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How Children Develop 4th Canadian Edition By Robert S. Siegler – Test Bank

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How Children Develop 4th Canadian Edition By Robert S. Siegler – Test Bank

1. General ideas or understandings that can be used to group together objects are referred to as:
A) concepts.
B) perceptions.
C) theories.
D) beliefs.

2. What do concepts do?
A) help us understand the world
B) tell us how to emotionally react to new experiences
C) provide a basis by which to group together objects
D) serve all of these functions

3. Nativists differ from empiricists in that nativists believe that children are born with:
A) the ability to remember.
B) a sense of the concept of time.
C) the ability to form associations.
D) a sense of the concept of vehicle.

4. The debate between nativists and empiricists reflects what fundamental, unresolved question about human nature?
A) Do children shape their own concepts, or are they passive recipients of the concepts taught to them by others?
B) Do children form all concepts through the same mechanisms, or do they possess special mechanisms for forming a few particularly important concepts?
C) In what ways is concept development continuous, and in what ways is it discontinuous?
D) Do all children learn concepts in the same manner, or does the sociocultural context matter?

5. Of these categories, which do children generally form last?
A) people
B) plants
C) living things
D) inanimate objects

6. According to Wellman and Gelman (1998), children organize their observations of categories into:
A) concepts.
B) theories of mind.
C) informal theories.
D) modules.

7. A theory of _____ is NOT one of the informal theories proposed by Wellman and Gelman.
A) psychology
B) physics
C) biology
D) mind

8. Which statement is true of informal theories?
A) They explain a few phenomena in terms of many assumptions.
B) They are complex.
C) They are a pure result of experience
D) They explain events in terms of unobservable causes.

9. Children’s informal theories have which property?
A) Many phenomena are explained in terms of a few basic principles.
B) Events are explained only in terms of observable causes.
C) Vast numbers of abstract categories are formed to divide up the objects and events in the world.
D) The theories are precisely specified deductive systems.

10. Spelke posited that a primitive theory of physics is present at what age?
A) birth
B) 18 months
C) 3 years
D) 6 months

11. At what age do children place plants into the category “living things”?
A) 2 years
B) 4 years
C) 5 years
D) 7 years

12. Which question would a preschooler be LEAST likely to ask about a tractor trailer?
A) What are trucks for?
B) What do trucks like to eat?
C) How much stuff can fit in that truck?
D) Why are trucks so big?

13. Which list is an example of a category hierarchy?
A) people/grown-ups/Mommy
B) men/Daddy/Grandpa
C) people/plants/animals
D) people/Daddy/firemen

14. Which statement would be considered evidence that an infant has formed the category “furniture”?
A) The infant habituates after repeatedly being shown pictures of tables.
B) After repeatedly being shown pictures of tables, the infant dishabituates to a picture of a sofa.
C) After repeatedly being shown pictures of tables, chairs, sofas, dressers, and grandfather clocks, the infant dishabituates to a picture of a car.
D) After repeatedly being shown pictures of tables, chairs, sofas, dressers, and grandfather clocks, the infant does not dishabituate to a picture of a car.

15. Grouping together objects that have similar appearances is referred to as _____ categorization.
A) perceptual
B) manifestation
C) picture
D) observation

16. A plate and a clock would be put into the same category if the categorization were based on:
A) a superordinate-subordinate relationship.
B) cross-class correspondence.
C) perceptual similarities.
D) functional similarities.

17. Which group is made up of members of the same perceptual category?
A) lizard, kangaroo, salmon
B) mat, hat, cat
C) sofa, grandfather clock, table
D) iPad, picture frame, book

18. Which statement about the development of children’s ability to categorize objects based on appearance is true?
A) The ability to categorize objects by shape develops at approximately 12 months old.
B) Twelve-month-olds often categorize objects largely by specific parts of an object rather than on the object as a whole.
C) The ability to categorize objects based on overall shape develops at approximately 3 years of age.
D) All of the statements are true.

19. Which pair would Iris, a 6-month-old infant, be MOST likely to place in the same category?
A) elephant and fish
B) chandelier and chair
C) towel and rug
D) baby and caterpillar

20. Which group lists the three objects in subordinate/basic/superordinate order?
A) flower/daisy/plant
B) hammer/screwdriver/tool
C) sedan/car/vehicle
D) food/fruit/apple

21. Which level of category hierarchies do children usually learn first?
A) basic
B) subordinate
C) superordinate
D) supersubordinate

22. Of these categories, which one would a young child be MOST likely to learn first?
A) colour
B) blue
C) sky blue
D) dark blue

23. Which level of category hierarchies is the most specific?
A) basic
B) subordinate
C) superordinate
D) supersubordinate

24. Trains, boats, and buses are members of the same:
A) causal category.
B) subordinate category.
C) superordinate category.
D) perceptual category.

25. Children’s early categories correspond most closely to the categories that adults consider:
A) superordinate.
B) basic.
C) subordinate, but children also sometimes form their own superordinate categories.
D) basic, but children also sometimes form their own basic categories.

26. Which category would be considered by researchers to be a child-created basic category that is likely to disappear as the child matures?
A) objects with wheels
B) food
C) objects that make you cool
D) places we go

27. Which category level are parents LEAST likely to directly teach their children?
A) superordinate
B) subordinate
C) basic
D) supersubordinate

28. The parents of Elizabeth, a 2-year-old, are trying to teach her what hammers are. Which action would be MOST likely to help her learn this new category?
A) describing what hammers look like
B) showing her a hammer
C) demonstrating what hammers do
D) showing her a range of atypical hammers

29. The research of Krascum and Andrews on children’s ability to learn about wugs and gillies demonstrated that giving children the _____ was particularly important.
A) subordinate and superordinate categories of the objects
B) shapes and colours of the objects
C) functions of the objects’ features
D) way in which the objects move

30. A commonsense understanding of oneself and other people is referred to as:
A) naïve psychology.
B) basic psychology.
C) an informal theory.
D) theory of mind.

31. Which concept is NOT at the center of naïve psychology?
A) actions
B) appearances
C) desires
D) beliefs

32. Which phrase is NOT a characteristic of naïve psychological concepts?
A) refer to invisible mental states
B) develop early in life
C) linked to each other in cause-effect relations
D) involved in understanding only the self

33. Children’s psychological understanding begins to emerge by about what age?
A) 1 year
B) 3 years
C) 5 years
D) 10 years

34. The desire to behave in a particular way is referred to as a(n):
A) perception.
B) belief.
C) intention.
D) action.

35. _____ is NOT among the psychological concepts that emerge at the end of the first year and the beginning of the second.
A) Understanding of intention
B) Understanding of other’s emotions
C) Joint attention
D) Understanding of other’s beliefs

36. A structured understanding of how desires, beliefs, perceptions, and emotions influence behaviour is referred to as a theory of:
A) mind.
B) behaviour.
C) thought.
D) psychology.

37. When 12-month-olds saw an experimenter look at and demonstrate an interest in one of two toy stuffed kittens, they:
A) were surprised when the experimenter then held the other kitten.
B) were not surprised when the experimenter then held the other kitten.
C) were surprised when the experimenter held that kitten.
D) responded similarly no matter which kitten the experimenter held.

38. Children understand the connection between desires and actions at about what age?
A) 6 months
B) 8 months
C) 12 months
D) 18 months

39. The Phillips and colleagues study that recorded infants’ looking times when they were presented with actors holding stuffed toy kittens was examining infants’ understanding of the connection between:
A) beliefs and actions.
B) desires and beliefs.
C) abilities and actions.
D) desires and actions.

40. By age 2, understanding of the connection between people’s _____ and actions is firmly established.
A) beliefs
B) desires
C) abilities
D) all of these

41. Trevor, a 2-year-old who loves the colour red, is told a story about a boy named Andy. In the story, Andy loves the colour blue. When Trevor is asked to choose the colour crayon that Andy would likely choose when drawing a picture, Trevor will MOST likely:
A) select red, because it is his favourite colour.
B) select blue, because it is Andy’s favourite colour.
C) select yellow, in an attempt to find a compromise.
D) choose randomly between red and blue.

42. Sheira, a 2-year-old, is told a story about a girl named Brenda. Brenda is looking for her favourite doll. Although Brenda thinks the doll is under the bed, it really is in the kitchen cabinet. When Sheira is asked where Brenda will look for her doll, Sheira will MOST likely predict that Brenda will look in which location(s)?
A) under the bed
B) in the kitchen cabinet
C) in the garage
D) both under the bed and in the kitchen cabinet

43. Amelia, a 5-year-old, is told a story about a girl named Brenda. Brenda is looking for her favourite doll. Although Brenda thinks the doll is under the bed, it really is in the kitchen cabinet. When Amelia is asked where Brenda will look for her doll, Amelia will MOST likely predict that Brenda will look in which location(s)?
A) under the bed
B) in the kitchen cabinet
C) in the garage
D) both under the bed and in the kitchen cabinet

44. Children who fail at false-belief problems do NOT understand:
A) the relation between beliefs and actions.
B) how other people’s desires can be different from their own.
C) the difference between what is true and what is false.
D) that others can hold an incorrect belief when they themselves know the truth.

45. Andrew, who is 3 years old, is shown a box with candy on it and asked to guess what is in the box. Andrew responds “candy.” The box is then opened and he is shown that it actually contains crayons, not candy. When Andrew is asked how his 3-year-old friend will respond when asked what is in the same box, what will Andrew say?
A) “He will think it’s candy.”
B) “He will not know.”
C) “He will think it’s crayons.”
D) “He will think it’s crayons and candy.”

46. False-belief problems examine children’s understanding of the relation between:
A) their own beliefs and actions.
B) others’ desires and beliefs.
C) others’ beliefs and actions.
D) the objective facts and others’ actions.

47. Amina is from Peru and Tanya is from Canada. Both girls are 3 years old. If both girls are given a false-belief problem, what will each girl likely do?
A) Amina will not show false belief but Tanya will.
B) Amina will show false belief but Tanya will not.
C) Both Amina and Tanya will like show false beliefs.
D) Neither Amina nor Tanya will show false beliefs.

48. At what age do at least 72% of children in all cultures answer false-belief problems correctly?
A) 2 years old
B) 3 years old
C) 4 years old
D) 5 years old

49. Children typically succeed on false-belief problems by the age of _____ years.
A) 2
B) 3
C) 5
D) 8

50. On false-belief problems, children who do not yet have a complete understanding of the relation between their own beliefs and others’ beliefs:
A) have difficulty understanding that other people could have false beliefs when they themselves know the truth.
B) have difficulty understanding that other people could know the truth when they themselves have false beliefs.
C) believe that others will not be convinced of the truth.
D) believe that others will be difficult to fool.

51. Harry, a 3-year-old, is shown a raisin box and then is shown that the box contains pennies. If asked what he had thought the box contained before being shown its true contents, Harry will MOST likely say he had thought it contained:
A) raisins.
B) pennies.
C) popcorn.
D) quarters.

52. Tina, a 3-year-old, is shown a Cheerios box and then shown that it contains marbles. If asked what her friend Mark will think on seeing the box for the first time, Tina will MOST likely say that Mark will think it contains:
A) Cheerios.
B) marbles.
C) Raisin Bran.
D) beads.

53. Which statement BEST characterizes the findings of cross-cultural research on children’s understanding of false beliefs?
A) The pattern of development is very consistent across cultures.
B) Children in Western cultures develop the understanding earlier than do children in Eastern cultures.
C) Children in Western cultures develop the understanding later than do children in Eastern cultures.
D) Children in developed countries develop the understanding earlier than do children in developing countries.

54. The existence of a TOMM is advocated by:
A) nativists.
B) empiricists.
C) neurologists.
D) all of these.

55. Which statement supports the claim that children are born with a “theory of mind module”?
A) Certain areas of the brains of children with autism spectrum disorders appear to be atypically sized.
B) Preschoolers with older siblings do better on false-belief tasks than those without older siblings.
C) General information-processing skills are essential for understanding that other people might have different knowledge than they themselves possess.
D) Children with autism spectrum disorders tend to have fewer interactions with other people than do others.

56. Which child is MOST like to solve a false-belief problem correctly?
A) David, who has an older sister
B) Hannah, who has an older sister
C) Micah, who is an only child
D) Taryn, who has a younger sister

57. Which influence(s) are cited by empiricists when explaining the development of preschoolers’ theory of mind from age 3 to age 5?
A) increasing experience with other people
B) improved information-processing capacity
C) brain maturation
D) all of these influences

58. Ginny is 12 and was given a false-belief problem that she answered incorrectly. Which is most likely true of Ginny?
A) She is typical for a 12-year-old.
B) She has autism spectrum disorder.
C) She is hearing impaired.
D) She was a low birth weight infant.

59. The development of a theory of mind is severely impaired for:
A) only and oldest children.
B) children with autism spectrum disorders.
C) children with imaginary friends.
D) all of these children.

60. Children with autism spectrum disorders do NOT have trouble:
A) showing concern for people when they are distressed.
B) interacting with other people.
C) with false-belief problems.
D) spending time by themselves.

61. Jane, an 18-month-old, is pretending to put on makeup using a small block as her lipstick. Jane is:
A) demonstrating a false belief.
B) engaging in object substitution.
C) demonstrating her underdeveloped theory of mind.
D) engaging in sociodramatic play.

62. Pretend play emerges at about the age of _____; sociodramatic play emerges at about the age of _____.
A) 1 year; 2.5 years
B) 1 year; 18 months
C) 18 months; 2.5 years
D) 2.5 years; 4 years

63. Using a _____ is an example of an object substitution.
A) scale model of a room to show where a toy is hidden in a larger room
B) toy backhoe rather than a toy dump truck to haul blocks
C) play stove to cook pretend broccoli cheese soup
D) a bowl as a magician’s hat

64. Which scenario is an example of sociodramatic play?
A) Alvaro is playing school with his brother, and Alvaro is the teacher.
B) Fiona is holding a play phone to her ear and saying, “Hello?”
C) Sander is dressed up as a ghost for Halloween.
D) Beatrice is putting a plate on her head and saying, “See my hat?”

65. Which statement about play is true?
A) Pretend play is a type of object substitution.
B) Pretend play is a type of sociodramatic play.
C) Object substitution is a type of sociodramatic play.
D) Sociodramatic play is a type of pretend play.

66. Which list places the types of play in a typical developmental progression?
A) object substitution, sociodramatic play, rule-based play
B) sociodramatic play, object substitution, rule-based play
C) rule-based play, object substitution, sociodramatic play
D) object substitution, rule-based play, sociodramatic play

67. Children tend to engage in pretend play, at least occasionally, until approximately what age?
A) 3 years
B) 6 years
C) 9 years
D) 12 years

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