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Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition By Arnett

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 020559526X
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0205595266

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Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition By Arnett

Chapter 12 Late Adulthood

Section 1 Physical Development 1370
Test Item File 1370
Multiple Choice Questions 1370
Short Answer Questions 1401
Essay Questions 1402
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank 1403
Pre-Test 1403
Post-Test 1405
Chapter Exam 1407
Quick Review 1409
Video Guide Questions 1412
Short Answer Questions 1412
Multiple Choice Questions 1412
Section 2 Cognitive Development 1415
Test Item File 1415
Multiple Choice Questions 1415
Short Answer Questions 1442
Essay Questions 1442
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank 1445
Pre-Test 1445
Post-Test 1447
Chapter Exam 1449
Quick Review 1452
Video Guide Questions 1454
Short Answer Questions 1454
Multiple Choice Questions 1454
Section 3 Emotional and Social Development 1457
Test Item File 1457
Multiple Choice Questions 1457
Short Answer Questions 1484
Essay Questions 1485
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank 1488
Pre-Test 1488
Post-Test 1490
Chapter Exam 1492
Quick Review 1495
Video Guide Questions 1498
Short Answer Questions 1498
Multiple Choice Questions 1498

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 1 Physical Development

Test Item File

Difficulty
1=Easy; 2=Moderate; 3=Difficult

Learning Objective number refers to the textbook’s learning objectives.

MDL Parallel Question ID refers to the correlating question found in MyDevelopmentLab. For your convenience, the MyDevelopmentLab items for this chapter are included in this document after the Test Item File.
Pre=Pre-Test
Post=Post-Test
CE=Chapter Exam
QR=Quick Review
Multiple Choice Questions

1. Late adulthood is usually marked off by developmental psychologists as beginning at age ____.
a. 55 years
b. 60 years
c. 65 years
d. 70 years
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.1, QR 12.1.1

2. In what country is there a Respect for the Aged Day, which is a national holiday?
a. the United States
b. Japan
c. the Netherlands
d. Greece
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

3. Your roommate was talking about how after the academic year he is going back to Japan. His grandfather is turning 60 years old and they have a ritual that symbolizes the person’s freedom from previous responsibilities and elevates the individual to a new and respected status as elder. What is the name of this ritual?
a. kanreki
Correct. Kanreki refers to the Japanese ritual that symbolizes a person’s status elevation to that of a respected elder.
b. sensei
Incorrect. Sensei is a Japanese term of respect.
c. koto
d. utsubo
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.9

4. The practice that no matter how old children are, they owe obedience and respect to their parents, no matter how old the parents are is ____.
a. momma love
b. children imperative
c. parental positive regard
Incorrect. The term for this concept is filial piety.
d. filial piety
Correct. The term for this concept is filial piety.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.8

5. The stage of late adulthood begins at age ____.
a. 55
b. 60
c. 65
d. 70
Answer: a
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Difficulty: 1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.2

6. Which of the following best describes the Japanese ritual of kanreki?
a. It celebrates a person’s retirement from work and marks a time of leisure and rest.
b. It celebrates a person’s 60th birthday and their transition into the respected status of an elder.
Correct. Usually held around the person’s 60th birthday, the ritual symbolizes the person’s freedom from previous responsibilities.
c. It celebrates a person’s movement into young adulthood and marks a time of personal and social responsibility.
Incorrect. Usually held around the person’s 60th birthday, the ritual symbolizes the person’s freedom from previous responsibilities.
d. It celebrates a person’s graduation from college and their transition into the workforce as a productive member of society.
Answer: b
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Difficulty: 2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

7. Aoi is Japanese and just turned 60 years old, the celebration that his family will have to mark the occasion is called ____.
a. tomoko
b. kanreki
c. yoko
d. ayaka
Answer: b
Page: 553
Learning Objective: 12.1
Difficulty: 2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.1

8. In Asian cultures, the tradition of filial piety is ____.
a. obedience and respect to parents, no matter how old they are
b. honor and trust to everyone in the family
c. loyalty to the laws and codes of society
d. commitment to one’s family and their village
Answer: a
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Difficulty:
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

9. Older people are more likely to have high status in cultures where:
a. older adults are quite virile
b. extended families are common
Correct. Older adults are more likely to have high status in cultures in which extended families are common.
c. older adult men have very young wives
d. older adult women are the head of the families
Incorrect. Older adults are more likely to have high status in cultures in which extended families are common.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.9

10. An analysis of American television advertisements containing older adults (Miller et al., 2004) found that what percentage of them presented older adults in positive ways?
a. 78%
b. 68%
c. 58%
d. 48%
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

11. Increased social welfare and health entitlements during the 1960s and 1970s have now made older adults ____.
a. independent and powerful
b. dependent on social programs
Incorrect. Older adults are the wealthiest segment of the United States population.
c. the wealthiest segment of developed countries
Correct. Older adults are the wealthiest segment of the United States population.
d. the least wealthy segment of developed countries
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

12. You are speaking with your 67-year-old grandfather who is jokingly telling you that he is about as old as one can get. Remembering your developmental class, what do you know about his age in reference to the lifespan? He is actually in the ____.
a. young-old group
Correct. Your grandfather is in the young-old group, ages 65–74.
b. old-old group
Incorrect. Your grandfather is in the young-old group, ages 65–74.
c. middle-old group
d. oldest-old group
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

13. If an older adult is 82 years old, what developmental group would he or she be in?
a. young-old group
b. old-old group
Correct. An 82-year-old adult would be in the old-old group.
c. middle-old group
Incorrect. An 82-year-old adult would be in the old-old group.
d. oldest-old group
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

14. If an older adult is 92 years old, what developmental group would he or she be in?
a. young-old group
b. old-old group
c. middle-old group
Incorrect. A 92-year-old adult would be in the oldest-old group.
d. oldest-old group
Correct. A 92-year-old adult would be in the oldest-old group.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

15. A developmental psychologist and demographer would describe an individual who is 85 years or older as ____.
a. young-old
b. old-old
c. oldest-old
d. older-old
Answer: c
Page: 554
Learning Objective: 12.1
Difficulty: 3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.2

16. What percentage of Americans over 85 are impaired enough in their ADL capacities to be institutionalized in a nursing home or other facility?
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 80%
Answer: b
Page: 555
Learning Objective: 12.1
Difficulty: 2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

17. Countries that have a birth rate that is below 2.1 children per woman ____.
a. will see a decline in their total population
b. will see an increase in the total population
c. will see a leveling off in their total population
d. are unable to predict population values
Answer: a
Page: 555
Learning Objective: 12.2
Difficulty: 2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.2

18. The old-age dependency ratio (OADR) is calculated as the number of persons ____.
a. age 65 or older, divided by the number of persons age 20 to 64
b. age 20 to 64, divided by the number of persons age 65 or older
c. age 55 or older, multiplied by the number of persons age 18 or older
d. age 55 or older, added to the number of persons age 21 or older
Answer: a
Page: 555–6
Learning Objective: 12.2
Difficulty: 3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

19. The number of persons aged 65 or older, divided by the number of persons age 20–64 is known as ____.
a. young adulthood as compared to aging (YACA)
b. old-age comparison to youthfulness (OACY)
c. age of retirement compared to the age of productivity (ARCAP)
d. old-age dependency ratio (OADR)
Answer: d
Page: 555–6
Learning Objective: 12.2
Difficulty: 2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

20. Your 94-year-old great-grandmother is having difficulty with bathing, dressing, food preparation and eating, housekeeping, and paying bills. Your family is considering getting some professional nursing care for her. During the interview with the nursing care provider, the nurse asks what your great-grandmother’s major concerns are. What would you tell the nurse?
a. activities of daily living
Correct. The difficulties center around activities of daily living.
b. self-care activities
Incorrect. The difficulties center around activities of daily living.
c. grooming behavior
d. adult activities
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 555
Learning Objective: 12.1.
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.10

21. What percentage of persons over age 80 years rated their health as “good” or “excellent?”
a. 16%
b. 33%
c. 48%
d. 64%
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 555
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

22. What percentage of Americans over 85 years of age are impaired enough to be institutionalized in a nursing home or other facility?
a. 15%
b. 25%
c. 35%
d. 45%
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 555
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

23. What concept signifies the actual competence and performance of older adults?
a. functional age
Correct. Functional age refers to the actual competence and performance of older adults’ abilities.
b. chronological age
c. competency age
Incorrect. Functional age refers to the actual competence and performance of older adults’ abilities.
d. geriatric age
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 555
Learning Objective: 12.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.2

24. Your grandfather is joking that there are going to be more people over 60 years of age than there will be people under 15 soon. He says that there will not be enough people working to cover the costs of Social Security. By what year will people over 60 years of age outnumber those under age 15?
a. 2020
b. 2030
c. 2040
Incorrect. In 2050 it is projected that the number of individuals older than 60 will be larger than the number of individuals under age 15 for the first time in history.
d. 2050
Correct. In 2050 it is projected that the number of individuals older than 60 will be larger than the number of individuals under age 15 for the first time in history.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 555
Learning Objective: 12.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.3

25. What is the ratio of the number of person aged 65 years or older to the number of person aged 20 to 64 years (number of persons aged 65 years or older/number of persons 20 to 64) referred to as?
a. Medicare ratio
b. old-age dependency ratio
Correct. This ratio is referred to as the old-age dependency ratio since those older than 65 are more likely to be dependent on the resources of those younger than age 65.
c. older adult to younger adult ratio
Incorrect. This ratio is referred to as the old-age dependency ratio since those older than 65 are more likely to be dependent on the resources of those younger than age 65.
d. Social Security ratio
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 555
Learning Objective: 12.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

26. What is the ratio of the number of person aged 65 years or older to the number of person aged 20 to 64 years in Japan?
a. 25%
b. 35%
c. 45%
d. 55%
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 556
Learning Objective: 12.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

27. ____ is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms.
a. Primary aging
b. Secondary aging
c. Lateral aging
d. Tertiary aging
Answer: a
Page: 558
Learning Objective: 12.2
Difficulty: 2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.4

28. ____ is the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution.
a. Primary aging
b. Tertiary aging
c. Lateral aging
d. Secondary aging
Answer: D
Page: 558
Learning Objective: 12.2
Difficulty: 2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

29. ____ is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms, whereas ____ is the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution.
a. Tertiary aging; vertical aging
b. Vertical aging; tertiary aging
c. Primary aging; secondary aging
d. Secondary aging; primary aging
Answer: c
Page: 558
Learning Objective: 12.2
Difficulty: 3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

30. In developed countries, what is the life expectancy of a person who is 65 years old?
a. 5 to 10 additional years
b. 15 to 20 additional years
c. 25 to 30 additional years
d. 35 to 40 additional years
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 557
Learning Objective: 12.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

31. Around the world, about how much longer will women at age 65 live longer than men?
a. 5 additional years
b. 10 additional years
c. 15 additional years
d. 20 additional years
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 557
Learning Objective: 12.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.3

32. Your grandmother is 87 and she has remarked to you that nearly all of her friends are women. She told you that it is rare to see a man over age 85. Is she correct? Yes, past age 85, for every 100 men there are ____.
a. 678 women
b. 452 women
c. 226 women
Correct. Past age 85, for every 100 men there are 226 women.
d. 113 women
Incorrect. Past age 85, for every 100 men there are 226 women.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 557
Learning Objective: 12.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

33. What is the term that is used to describe the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species?
a. primary aging
Correct. The term used to describe the inevitable biological aging process is primary aging.
b. secondary aging
Incorrect. The term used to describe the inevitable biological aging process is primary aging.
c. tertiary aging
d. quaternary aging
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 558
Learning Objective: 12.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

34. What is the term that is used to describe the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution?
a. primary aging
Incorrect. The term used to describe the loss in functioning due to lifestyle behaviors is secondary aging.
b. secondary aging
Correct. The term used to describe the loss in functioning due to lifestyle behaviors is secondary aging.
c. tertiary aging
d. quaternary aging
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 558
Learning Objective: 12.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.5

35. Your grandmother has quite a bit of gray hair. She told you that she first started getting gray hair when she was 52 and it keeps getting grayer each year. What is happening that her hair is getting gray?
a. Gray pigments occur more frequently in older adults.
Incorrect. Gray hair occurs because there is a loss of pigment from the hair.
b. The hair becomes more transparent in old age.
c. Stress creates more gray pigment to appear in older adults.
d. Most people experience loss of pigment that provides hair color.
Correct. Gray hair occurs because there is a loss of pigment from the hair.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 559
Learning Objective: 12.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.6

36. What percentage of women older than 60 years of age exhibit osteoporosis?
a. 33%
b. 44%
c. 55%
d. 66%
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 564
Learning Objective: 12.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

37. What are age-related changes that occur due to the accumulation of decades of exposure to the sun, and are most likely to develop on light-skinned persons and on the part of the bodies that receive the most sun exposure: the face, arms, and hands?
a. melanoma
b. age spots
c. sun tan
d. age-related pigmentosa
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 559
Learning Objective: 12.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

38. Your 5′ 8″-tall grandfather always jokes that he used to be 6′ 2″. All of the other males in your family average about 5′ 10″ tall. Is he telling the truth about his original height? No, men lose height after 60, but is usually about ____.
a. 1.0″
Incorrect. The loss in height for males older than 60 is about 1.5 inches.
b. 1.5″
Correct. The loss in height for males older than 60 is about 1.5 inches.
c. 2.0″
d. 2.5″
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 559
Learning Objective: 12.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

39. What percentage of Americans over age 65 years have lost all of their natural teeth?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 559
Learning Objective: 12.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

40. Your neighbor is quite upset. She is 82 years old and has been having some serious vision problems. You have suggested quite a few times that she needs to see her doctor. She finally went and she was told that she has cataracts. She feels like she is the only one her age that has this problem. What could you tell her regarding what percentage of adults her age have cataracts?
a. 90%
b. 70%
c. 50%
Correct. Approximately 50% of adults older than 80 years of age have cataracts.
d. 30%
Incorrect. Approximately 50% of adults older than 80 years of age have cataracts.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 559
Learning Objective: 12.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.8

41. What is a condition in which there is a progressive thickening of the lens causing vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted?
a. macular degeneration
b. cataracts
c. glaucoma
d. retinosis pigmentosa
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 559
Learning Objective: 12.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.3

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