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History of Psychology The Making of a Science 1st Edition

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1111186669
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1111186661

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SKU:tb1001798

History of Psychology The Making of a Science 1st Edition

Chapter 8: The Rise of the New Philosophy

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which 17th-century French friar corresponded with nearly every notable philosopher and scientist of his time, often introducing them to one another?
a. Christiaan Huygens c. Pierre Gassendi
b. Marin Mersenne d. Pierre Fermat

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: Zeitgeist: Mersenne’s Cell

2. During the Enlightenment, thinkers in all areas—science, politics, and the arts—were skeptical about ____.
a. the idea that God is an unknowable entity
b. earlier claims that religion and metaphysics are the sources of knowledge
c. the validity of the heliocentric model of the universe
d. the benefits of empiricist philosophies

ANS: B DIF: Conceptual REF: Zeitgeist: Mersenne’s Cell

3. What is the view that the universe, including physical events, can only be explained through the action of human thought?
a. Rationalism c. Empiricism
b. Nominalism d. Interactionism

ANS: A DIF: Conceptual REF: Introduction

4. Who was the founder of rationalism?
a. Philo c. Copernicus
b. Descartes d. Plato

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: Introduction

5. The Continental philosophers were ____.
a. rationalist philosophers who lived on the British Isles
b. empiricist philosophers who lived on the British Isles
c. rationalist philosophers who lived on the European continent
d. empiricist philosophers who lived on the European continent

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: Introduction

6. Francis Bacon promoted the role of sensory observations in his philosophy and proposed a radical form of empiricism called ____.
a. radicalism c. induction
b. interactionism d. deduction

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

7. According to legend, the inspiration for analytic geometry came to Descartes while he was ____.
a. watching a fly crawl on the ceiling c. watching a cat stalk a mouse
b. watching the clouds move d. watching dancers perform onstage

ANS: A DIF: Factual REF: Analytic Geometry

8. In the 19th century, the now familiar x, y, and z coordinate system used in mathematics was named after ____.
a. Newton c. Leibniz
b. Descartes d. Hooke

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: Analytic Geometry

9. What work did Descartes withhold from publishing for fear of condemnation by the Roman Inquisition?
a. “Dioptrics” c. “Meteorology”
b. “Discourse on the Method” d. “The World”

ANS: D DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

10. Descartes placed a pencil in a glass of water to explain the phenomenon of ____.
a. reflection c. diffraction
b. refraction d. dispersion

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

11. What was the foundation and basis of Descartes’ system of knowledge?
a. The fact that, in some instances, the information presented by the senses is false.
b. The idea that the human mind is an imperfect and limited version of God’s mind.
c. The fact that he is thinking and, therefore, he exists.
d. The idea that God will not intentionally deceive him.

ANS: C DIF: Conceptual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

12. Descartes divided the world into two parts: ____.
a. rational and instinctual c. physical and mental
b. knowledge and perception d. moral and sensual

ANS: C DIF: Conceptual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

13. Descartes’ solution to the mind-body problem is known as ____.
a. epiphenomenalism c. occasionalism
b. interactionism d. parallelism

ANS: B DIF: Conceptual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

14. According to Descartes, interactionism is centered in the ____.
a. heart c. pineal gland
b. hypothalamus d. corpus callosum

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

15. Who attempted to explain reflex action using a hydraulic model?
a. Hooke c. Descartes
b. Bacon d. Erasmus

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

 

16. Descartes believed that nerves are filled with ____.
a. water c. electrical energy
b. animal spirits d. life oil

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

17. Descartes’ critics argued that his philosophies ____.
a. completely denounce the existence of God
b. give God too much power in the creation of the universe and all life thereafter
c. reduce God to a “spectator” after having serving his function of creating the universe
d. are unclear on his position regarding God and therefore atheistic

ANS: C DIF: Conceptual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

18. According to your text, Descartes himself might have considered his greatest legacy to be in the field of ____.
a. analytical geometry c. anatomy
b. optics d. physics

ANS: D DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

19. Francis Bacon’s book, “The Advancement of Learning,” was the first ____.
a. cognitive psychology textbook
b. book in which theology and philosophy were successfully intertwined
c. book to provide support for the concept of syllogism
d. philosophy book written in English

ANS: D DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

20. Who railed against the use of vague or imprecise words, the lumping together of different things in the same category, and the improper division of similar things into different categories?
a. Descartes c. Locke
b. Hobbes d. Bacon

ANS: D DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

21. Bacon explained four major human biases in his book called ____.
a. “The Advancement of Learning” c. “New Atlantis”
b. “New Organon” d. “Meditations”

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

22. Which of Bacon’s “idols” was derived from culture and individual differences?
a. Tribe c. Market Place
b. Cave d. Theatre

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

23. Which of Bacon’s “idols” was a result of social interactions and miscommunication?
a. Cave c. Tribe
b. Theatre d. Market Place

ANS: D DIF: Factual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

24. What association, in conjunction with Wikipedia, has developed a method for making psychology more accessible to everyone while ensuring that Wikipedia’s articles on psychology are reliable and timely?
a. American Psychological Association
b. Association for Psychological Research
c. Association for Psychological Science
d. American Association for the Advancement of Psychology

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: Then and Now

25. Bacon realized the importance of ___.
a. confirmation of observations
b. developing hypotheses
c. close collaboration among scientists
d. an intimate relationship between science and art

ANS: C DIF: Conceptual REF: The Earliest New Philosophers

26. The English Civil Wars affected English, Ireland, and ____ nearly simultaneously.
a. Scotland c. France
b. Wales d. Holland

ANS: A DIF: Factual
REF: The English Civil Wars (1642-1651) and Their Consequences

27. What is a prominent issue that contributed to the English Civil Wars?
a. Growth of a unified Europe c. Ongoing religious disputes
b. Spread of pandemic disease d. Rise of the peasant class

ANS: C DIF: Conceptual
REF: The English Civil Wars (1642-1651) and Their Consequences

28. Hobbes was a materialist and therefore disagreed with Descartes’ ____.
a. empiricism c. idealism
b. dualism d. monasticism

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

29. Hobbes believed that ____ were the cause of everything, including sensations.
a. God’s powers c. motions
b. animal spirits d. thoughts

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

30. What is the belief that no universal values exist and that, instead, values vary by individuals, groups, or historical era?
a. Humanism c. Rationalism
b. Relativism d. Idealism

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

 

31. Who believed that the only way humans could escape the brutality of life and achieve peace was to voluntarily surrender their liberties to a monarch?
a. Descartes c. Hobbes
b. Locke d. Cavendish

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

32. What prevented Hobbes from attaining membership in the newly chartered Royal Society?
a. His less-than-noble upbringing
b. His belief in de facto theory
c. His belief that it was useless to study the human mind
d. His inability to admit his errors

ANS: D DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

33. Who helped draft the constitution for the Carolina colonies in America?
a. Hooke c. Locke
b. Hobbes d. Newton

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

34. “Huguenots” was the name given to the ____.
a. French Catholics c. British Catholics
b. French Protestants d. British Protestants

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

35. Locke believed that simple ideas, as opposed to complex ideas, came from ____.
a. sensation c. memory
b. reflection d. faith

ANS: A DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

36. Which of the following did Locke state was a secondary quality of objects?
a. Location c. Color
b. Mass d. Texture

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

37. For Locke, ____ knowledge included the knowledge of your own and God’s existence.
a. demonstrative c. intuitive
b. acquired d. sensitive

ANS: C DIF: Conceptual REF: The British Empiricists

38. Locke believed that people need not transfer all of their rights to the government, which differed from the ideas of ____ and the social contract.
a. Hobbes c. Hume
b. Berkeley d. Kant

ANS: A DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

 

39. Whose belief in religious toleration became the basis for the doctrine of separation of church and state in the American Constitution?
a. Hobbes c. Hume
b. Locke d. Berkeley

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

40. Who described his own approach as “esse est percipi” (to be is to perceive)?
a. Locke c. Hobbes
b. Descartes d. Berkeley

ANS: D DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

41. Berkeley argued that Locke’s primary qualities all came from the act of ____.
a. intuition c. anticipation
b. perception d. sensation

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

42. The “History of England” was written by ____.
a. Locke c. Hume
b. Hobbes d. Berkeley

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

43. Which of the following was least likely to be one of Hume’s life goals?
a. To promote the concept of dualism
b. To create a science of human nature
c. To improve upon the empiricism of Locke and Berkeley
d. To rid philosophy of metaphysics

ANS: A DIF: Conceptual REF: The British Empiricists

44. For Hume, ____ were the direct and vivid results of perceptions and were the precursors of ideas.
a. sensations c. impressions
b. associations d. hypotheses

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

45. Which of the following is least likely to be considered one of Hume’s mechanisms for the creation of complex ideas?
a. Resemblance c. Continuity
b. Correlation d. Cause and effect

ANS: B DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

46. Hume believed that all metaphysical terms fit into the category of being “erroneous or false” because ____.
a. it is impossible to know what God knows
b. they cannot be reduced to simple ideas
c. they are not originally based on perceptions
d. they cannot be empirically tested

ANS: B DIF: Conceptual REF: The British Empiricists

47. Morris (2009) used “the sounds of water hitting a window” as an example to illustrate ____ philosophy that “one’s beliefs might be wrong but one’s impressions or ideas were never wrong.”
a. Locke’s c. Hume’s
b. Berkeley’s d. Hobbes’

ANS: C DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

48. When someone discovers that his or her belief is wrong, ____ will lead to the correct belief, according to Hume.
a. revising the hypothesis c. further perception
b. additional sensations d. additional impressions

ANS: C DIF: Conceptual REF: The British Empiricists

49. Which of the following represents one of Hume’s “indirect passions”?
a. Shame c. Joy
b. Aversion d. Fear

ANS: A DIF: Factual REF: The British Empiricists

50. According to Hume, moral judgments ____.
a. are innate
b. have to be learned
c. are products of reason
d. cause one to pursue pleasure or avoid pain

ANS: B DIF: Conceptual REF: The British Empiricists

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