Living in the Environment 4th Canadian Edition by G. Miller – Test Bank
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
1. Canada is the world’s most tornado-prone country. a. True b. False 2. Most of North America’s native tall and short grass prairies have disappeared as a result of agricultural development. a. True b. False 3. A desert is an area where precipitation exceeds evaporation. a. True b. False 4. Savannas do not contain any large grazing mammals. a. True b. False 5. Temperate deciduous forests are typically located at higher latitudes than coniferous forests. a. True b. False 6. The changes in vegetation that occur with increasing latitude between the equator and the poles are parallel to those that occur with increasing elevation between a lowland and a mountaintop. a. True b. False 7. Climate refers to a region’s long-term atmospheric conditions, typically occurring over decades. a. True b. False 8. Temperate deciduous forests have more tree species than tropical forests. a. True b. False 9. Mountains help regulate the Earth’s climate when their snow-and ice-covered tops reflect solar radiation back into space. a. True b. False 10. A low-pressure air mass produces cloudy, and sometimes stormy, weather. a. True b. False 11. Biomes are distinct regions separated from one another by drastic climate and vegetative differences. a. True b. False 12. The rain shadow effect is caused by large cities located on a desert’s perimeter. a. True b. False 13. The natural greenhouse effect is the result of human activities. a. True b. False 14. Deserts cover about 20% of the Earth’s land surface. a. True b. False 15. A cold front is the leading edge of an advancing mass of cold air. a. True b. False 16. Tropical rain forests are dominated by broadleaf deciduous plants. a. True b. False 17. Permafrost is found in polar grasslands (arctic tundra). a. True b. False 18. Properties of air, water, and land affect global air circulation. a. True b. False 19. Convection occurs when matter warms, becomes less dense, and rises within its surroundings. a. True b. False 20. Temperate rain forests are found spread across northern Canada from Québec to Alberta. a. True b. False 21. Deserts are primarily located in hot, tropical regions. a. True b. False 22. Biomes are affected by ocean currents and winds. a. True b. False 23. Another word used to describe evergreen coniferous forests is boreal forests. a. True b. False 24. Moisture in the air condenses when the air temperature drops below the dew point. a. True b. False 25. Mountains suffer degradation of natural capital through increased tourism. a. True b. False 26. The ability of the snow-and ice-covered tops of mountains to help regulate the Earth’s climate will be altered by global warming. a. True b. False 27. Occasional fires are one factor that keeps shrubs and trees from growing on grasslands. a. True b. False 28. Desert insects have a thin body covering for conserving water. a. True b. False 29. Hurricanes are tropical cyclones that form over the Pacific Ocean. a. True b. False 30. Tropical deserts have more precipitation than temperate deserts. a. True b. False 31. Most of the animal life found in a tropical rainforest lives in the canopy layer. a. True b. False Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 32. How many large convention cells (Hadley cells) distribute heat and moisture around the surface of the Earth? a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 8 33. Which of the following are coniferous evergreen plants? a. algae b. bacteria c. maples and oaks d. pines and cedars 34. What is most likely to produce a rain shadow? a. an ocean b. a mountain c. a sand dune d. a forest 35. What happens during an El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? a. surface water along the South and North American coasts becomes cooler b. prevailing easterly winds weaken c. upwelling’s of warm, nutrient-poor water are suppressed d. upwelling’s of cold, nutrient-rich water are suppressed 36. Where does an upwelling usually occur? a. on the east side of a continent b. on the steep western side of a continent c. near a coral reef d. in the open ocean 37. In mountain biomes, how many kilometres’ change in latitude is each 100-metre gain in elevation roughly equivalent to? a. 1 kilometre b. 10 kilometres c. 100 kilometres d. 1000 kilometres 38. What is the average person most likely to do in response to a summer weather report that forecasts a high-pressure mass? a. put on sunscreen when going outdoors b. put on a down jacket, a hat, and mittens when going outdoors c. stay indoors d. wear a raincoat and boots when going outdoors 39. In which biome would thick, spongy mats of low-growing plants be a typical characteristic? a. coniferous forest b. arctic tundra c. tall-grass prairie d. tropical forest 40. Which mode of pollination would you least expect to find in a dense tropical rain forest? a. bird b. bat c. butterfly d. wind 41. What poses the least threat to desert ecosystems? a. groundwater depletion b. overgrazing c. a nomadic lifestyle d. irrigation and salinization 42. What are the two most important factors determining the climate of an area? a. ocean currents and light b. temperature and precipitation c. precipitation and light d. temperature and ocean currents 43. Which has the greatest species diversity of all terrestrial biomes? a. a mature temperate deciduous forest b. a mature tundra c. a mature taiga d. a mature tropical rain forest 44. Which of the following are broadleaf deciduous plants? a. algae and seaweeds b. maples and oaks c. bacteria d. pines and cedars 45. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a tropical rain forest? a. rich soil b. stratified c. rapid decomposition d. highly diverse 46. On average, how many tornadoes can you expect in Canada per annum? a. 30 b. 80 c. 200 d. over 1000 47. What could be a possible outcome of the rain shadow effect? a. desert b. tundra c. prairie d. rainforest 48. Which of the following is a greenhouse gas? a. oxygen b. hydrogen c. methane d. nitrogen 49. What is the foliage of most trees in a tropical rain forest like? a. It is broadleaf foliage that is evergreen. b. It is broadleaf foliage that drops seasonally. c. It is needle like foliage that is evergreen. d. It is needle like foliage that drops seasonally. 50. What is typical of temperate deciduous forests? a. They have a high rate of decomposition because of the large fall leaf layer. b. They have severely cold winters and have most of their precipitation in the fall. c. They have a nutrient-poor forest floor compared to all other types of forests. d. They have broadleaf trees that retain their leaves throughout the year. 51. Suppose that you are travelling from the equator to the North Pole. After leaving the coniferous forest, what would you encounter next? a. deciduous forest b. evergreen forest c. polar ice and snow d. tundra 52. In which biome are large herds of grazing herbivores found? a. tropical forest b. Grasslands c. arctic tundra d. deciduous forest 53. What conditions are plants of the arctic tundra adapted to? a. freezing temperatures, lack of water, and bright sunlight b. moderate temperatures, lack of sunlight, and constant high winds c. freezing temperatures, lack of sunlight, and constant high winds d. freezing temperatures, lack of water, and variable winds 54. Variation in which of the following lead(s) to variations in climate and vegetation? a. latitude and altitude b. altitude only c. latitude and longitude d. latitude only 55. Where are most of the nutrients in the tropical rain forests found? a. in a thick atmosphere b. in large rivers c. in trees, vines and other plants d. in deep, rich soil 56. How much of the Earth’s land surface is covered by deserts? a. about 10% b. about 20% c. about 30% d. about 50% 57. Which biome does NOT belong with the others? a. northern coniferous forest b. steppe c. boreal forest d. taiga 58. What would a meteorologist most likely use to collect data in the field? a. ethyl alcohol b. a radioactive isotope c. an aircraft d. a computer model 59. Which limiting factor is the one that generally controls the vegetative character of a biome? a. soil type b. nutrients c. light d. precipitation 60. Why are there fewer plant species in coniferous forests than in deciduous forests? a. Few species in coniferous forests can tolerate the bright sunlight. b. Few species in coniferous forests can tolerate the winters, when soil moisture is frozen. c. Few species in coniferous forests can tolerate the alkaline soils. d. Few species in coniferous forests can tolerate the excessive moisture. 61. What is the primary reason for the clearing of coniferous forests? a. mining b. agriculture c. timber harvesting d. urban development 62. What is upwelling? a. movement of cold, nutrient-rich water from the bottom to the surface b. movement of cool water from the Arctic toward the equator c. movement of warm water to replace cool water d. movement of warm surface water 63. What can lead to grasslands being converted to desert? a. occasional short droughts b. barbed-wire fencing c. overgrazing d. urban sprawl 64. Which part of a tropical rain forest receives the strongest direct sunlight? a. the understory b. the canopy c. the emergent layer d. the forest floor 65. Of the biomes listed below, in which would all the following species be found: beetles, spiders, grasshoppers, many insects and invertebrates, earthworms, prairie dogs, rabbits, squirrels, meadowlarks, coyotes, foxes, and hawks? a. temperate grassland b. tropical grassland c. desert d. arctic tundra 66. Which adaptation would you least expect to find in desert animals? a. They drink and store large amounts of water. b. They live underground during the heat of the day. c. They have thick outer coverings to minimize water loss. d. They become dormant during periods of extreme heat or drought. 67. Which biome is characterized by thorn trees and shrubs that are adapted to long dry spells followed by brief, sometimes heavy rains? a. cold desert b. tropical desert c. grasslands d. semidesert 68. Which factor plays a role in determining global air circulation? a. lack of movement of the Earth on its axis b. seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation c. no crustal displacement d. continuous, even heating of the Earth’s surface 69. What is the rain shadow effect? a. more light on the windward side of mountain ranges b. less precipitation on the leeward side of mountain ranges c. more light on the leeward side of mountain ranges d. less precipitation on the windward side of mountain ranges 70. How do temperate deciduous forests compare to tropical rain forests? a. they have more varieties of tree species than tropical rain forests b. they have more varieties of animal species than tropical rain forests c. they have less sunlight penetrating to lower levels than tropical rain forests d. they have more plant life at ground level than tropical rain forests 71. What is a meteorologist most likely to rely on to make the best weather forecasts? a. lab experiments and field observations b. field observations and computer models c. computer models alone d. field observations alone 72. In what biome are cone-bearing trees found? a. temperate deciduous forest b. tropical rain forest c. taiga d. savanna 73. What is an effect of upwelling? a. It results in small populations of seabirds. b. It causes the death of phytoplankton. c. It creates a highly productive area. d. It produces conditions that kill a large number of fish. 74. What would NOT be found at the base of a big tree in a tropical rain forest? a. a deep, vertical taproot b. roots that spread out through the nutrient-poor, moist, thin soil layer c. a thick supportive tree trunk d. a shallow root system 75. What is the most common feature of temperate rain forests? a. They contain mostly evergreens. b. They are not moist enough for mosses to grow. c. They are found along tropical coastlines. d. They usually have lots of light reaching the forest floor. 76. What has led to the disappearance of many of the world’s natural temperate grasslands? a. Increased tornadoes and dust storms b. Increased fires c. Increased pests like locusts d. Increased human agriculture 77. What best explains the term greenhouse effect? a. The greenhouse effect refers to the occupational diseases of florists. b. The greenhouse effect refers to the trapping of heat energy in the troposphere by certain gaseous molecules. c. The greenhouse effect refers to the efforts by the White House to support environmental legislation. d. The greenhouse effect refers to the trapping of heat energy in the stratosphere by nitrogen. 78. Which statement explains what determines global circulation patterns? a. The amount of solar energy reaching the Earth’s surface depends on latitude. b. Hot air sinks. c. Air at the lower latitudes tends to cool and fall or sink downward. d. Warm air is denser than cool air. 79. Which mammal species has been most dominate in the temperate deciduous forest of Canada? a. bears b. wildcats c. foxes d. deer 80. In which biome would a small burrow-dwelling animal with thick fur live? a. desert b. arctic tundra c. tropical forest d. temperate grassland 81. What influences average precipitation and average temperature? a. nuclear fission b. acid deposition c. ocean currents d. acid rain 82. What best explains why a desert is cold at night? a. because the relative humidity of the desert is very high, making the air feel cold b. because there is little vegetation and moisture to help store the heat, and the skies are usually clear c. because nights in the desert are very cloudy and block lunar radiation d. because winds in the desert originate at the north and south poles 83. What is an indicator of the desert ecosystem’s fragility? a. The species diversity of desert plants is high. b. Succulent plants are present in the desert. c. Desert plants grow at a rapid rate. d. Damaged and destroyed desert vegetation requires a long time to regenerate. 84. In which location is a microclimate least likely to occur? a. on a mountain b. on a flat plain c. in a body of water d. in a city 85. Where are succulent plants most likely to be found? a. at a high altitude b. in a cold ecosystem c. in a desert d. in an aquatic habitat 86. Which term includes the others? a. cyclone b. weather extreme c. hurricane d. tornado 87. Which term refers to a large ecological region with characteristic types of natural, undisturbed ecological communities? a. a community b. a population c. a biome d. an ecosystem 88. Where would a natural grassland most likely be found? a. where annual precipitation exceeds 115 cm b. in the zone lying between a forest and a desert c. in places that are suitable for forests d. where drought and fire are very rare 89. Which microclimate effect is incorrectly described? a. The leeward side of a high mountain tends to show relatively dry conditions. b. A forest has fewer temperature extremes and lower wind speeds than nearby open land. c. Oceans and lakes modify temperature extremes. d. A city tends to have lower temperatures and higher wind speeds than the surrounding countryside. 90. Which part of a tropical rain forest receives the least amount of solar radiation? a. the emergent layer b. the canopy c. the understory d. the forest floor 91. Which of the following is a feature of weather? a. ozone concentration b. acid rain c. salt concentration d. air pressure 92. Which biome is most likely to be found on the top of a very tall mountain in a tropical zone? a. a temperate deciduous forest b. a grassland c. a desert d. a tundra 93. What is NOT characteristic of the tropical desert? a. low productivity b. humid conditions c. low diversity d. few grazing animals 94. In which biome are evergreen trees most abundant? a. tropical rain forest b. coniferous forest c. tundra d. temperate deciduous forest 95. Where would the driest place on Earth most likely be found? a. tropical desert b. savanna c. tundra d. temperate desert 96. What is characteristic of desert plants? a. They have succulent leaves or stems. b. They have deep root systems. c. They have large leaves that droop in the bright sunlight. d. They have widespread, shallow root systems. 97. In which biome would permafrost be a typical characteristic? a. coniferous forest b. desert c. taiga d. arctic tundra 98. What are deserts used for? a. water storage b. grazing c. irrigation d. storage of toxic and radioactive wastes 99. What often arrives after a thunderhead appears in the sky? a. a high pressure system b. a stationary front c. a warm front d. a cold front 100. What is the most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area? a. sunlight b. climate c. soil type d. topography 101. What species would you least expect to find if you were exploring a desert ecosystem? a. prickly pear b. saguaro cactus c. maple tree d. creosote bush 102. What would NOT be considered a type of temperate grassland? a. tundra b. steppe c. pampas d. taiga 103. How many different biomes are found in Canada? a. 4 b. 6 c. 8 d. 10 104. What is the primary limiting factor of the rain forest? a. temperature b. soil nutrients c. water d. light 105. Which statement best describes mountain biomes? a. Mountain biomes have deep, rich soils. b. Mountain biomes are independent of atmospheric changes and the hydrologic cycle. c. Mountain biomes recover quickly from vegetation loss. d. Mountain biomes may act as sanctuaries for animal species driven from lowland areas. 106. What type of trees tend to be found in wet tropical rain forests? a. They are coniferous evergreen plants. b. They are broadleaf deciduous plants. c. They are succulent plants. d. They are broadleaf evergreen plants. 107. What best characterizes a desert? a. It is an area where evaporation exceeds precipitation. b. It is an area where most organisms are active during the day. c. It is an area where most vegetation consists of grass. d. It is an area where evaporation is slow. 108. What are the two most important factors in climate? a. temperature and precipitation b. temperature and insulation c. precipitation and pressure d. clouds and wind Enter the appropriate word(s) to complete the statement. 109. Most grasslands are found in the ____________________ of continents. 110. In the semiarid zones between deserts and grassland are ____________________. 111. An air mass with ____________________ pressure contains cool, dense air that descends toward the Earth’s surface and becomes warmer. 112. ____________________ occurs when a change in the direction of tropical winds warms coastal surface water, suppresses upwelling’s, and alters much of the Earth’s weather. 113. ____________________ are large and dangerous storms caused by the formation of low-pressure cells of air over warm tropical seas. 114. ____________________ are plants that grow on other plants and do not have their roots in the soil. 115. ____________________, large grazers, were nearly eliminated from North America’s long-grass prairie. 116. ____________________ causes the movement of nutrient-rich bottom water to the ocean’s surface. 117. In temperate rain forests, the ____________________ moderates the temperature so summers are cool and winters are mild. 118. ____________________ deserts have high daytime temperatures in the summer and low daytime temperatures in the winter. 119. The ___________________________________ is a reduction of rainfall on that side of a high mountain or mountain range facing away from prevailing surface winds. 120. In low-lying areas of the boreal forest, ____________________ can form when the soil becomes waterlogged. 121. ____________________ are formed when the moisture in the air condenses. 122. ____________________ is an area’s short-term atmospheric conditions, typically occurring over hours or days. 123. Excluding areas of the planet that are permanently frozen (such as Antarctica and parts of Greenland), Scientists have divided the Earth into ____________________ major terrestrial biomes. 124. The most fertile soil for crops and livestock is found in ____________________ grasslands. 125. Mountain biomes are often high-elevation forested islands of ____________________. 126. Some desert plants open their ____________________ only at night to take up carbon dioxide. 127. The clearing of the diverse temperate deciduous forests and replanting them with a single tree species results in _______________________. 128. Canadian scientists have divided Canada into ____________________ major terrestrial biomes. 129. A(n) ____________________ is the boundary between an advancing warm air mass and the cooler one it is replacing. 130. Rainfall and evaporation regulate the amount of water in a(n) ___________________________ biome. 131. ____________________ deserts have few plants, and they are hot and dry most of the year. 132. The natural heating of the Earth is the result of _________________________ being trapped in the lower atmosphere. 133. Heat and moisture are distributed over the Earth’s surface by vertical currents that form six _____________________________ at different latitudes. 134. A(n)____________________ is classified according to the predominant natural vegetation in the region which is primarily determined by differences in climate. 135. Most boreal forests are dominated by a few species of_____________________________ trees. 136. The ____________________ tundra occurs on high mountains between the limit of tree growth (tree line) and the snow line. 137. A region’s ____________________ is primarily determined by its average precipitation and average temperature over a long period of time. 138. Describe how the rain shadow effect alters the vegetation on the windward side of a mountain range relative to the leeward side? 139. What two features are common to a tropical rain forest and a temperate rain forest? 140. What are the four major factors that determine global air circulation? 141. Although both are considered tropical cyclones, what is the difference between a hurricane and a typhoon? 142. What is the difference between an El Niño and an El Niña? 143. What is the jet stream? 144. What are four strategies that desert plants use to conserve water and lose heat? AIR 145. Which letter in the diagram corresponds to tropical deciduous forest? 146. What is the difference between a tornado and a tropical cyclone? 147. Which biome would be best suited for grazing livestock and why? 148. If there was no natural greenhouse effect, what would the Earth be like? 149. Which limiting factor is common to a desert and the arctic tundra? 150. Why has cattle grazing caused grasslands to be converted to desert? AIR 151. Which letter in the diagram corresponds to moist air rising and forming precipitation? 152. Which letter in the diagram corresponds to moist air rising, cooling, and forming precipitation? 153. How do temperate rain forests differ from tropical rain forests? AIR 154. Which letter in the diagram (E, F or G) corresponds to cool, dry air falling? 155. Identify three major human impacts on the world’s mountain biomes?