Memmler’s Structure and Function of the Human Body, 10th ed by Taylor – Cohen
1. Cardiac and skeletal muscle contain visible bands that are called __________.
2. The muscular layer of the intestine is composed of visceral, or ____________, muscle.
3. The ability of a muscle to transmit electrical current is termed __________.
4. The ability of a muscle to shorten is termed ____________.
5. Binding sites on the actin molecules are covered by troponin and _________________
when the muscle is at rest.
6. The larger of the two filaments forming a cross-bridge is made of a protein called
7. The neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction is called ____________.
8. The compound that causes the myosin head to detach from actin is called
9. Muscles operating anaerobically are said to be in a state of _____________.
10. The polysaccharide in muscles containing multiple glucose molecules is named
11. The energy-storing compound that is similar to ATP is called ______________.
12. The increase in muscle size resulting from resistance training is termed ______________.
13. A contraction that shortens the muscle but does not increase muscle tension is called
14. Mr. M’s arm muscle is contracted because he is carrying a heavy box. This contraction,
which is associated with an increase in muscle tension, is termed _______________.
15. A muscle that produces a given movement is called the _________________.
16. The muscle that opposes a given action is called the ________________.
17. The more movable attachment point of a muscle is called the ___________.
18. The pivot point of a lever system is called the _________________.
19. Raising a beer glass by flexing the arm at the elbow is an example of a __________-class
20. A term referring to a muscle that decreases the angle at a joint is ______________.
21. An adjective describing muscle fibers running in a straight line is _______________.
22. The dome-shaped muscle used in breathing is the _______________.
23. The large triangular muscle across the back of the neck and shoulders is the
24. The muscle with four origins that covers the front and sides of the thigh bone is the
25. The prime mover in plantar flexion is the _____________.
26. The innermost muscle of the abdomen is the _______________.
27. The triceps brachii _____________ the arm at the elbow.
28. The _______________ tendon is attached to the heel.
29. The cheek muscle used in whistling is the _____________.
30. The muscles located between the ribs are called the _______________.
31. Aging is associated with a gradual decrease in the number of muscle cells, or
32. The word part sarc/o means _____________.
33. The specialized membranes that permit electric impulses to pass between cardiac muscle
cells are called
B) intercalated disks
34. A bundle of muscle fibers is called a(n)
35. The membrane surrounding individual muscle fibers is the
B) deep fascia
36. Which of the following is NOT a function of the muscular system?
A) skeletal movement
B) heat generation
D) body cooling through evaporation
37. A single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates comprise a(n)
A) neuromuscular junction
B) motor end plate
C) motor unit
38. The two filaments that form cross-bridges are
A) actin and troponin
B) tropomyosin and myosin
C) actin and myosin
D) troponin and tropomyosin
39. Which of the following events occurs during muscle relaxation?
A) Calcium is pumped into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
B) Acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft.
C) The actin binding sites are exposed.
D) The action potential travels to the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
40. The ion that binds the troponin/tropomyosin complex is
41. The compound that binds myosin and provides the energy for the power stroke is
A) creatine phosphate
42. A substance produced during oxygen debt is
A) lactic acid
B) calcium phosphate
43. The compound that stores oxygen in muscle cells is
C) creatine phosphate
44. Exercise results in
A) dilation of blood vessels
B) a decrease in the number of mitochondria
C) muscle atrophy
D) an increase in the resting heart rate
45. The partial contraction observed in resting muscle is called
A) muscle tone
B) isometric contraction
C) isotonic contraction
46. Pushing the feet against the floor is an example of a(n)
A) isometric contraction
B) muscle tone
C) isotonic contraction
D) isometric and isotonic contraction
47. A muscle that steadies body parts during a movement is called a(n)
C) prime mover
D) extrinsic muscle
48. In anatomic lever systems, the fulcrum is the
49. A term referring to a ring-shaped muscle is
50. A muscle that raises a body part is a(n)
51. In naming muscles, the suffix –ceps means
B) attachment points
D) direction of fibers
52. Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the head?
53. Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the abdomen?
A) internal oblique
B) transversus abdominis
D) rectus abdominis
54. A muscle that moves the head is the
C) serratus anterior
D) rotator cuff
55. The levator ani is found in the
56. A muscle located at the angle of the jaw used for chewing is the
57. The muscle that closes the lips is the
A) orbicularis oris
B) orbicularis oculi
58. An antagonist to the adductor group of the thigh is the
A) gluteus maximus
B) gluteus medius
D) peroneus longus
59. An antagonist to the gastrocnemius is the
D) tibialis anterior
60. The hamstring muscles act to
A) extend the leg
B) flex the leg
C) flex the thigh
D) adduct the thigh
61. Any word containing the part brachi/o probably refers to the
62. The main flexor of the forearm is the
D) triceps brachii
63. Compare the location and function of the three types of muscle tissue.
64. A new drug blocks the release of acetylcholine from neuron endings. The mad scientist
Dr. C takes the drug and then tries to move her arm. What will happen? Discuss the role
of acetylcholine in muscle contraction in your answer.
65. JL is sitting in a chair wearing very heavy boots. She slowly straightens her leg, raising
her boot. A. Is this an isotonic or isometric contraction? B. Name the prime mover and
antagonist participating in this action. C. Discuss the mechanics of this action, naming the
class of lever and the names and relative positions of the fulcrum, resistance, and effort.
9. oxygen debt
11. creatine phosphate
15. prime mover
24. quadriceps femoris
26. transversus abdominis
63. Smooth muscle makes up the walls of the hollow body organs, the blood vessels, and the
respiratory passageways. It moves involuntarily, producing the wavelike motions of
peristalsis that move substances through a system. Cardiac muscle makes up the wall of
the heart. It moves involuntarily to pump blood out of the heart. Skeletal muscle is
usually attached to bones and moves the skeleton. It is controlled voluntarily.
64. Dr. C will not be able to move her arm because acetylcholine will not be released.
Normally, acetylcholine is released subsequent to an action potential in the motor neuron.
It binds receptors in the motor end plate of the muscle, initiating an action potential that
initiates a muscular contraction.
65. A. isotonic B. The quadriceps femoris is the prime mover, the hamstring group is the
antagonist. C. This action is an example of a third-class lever. The weight of the boot is
the resistance, the knee joint is the fulcrum, and the effort is generated in the front of the
thigh (quadriceps femoris). The effort is exerted between the resistance and the fulcrum