.

Other Cubans soon began to call the refugees of this migration Marielitos. The word, which implies that these refugees were undesirable, refers to Mariel, the fishing port west of Havana from which the boats departed and where Cuban authorities herded people into boats. The term Marielitos remains a stigma in the media and in Florida. Because of their negative reception by longer-established Cuban immigrants and the group’s modest skills and lack of formal education, these immigrants had a great deal of difficulty in adjusting to their new lives in the United States.

The difficult transition for many members of this freedom flotilla also has other reasons.

Unlike the earlier waves of immigrants, they grew up in a country bombarded with anti-American images. Despite these problems, their eventual acceptance by the Hispanic community has been impressive, and many members of this third significant wave have found employment. Most have applied for permanent resident status. Government assistance to these immigrants was limited, but help from some groups of Cuban Americans in the Miami area was substantial. However, for a small core group, adjustment was impossible.

Since 1994, the United States has had a dry foot, wet foot policy with respect to arrivals from Cuba. Government policy generally allows Cuban nationals who manage to actually reach the United States (dry foot) to remain, whereas those who are picked up at sea (wet foot) are sent back to Cuba. Furthermore, 20,000 visas are issued annually to immigrants who are seeking economic freedom and, for the most part, are not strongly anti-Castro. Unfortunately, other Cubans have taken great risks in crossing the Florida Straits, and an unknown number have perished before reaching the mainland or being intercepted by the Coast Guard. Through all these means, about 300,000 Cubans have come to the United States since 1964.

Question Title: TB_09_70_Cuban Americans_Understand_LO 9.6

Learning Objective: 9.6: Examine and understand the culture of Cuban Americans.

Topic: Cuban Americans

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 216-217

  1. How have Central and South Americans contributed to the diversity of the Hispanic peoples in the United States?

Answer: Immigrants who have come from Central and South America are a diverse population that has not been closely studied. Indeed, most government statistics treat its members collectively as “other” and rarely differentiate among them by nationality. There are 20 nations, each with own identity in Latin America. People from Chile and Costa Rica have little in common other than their hemisphere of origin and the Spanish language, if that. Still others may come from indigenous populations, especially in Guatemala and Belize, and have a social identity apart from any national allegiance. Also, not all Central and South Americans even have Spanish as their native tongue; for example, immigrants from Brazil speak Portuguese, immigrants from French Guyana speak French, and those from Suriname speak Dutch.

One fact that is clear is that immigration from Central and Latin America has increased dramatically. For example in the 20 years through 2010, Cuban and Puerto Rican population in the United States increased about 70 percent, compared to 137 percent for Mexican Americans. During the same time Salvadorans increased by 192 percent, Guatemalans 289 percent, and Hondurans 383 percent

Many of the nations of Central and South America have a complex system of placing people into myriad racial groups. Their experience with a color gradient necessitates an adjustment when they experience the Black–White racial formation of the United States. Added to language diversity and the color gradient are social class distinctions, religious differences, urban-versus-rural backgrounds, and differences in dialect, even among those who speak the same language. Social relations among Central and South American groups with each other, Latinos, and non-Latinos defy generalization. Central and South Americans do not form, nor should they be expected to form, a cohesive group, nor do they naturally form coalitions with Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, or Puerto Ricans.

Question Title: TB_09_71_Central and South Americans_Understand_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 219

  1. Describe the immigration patterns of Central and South Americans to the United States.

Answer: Immigration from the various Central and South American nations has been sporadic, influenced by our immigration laws and social forces operating in the home countries. Perceived economic opportunities escalated the northward movement in the 1960s. By 1970, Panamanians and Hondurans represented the largest national groupings, most of them being identified in the census as “nonwhite.” By 2010, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Columbia were the top countries of origin, each with at least a million present. Immigration often comes through Mexico, which may serve as a brief stop along the way or represent a point of settlement for six months to three years or even longer. Since the mid-1970s, increasing numbers of Central and South Americans have fled unrest. Although Latinos as a whole are a fast-growing minority, the numbers of Central and South Americans increased even faster than the numbers of Mexicans or any other group in the 1980s. In particular, from about 1978, war and economic chaos in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala prompted many to seek refuge in the United States.

The impact of the turmoil cannot be exaggerated. Regarding the total populations of each country, it is estimated that anywhere from 13 percent in Guatemala to 32 percent in El Salvador left their respective countries. Not at all a homogeneous group, they range from Guatemalan Indian peasants to wealthy Nicaraguan exiles. These latest arrivals probably had some economic motivation for migration, but this concern was overshadowed or at least matched by their fear of being killed or hurt if they remained in their home country.

Question Title: TB_09_72_Central and South Americans_Understand_LO 9.7

Learning Objective: 9.7: Restate the diversity among Central and South Americans.

Topic: Central and South Americans

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2 – Moderate

Page Reference: 219

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