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Human Biology Concepts And Current Issues 8Th Ed By Johnson – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0134154002
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0134154008

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SKU:tb1001820

Human Biology Concepts And Current Issues 8Th Ed By Johnson – Test Bank

Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues, 8e (Johnson)
Chapter 9 The Immune System and Mechanisms of Defense

9.1 Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Ebola virus can be transmitted via
A) fruit fallen from a tree.
B) direct contact with bodily fluids of an infected person.
C) agriculture/crops in an epidemic area.
D) any contact, like a handshake.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.0
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

2) Body defenses that respond to generalized tissue damage and many common pathogens are referred to as
A) phagocytic.
B) antipathogenic responses.
C) nonspecific mechanisms.
D) lymphomas.
E) specific mechanisms.
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.0
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

3) Which one of the following diseases is caused by a virus?
A) rabies
B) Lyme disease
C) syphilis
D) toxic shock syndrome
E) tuberculosis
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

4) Bacteria are helpful to humans in many ways, including all of the following EXCEPT which one?
A) production of antibiotics
B) breakdown of raw sewage
C) digestion of cellulose in the human intestine
D) production of soy sauce
E) production of vitamins for the human body
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1
5) When comparing viruses and bacteria, which one of the following statements is CORRECT?
A) Viruses are larger than bacteria.
B) Viruses are pathogens; bacteria are decomposers.
C) Viruses have membrane-bound organelles; bacteria do not have membrane-bound organelles.
D) Viruses and bacteria are both able to reproduce on their own.
E) Viruses and bacteria both contain genetic material.
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

6) The bubonic plague epidemic that swept through Europe between 1348 and 1350 A.D. was induced by a(n)
A) virus.
B) prion.
C) protozoan.
D) bacterium.
E) unidentified eukaryotic organism.
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

7) Once a prion enters a nerve cell, it essentially
A) assumes the correct folding orientation for the protein.
B) stops the cascade of misfolding events associated with adjacent cells.
C) becomes self-propagating, causing misfolding of nearby normal proteins.
D) differentiates into a nonreplicating virus.
E) differentiates into a replicating virus.
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

8) Antibiotics are most likely to be effective in the treatment of infections caused by
A) bacteria.
B) viruses.
C) parasitic worms.
D) lice and ticks.
E) prions.
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1
9) Which of the following is TRUE regarding lymph nodes?
A) They are located only in the digestive tract and neck.
B) They remove microorganisms and abnormal cells from the lymph and return them to blood circulation.
C) Macrophages but not lymphocytes can be found within lymph nodes.
D) They filter lymph fluid, trapping microorganisms and abnormal cells.
E) Lymph flows from the lymph vessels to the urinary system.
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

10) Which one of the following is TRUE regarding the spleen?
A) It is located in the lower portion of the thoracic cavity.
B) Red pulp of the spleen stores excess blood.
C) White pulp of the spleen contains macrophages that kill microorganisms circulating in the lymph.
D) Red pulp of the spleen contains primarily lymphocytes.
E) The spleen has the same functions as the tonsils.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

11) Which one of the following is/are located in the tonsils to filter out many of the microorganisms that enter the throat?
A) thymus
B) adenoids
C) lymphocytes
D) platelets
E) red blood cells
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

12) Skin is able to prevent most microorganisms from entering the body by
A) producing alkaline secretions.
B) having keratin in the uppermost layer.
C) production of antibodies.
D) the adhesion junction in the skin preventing bacteria from entering.
E) releasing macrophages on the skin surface.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.3
GLO: G1

13) Why do some physicians advise patients with a bladder infection to drink a lot of cranberry juice?
A) Cranberry juice contains chemicals that kill viruses and bacteria.
B) The increased volume of fluid in the bladder causes bacterial cells to burst as they absorb the excess fluid.
C) Cranberry juice makes the urine more acidic, decreasing the rate at which microorganisms can grow and reproduce.
D) Cranberry juice increases the efficiency of urine production by the kidneys.
E) Cranberry juice enhances the action of phagocytic cells.
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.3
GLO: G2

14) All of the following represent physical and/or chemical barriers that form the body’s first line of defense against pathogens EXCEPT which one?
A) tears
B) resident bacteria
C) skin surface
D) earwax
E) antibodies
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.3
GLO: G1

15) The release of chemicals from injured cells triggers histamine release from
A) macrophages.
B) B cells.
C) neutrophils.
D) phagocytes.
E) mast cells.
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

16) The following is a list of steps involved in the process of phagocytosis. Which of the following answers indicates these steps in the CORRECT order?
1. Lysosome fuses with the vesicle containing a foreign cell.
2. Wastes from the foreign cell are removed.
3. The foreign cell is surrounded by the cell membrane of the phagocyte.
4. Lysosomal enzymes break down the foreign cell.
5. The foreign cell is contained within a vesicle.
A) 5, 3, 1, 4, 2
B) 3, 5, 2, 1, 4
C) 3, 5, 1, 4, 2
D) 2, 4, 1, 5, 3
E) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

17) Which of the following leukocytes is most likely to be directly involved in the destruction of flukes (a parasitic flatworm)?
A) natural killer cells
B) eosinophils
C) neutrophils
D) B lymphocytes
E) basophils
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

18) Which of the following leukocytes kills its target cells, such as cancer cells or virus-infected cells, by releasing chemicals that break down the target cell membrane?
A) natural killer cells
B) B lymphocytes
C) basophils
D) T lymphocytes
E) macrophages
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

19) All of the following are ways in which a mild fever participates as part of the body’s second line of defense and aids the body EXCEPT
A) increasing the metabolic rate of body cells.
B) speeding up defense reactions.
C) increasing the rate of tissue repair.
D) creating an inhospitable internal environment for pathogenic bacteria.
E) enhancing the secretion of antibodies by plasma cells.
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

20) All of the following are involved in the inflammatory response EXCEPT
A) antibodies.
B) mast cells.
C) histamine.
D) basophils.
E) phagocytes.
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.4
GLO: G2

21) Which of the following are proteins in the blood that can be activated to lyse bacterial cells, mark other bacterial cells for destruction, and enhance inflammation?
A) albumins
B) antibodies
C) complement
D) interferons
E) lymphokines
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

22) Viral-infected human cells often send out special proteins that serve as an early warning system to uninfected cells. In response, the uninfected cells develop antiviral proteins that protect them. The early warning proteins sent out by viral-infected cells are
A) complement.
B) interferon.
C) antibodies.
D) antigens.
E) antibiotics.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1
23) Which of the following is associated with the specific defenses of the body?
A) cell-mediated immunity
B) phagocytosis
C) interferons
D) the inflammatory response
E) the complement system
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

24) Antibodies are classified by size, location, and function, and which one of the following represents the most common type of immunoglobulin?
A) IgM
B) IgG
C) IgA
D) IgD
E) MHC
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

25) Which one type of cells is responsible for producing and releasing antibodies?
A) red bone marrow
B) B lymphocytes
C) T lymphocytes
D) macrophages
E) natural killer cells
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

26) Which one of the following is characteristic of T lymphocytes but NOT B lymphocytes?
A) direct attack of antigen-bearing cells
B) production of immunoglobulins
C) maturation in the red bone marrow
D) production of plasma cells
E) antibody-mediated immunity
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G1
27) The advantage of having memory cells in specific defenses is that
A) they remain in an active state, continuously producing antibodies.
B) if exposed to an antigen a second time, they quickly become plasma cells.
C) they prevent production of other proteins so that antibodies can be produced.
D) they produce antibodies and can become phagocytic.
E) they prevent viruses from entering the body a second time.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G1

28)

Identify the figure above.
A) complement
B) antibody
C) antigen
D) interferon
E) pyrogen
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G1
29) Once a macrophage engulfs a bacterium, what happens to the foreign cell?
A) It is released into the lymph system for removal from the body.
B) It is released into the digestive tract for removal from the body.
C) The macrophage is attacked by antibodies, killing the cell and bacterium.
D) Antibodies penetrate the macrophage to lyse the bacterial cell.
E) The bacterium is killed by digestive enzymes released from lysosomes.
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

30) Which of the following antibodies would most likely be involved with the immune response against a microorganism entering the digestive or reproductive tract?
A) IgA
B) IgD
C) IgG
D) IgM
E) IgE
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

31) Which of the following classes of antibodies activates the inflammatory response by causing the release of histamine?
A) IgG
B) IgE
C) IgD
D) IgM
E) IgA
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

32) During cytotoxic T cell attack of a target cell, which one of the following is released to pierce the cell membrane of the foreign cell, which ultimately kills the target cell?
A) interferon
B) eosinophil
C) histamine
D) perforin
E) antibody
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

33) Which one of the following is correct regarding the structure of an antibody?
A) An antibody is made up of two polypeptide chains linked by hydrogen bonds.
B) The four polypeptide chains that make up an antibody molecule are linked by disulfide bonds.
C) The constant regions of the polypeptides in an antibody form antigen-binding sites.
D) Only one polypeptide in an antibody has a constant region and a variable region.
E) The polypeptides making up an antibody are connected by hydrogen bonds.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

34) Which one of the following types of T cells is a critical component of the immune system because it stimulates and enhances the activity of other components of the immune system?
A) T suppressor cell
B) T memory cell
C) T helper cell
D) cytotoxic T cell
E) natural killer cells
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

35) Which one of the following enables T helper cells to stimulate and activate other cells of the immune response?
A) interferon
B) cytokines
C) antibodies
D) complement
E) histamine
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

36) Which immune system cell must be presented with antigen by an antigen-presenting cell such as a macrophage, in order to become appropriately activated?
A) B lymphocyte
B) plasma cell
C) macrophage
D) T lymphocyte
E) natural killer cell
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G1

37)

The figure above illustrates antibody titers produced during a primary and secondary immune response. All of the following statements about the primary and secondary immune response are correct EXCEPT which one?
A) Antibody is produced at a much higher rate during the secondary immune response.
B) The antibody level produced in the secondary response is three times greater than that produced during the primary immune response.
C) There is a lag time between antigen exposure and antibody production in the primary immune response that is not seen in the secondary immune response.
D) The difference between the two responses is due to the presence of memory cells during the secondary response.
E) Antibody levels stay elevated for a longer time following a secondary response.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G2

38) Which one of the following best explains why people get so many colds in their lifetime?
A) The immune system has a hard time identifying the viruses that cause the colds.
B) The viruses that cause these colds constantly produce new antibodies, which cause the symptoms.
C) These individuals do not produce enough white blood cells.
D) The viruses that cause colds evolve rapidly, which results in a change in their antigenic structure.
E) The B cells of these individuals destroy their T cells.
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 9.6
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.6
GLO: G2

39) Vaccines contain
A) memory cells against the pathogen.
B) antigens of the pathogen.
C) antibodies of the pathogen.
D) lymphokines.
E) T cells programmed to attack the pathogen.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.7
GLO: G1

40) Passive immunity differs from active immunity in that passive immunity
A) causes long-term immunity.
B) involves the administration of preformed antibodies.
C) results in the production of antibodies.
D) is not effective against a preexisting condition.
E) results in the production of memory cells.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.7
GLO: G1

41) An individual with an uncertain vaccine history has been brought to the emergency room after receiving severe lacerations in an accident with farm machinery. In addition to administering a tetanus toxoid vaccine, he is given a shot of tetanus immune globulin (TIG), a form of passive immunization. Why are both necessary?
A) The tetanus vaccine provides immediate protection, and the tetanus immune globulin provides long-term protection.
B) The doctor is not sure which will work faster in this patient so decides to administer both.
C) The tetanus immune globulin is given only when there are severe injuries and a high risk of infection.
D) Tetanus immune globulin is always given along with the tetanus vaccine.
E) The tetanus immune globulin provides immediate, short-term protection, and the tetanus vaccine provides long-term protection.
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.7
GLO: G2

42) Which one of the following would result in passive immunity?
A) vaccination
B) past occurrence of an infection or disease
C) production of memory cells
D) movement of antibodies across the placenta from mother to child
E) stimulation of T cells and B cells by an antigen
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.7
GLO: G2

43) All of the following are used in making monoclonal antibodies EXCEPT which one?
A) mouse T cells from thymus
B) mouse B cells from spleen
C) specific antigen injected into mouse
D) myeloma (cancer) cells
E) cell culture media for hybridoma cells
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.7
GLO: G2

44) Antibiotics kill bacterial cells but do not (usually) damage human cells by taking advantage of the difference between human and bacterial cells. These differences include
A) bacterial cells have cell walls, human cells do not.
B) bacterial ribosomes are larger than those of humans.
C) protein synthesis in bacteria is identical to that in human cells.
D) bacterial cells have a cell membrane, human cells do not.
E) human and bacterial DNA are enclosed in a nucleus.
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.7
GLO: G1

45) All of the following are routinely done to assure a successful organ transplant and minimize the chance of organ rejection EXCEPT which one?
A) match the ABO blood types of donor and recipient
B) match the MHC tissue types of donor and recipient
C) irradiate the recipient to knock out his or her immune system prior to the transplant
D) give the recipient immunosuppressive drugs to suppress reactions against the transplanted tissue
E) give the recipient antibiotics to control any infections
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.8
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.8
GLO: G1

46) Any substance that produces an inappropriate response of the immune system is referred to as a(an)
A) allergen.
B) antibody.
C) plasma cell.
D) allergy.
E) perforin.
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.9
GLO: G1

47) Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks
A) its own connective tissue.
B) the brain.
C) the spleen.
D) its own antibodies.
E) heart tissue.
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.9
GLO: G1
48) All of the following are involved in the generation of an allergic response EXCEPT which one?
A) allergen
B) IgE
C) IgG
D) mast cells and basophils
E) histamine
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.9
GLO: G2

49) HIV is classified as a retrovirus because
A) it infects only cells with a CD4 receptor.
B) it makes a DNA copy of its RNA once inside the host cell.
C) this virus is composed of two cells surrounded by a lipoprotein coat.
D) it reverts to an inactive form when it infects B lymphocytes.
E) it causes the production of HIV antibodies.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1

50) Which of the following body fluids does not transmit HIV from human to human?
A) blood
B) semen
C) saliva
D) vaginal fluid
E) breast milk
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1

51) Which of the following is TRUE regarding HIV and AIDS?
A) Most of the people infected with HIV live in South America, where the disease originated.
B) Approximately 100,000 people worldwide are newly diagnosed with HIV each day.
C) Due to improved availability of drugs combating HIV in the United States, there is an increase in the life span of people living with AIDS.
D) Symptoms of AIDS appear quickly after HIV detection.
E) More than 95% of people living with HIV will die within five years.
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1
52) Which of the following best describes Phase I of HIV infection?
A) T cell count of 100 per cubic millimeter of blood
B) presence of an opportunistic infection
C) swollen lymph nodes, chills, fever, body aches
D) onset of AIDS
E) absence of HIV antibodies
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1

53)

Referring to the figure above, the progression from Phase II HIV infection to Phase III is marked by
A) a high fever and swollen lymph nodes.
B) a drop in the helper T cell count to less than 200/mm3.
C) the complete absence of antibodies to HIV.
D) decreasing HIV in the blood.
E) helper T cell numbers recovering from an initial drop.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1

9.2 True/False Questions

1) Bacterial pathogens cause symptoms of a disease by invading host cells or by producing toxins that damage host cells.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

2) Prions are infectious proteins that cause normal proteins in the brain to misfold.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

3) Viral infections can usually be treated with antibiotics.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

4) Lymph nodes filter the blood and remove bacteria and other invading microorganisms that may have entered the bloodstream.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

5) The thymus gland, which is responsible for the development of T cells, stops growing during adolescence and shrinks as one grows into adulthood.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

6) Tears and saliva contain the enzyme dermicidin, which is effective in preventing bacteria from entering the human body.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.3
GLO: G1
7) The bacteria that normally live on the mucous membranes of the digestive tract and vagina provide protection against infection with harmful disease-producing microorganisms.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.3
GLO: G1

8) The best way to reduce bacterial pathogens in the bloodstream is to reduce a fever as quickly as possible.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

9) Histamine is released by neutrophils to induce an inflammation response when tissues become damaged.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

10) The first type of white blood cell to arrive at the site of an infection is the eosinophil.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

11) One role of MHC proteins is that they serve as self markers to the human immune system.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G1

12) The best way to defend the body from a viral infection is to prevent the infection by using a vaccine.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.7
GLO: G1

13) When considering transfusions or transplants, it is more difficult to match blood than to match tissue types because blood cells have more self markers on their surface.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 9.8
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.8
GLO: G1
14) Individuals infected with HIV produce antibodies, but these antibodies do not prevent progression to Phase II and Phase III of infection.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.10
GLO: G5

9.3 Matching Questions

The human body uses three lines of defense to protect against pathogens. Match each of the following categories of defense to the type of cell or mechanism involved in the defense. Answers may be used more than once.

A) physical or chemical barrier
B) specific defense mechanism
C) nonspecific defense mechanism

1) cytotoxic T cells
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

2) inflammation
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

3) acidic pH of skin
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.3
GLO: G1

4) natural killer cells
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

5) release of interferons
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

6) earwax
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.3
GLO: G1

7) production of antibodies by plasma cells
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1
8) release of perforin and granzyme by cytotoxic cells
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

Answers: 1) B 2) C 3) A 4) C 5) C 6) A 7) B 8) B

Match each component of the lymphatic system to its function.

A) tonsil
B) lymphatic vessel
C) spleen
D) lymph node
E) thymus

9) transports lymph in the body
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

10) removes microorganisms and old red blood cells from the blood
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

11) filters out microorganisms that enter the throat by food or air
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

12) secretes hormones important in the maturation of T cells
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

13) filters microorganisms and cellular debris from lymph
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1
Answers: 9) B 10) C 11) A 12) E 13) D

Match each of the following T lymphocytes to its description.

A) helper T cells
B) cytotoxic T cells
C) memory T cells

14) migrate through blood and lymph, directly attacking and destroying foreign cells
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

15) activate the immune system when an antigen reenters the body
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G1

16) stimulate the immune system by secreting lymphokines and interleukins; they activate B lymphocytes and macrophages
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

17) primary target of HIV
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

Answers: 14) B 15) C 16) A 17) A

Match each of the following disorders associated with the immune system to its description.

A) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
B) severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
C) rheumatoid arthritis
D) allergy
E) lupus erythematosus

18) an autoimmune disorder affecting the synovial membrane of the joints
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.9
GLO: G1

19) an inherited disorder characterized by insufficient numbers of lymphocytes to fight an infection
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1

20) an inappropriate response to a nonpathogenic substance
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.9
GLO: G1

21) an autoimmune disorder affecting connective tissue
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.9
GLO: G1

22) a disease caused by HIV infection; results in irreparable damage to the immune system
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1

Answers: 18) C 19) B 20) D 21) E 22) A

9.4 Short Answer Questions

1) Bacterial infections are generally treated with ________.
Answer: antibiotics
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

2) Bacteria are classified as ________ cells because they do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
Answer: prokaryotic
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1
3) Microbes that cause disease are referred to as ________.
Answer: pathogens
Topic: Sec. 9.1
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.1
GLO: G1

4) Microorganisms and cellular debris are removed from lymph by the ________ and from blood by the ________.
Answer: lymph nodes; spleen
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

5) The ________ are lymphatic tissues that protect the throat.
Answer: tonsils
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

6) Tears and saliva contain ________, an enzyme that kills bacteria.
Answer: lysozyme
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

7) Helicobacter pylori can survive the acidic conditions of the human stomach and have been found to cause the development of stomach ________.
Answer: ulcers
Topic: Sec. 9.2
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.2
GLO: G1

8) The two major types of phagocytic cells are the ________ and the ________.
Answer: neutrophils; macrophages (answers may go in any order)
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.3
GLO: G1

9) Inflammation generally results when tissues become damaged and ________ cells respond by releasing histamine.
Answer: mast
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1
10) Chemicals released by macrophages that cause the onset of a fever are called ________.
Answer: pyrogens
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

11) B lymphocytes mature in the ________.
Answer: bone marrow
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

12) Cell-mediated immunity involves the activity of ________ lymphocytes.
Answer: T
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

13) The unique set of proteins located on the surface of cells that distinguish one organism from another are the ________.
Answer: major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G1

14) Plasma cells and memory cells are types of ________ lymphocytes; both types of cells secrete proteins called ________ as part of the immune response.
Answer: B; antibodies
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

15) The ________ class of immunoglobulins is the most common type and is the only type that can cross the placenta to pass on the mother’s acquired immunity to the developing fetus.
Answer: IgG
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

16) While T lymphocytes are maturing, each of them develops one of two sets of proteins on their cell surface. These proteins are known as ________ and ________.
Answer: CD4; CD8 (answers may go in any order)
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1
17) T cells are activated by macrophages and activated B cells, which fulfill this role by acting as ________.
Answer: antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

18) The only T lymphocyte that directly attacks and destroys other cells is the ________ T cell.
Answer: cytotoxic
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

19) Helper T cells release ________, molecules that stimulate the activity of other T cells and macrophages; these chemicals stimulate inflammation as well.
Answer: lymphokines or cytokines (either term can be used here)
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.5a
GLO: G1

20) The human body’s first exposure to an antigen generates a primary ________ response.
Answer: immune
Topic: Sec. 9.6
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.6
GLO: G1

21) An immunization that uses prepared antibodies from a human or animal donor and that does not provide long-lasting protection is called ________ immunity.
Answer: passive
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.7
GLO: G1

22) Drugs that kill or inhibit bacteria are known as ________.
Answer: antibiotics
Topic: Sec. 9.7
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.7
GLO: G1

23) Following transplant surgery, a patient is given ________ drugs that block the action of the immune response against the transplanted organ.
Answer: immunosuppressive
Topic: Sec. 9.8
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.8
GLO: G1
24) Symptoms of an allergic reaction such as increased secretion of mucus, swelling, and pain are due to the release of ________ from mast cells.
Answer: histamine
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.9
GLO: G1

25) A life-threatening allergic reaction (difficulty in breathing, fall in blood pressure, severe stomach cramps) is known as ________.
Answer: anaphylactic shock
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.9
GLO: G1

26) A condition that results when the immune system produces antibodies and cytotoxic T cells against its own cells is a(n) ________ disorder.
Answer: autoimmune
Topic: Sec. 9.9
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.9
GLO: G1

27) Infection by HIV can eventually lead to the development of a condition called ________, which is diagnosed when the T helper cell count drops below ________.
Answer: AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome); 200
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1

28) ________ primarily targets T helper cells of the immune system.
Answer: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
Topic: Sec. 9.10
Bloom’s: Remembering/Understanding
LO: 9.10
GLO: G1

9.5 Essay Questions

1) If you travel through an airport during a major holiday season, you are very likely exposed to a number of potential pathogens. Describe some of the first lines of defense that your body uses to keep these pathogens out of your body.
Answer: The human body depends on several chemical and physical barriers to block pathogens from entering the body. Among these defenses, the skin is of paramount importance as it is a physical barrier, which is reinforced by the protein keratin being deposited in the outer layer. Skin also releases acidic secretions that can kill many microorganisms, and the resident bacteria living on skin can also aid to keep out nonresident microorganisms. Other body fluids like tears, vomit, digestive fluids, mucus, and urine all function as chemical and/or physical barriers.
Topic: Sec. 9.3
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.3
GLO: G1

2) During a bacterial infection, the human body usually responds by having an elevated body temperature or a fever. Most over-the-counter cold medications indicate that they contain a fever suppressant. Explain why this is not always good for the treatment of a cold or infection.
Answer: A mild fever is actually part of the body’s second line of defense for combating the bacteria. The elevated body temperature creates a less hospitable environment for the bacteria, while also stimulating increased metabolic rate in body cells and increasing tissue repair at locations where damage occurred. Therefore, suppressing the fever can actually prolong the illness.
Topic: Sec. 9.4
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.4
GLO: G1

3) Explain why passive immunization is not effective in producing long-term immunity.
Answer: Passive immunization involves administering a patient the prepared antibodies from either a human or animal donor. The antibodies can be very effective in targeting an existing infection, but because the patient did not produce the antibodies using his or her own immune system, memory cells were not produced. Memory cells are essential to immunity because they respond to an antigen they have previously encountered, by mobilizing the specific defense to respond quickly with antibodies specific for that antigen.
Topic: Sec. 9.5
Bloom’s: Applying/Analyzing
LO: 9.5b
GLO: G1

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