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Health Psychology 3rd Canadian Edition By Shelley E Taylor Distinguished Professor – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 9781259024788
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1259024788

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Health Psychology 3rd Canadian Edition By Shelley E Taylor Distinguished Professor – Test Bank

8 Student: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. People’s awareness of their internal physiological state is remarkably accurate. True False 2. People who are anxious or neurotic are more likely to recognize physical symptoms and worry about them without seeking treatment. True False 3. Unintentional accident frequency and the use of services decline in adolescence and throughout young adulthood. True False 4. Women use the health care system more than men do. True False 5. Threats to self-esteem are related to the tendency to somaticize. True False 6. Physicians are more likely to perceive female patients as psychologically disturbed. True False 7. As recently as 80 years ago, hospitals were thought of as places where one goes to die. True False 8. Many of the infections contracted during a hospital stay could be decreased with proper handwashing. True False 9. Providing preparatory information to patients prior to surgery has little effect on their rate of recovery. True False 10. Verbal preparatory information is often more beneficial than patients viewing videotapes. True False 11. Individual differences in neuroticism have been found to influence symptom A. recognition but not reporting. B. reporting but not recognition. C. reporting and recognition. D. severity. E. hyperchondria. 12. Medical student’s disease is an example of the role of _______________ in the recognition of symptoms. A. individual differences B. Type A behaviour C. cultural differences D. situational factors E. mood 13. When under stress, people are more likely to A. attribute stress-related physiological changes to stress rather than to illness. B. exaggerate their perception and interpretation of the meaning of the symptoms. C. believe they are less vulnerable to illness and direct their attention outward. D. repress their physical symptoms. E. delay seeking medical treatment. 14. People in a bad mood A. suppress their symptoms. B. believe they are more capable of alleviating their symptoms. C. are pessimistic that any actions they might take would relieve their symptoms. D. perceive themselves as less vulnerable to future illness. E. tend to seek out more medical advice on the Internet. 15. Symptom recognition is determined by individual differences in A. attention to one’s body and situational factors. B. tolerance of physical symptoms and access to medical care. C. physical reactivity and situational factors. D. physical reactivity and cultural factors. E. mood. 16. Compared to those with no history of a particular medical condition, people who have a history of a particular medical condition are more likely to A. increase their vigilance and monitor their physical status to detect transitory changes in their bodily state. B. increase their vigilance and seek out information about the condition in an attempt to regain mastery and control. C. underestimate its prevalence in the general population and thus overestimate the threat to their health. D. overestimate its prevalence in the general population and thus regard their situation as less serious. E. disregard a symptom’s meaning and how common it is within their culture. 17. Who of the following people is most likely to view their symptom as more serious and therefore seek treatment? A. Kerry who injured her side after someone opened a door into her. B. Eileen who banged her knee on the coffee table edge. C. Julie who injured her hand from having a heavy object drop on it. D. Kathy who has a sore shoulder from painting the walls in her house. E. None of these people are likely to view their symptoms as serious and requiring medical attention. 18. Illness schemas are acquired through A. the media. B. personal experiences. C. medical dictionaries. D. family and friends. E. personal experience, the media, and family and friends. 19. One component of illness schemas involves perceptions of the range of symptoms and treatments associated with a particular disease. This component refers to the _______________ of the disease. A. identity B. consequences C. cure D. causes E. symptoms 20. Illness schemas develop in A. childhood. B. adolescence. C. early adulthood. D. middle age. E. They can develop at any age. 21. The _______________ model of illness is represented by alternating periods of either no or many symptoms. A. acute B. chronic C. cyclic D. terminal E. circular 22. Disease models influence people’s A. preventive health behaviours. B. adherence to treatment regimens. C. expectations about their future health. D. preventive health behaviours, adherence to treatment regimens, and expectations about their future health. E. ability to cope with ambiguous symptoms. 23. Bruce has found that he becomes increasingly fatigued after even mild exertion. He discusses his problem with his neighbour, Sam, who recently suffered from a similar problem. Sam tells him that a megadose of vitamin B complex completely eradicated his symptoms. Bruce tries Sam’s remedy and does feel a little better. This is an example of A. folk medicine. B. self-care. C. disease prototypes. D. the lay referral network. E. cyberdiagnosis. 24. In Canada, complementary and alternative therapies A. are viewed as simply unconventional or folk medicine. B. can only be self-administered. C. exclude natural health products. D. are often used because of the recommendation of friends and family members. E. are less expensive than in most other countries. 25. The use of health services is lowest in A. childhood. B. adolescence and young adulthood. C. middle age. D. old age. E. infancy. 26. Women’s higher use of medical care and poorer health than men may be attributed to the following factor(s): A. lower levels of employment. B. higher rates of part-time employment. C. more economic hardship. D. female medical care is more fragmented. E. All of these are reasons why a woman would seek out health care more often than a man. 27. _______________ may contribute to higher levels of use of medical care by women. A. Lower levels of employment B. Higher rates of part-time employment C. Lower economic status D. More fragmented medical care E. All of these answers are correct. 28. Socio-economic factors that contribute to differences in how health services are used are: A. Income. B. Culture. C. Education. D. Income and culture affect how health services are used, while education does not have any discernable effect. E. Income, culture, and education are all factors that contribute to differences in how health services are used. 29. The Health Belief Model best predicts the treatment-seeking behaviour of A. men. B. women. C. ethnic minorities. D. people who have access to health services rather than people who do not have access to health services. E. the elderly. 30. The research conducted at Bishop’s University in Quebec on the impact of linguistic barriers on the perceptions of health care services found that A.Anglophones perceived that there were fewer health care services in English available to them than there actually were. B.Anglophones were more dissatisfied with the services offered and therefore less likely to want to use these services in the future. C.Anglophones rated their future health as significantly poorer than that of Francophones if they remained living in Quebec. D . Anglophones felt there were fewer health care services available to them, resulting in dissatisfaction with services received and a negative mentality toward their future health care in Quebec. E . Anglophones in Quebec deemed their health care equal to that of the Francophones living in the same province – language barriers do not affect the perception of health care. 31. The patient who complains of a medical disorder that is rightfully psychological in nature is more likely to be treated by a A. psychiatrist. B. general practitioner. C. specialist. D. lay practitioner. E. psychologist. 32. Somaticizers A. exhibit strong beliefs in self-care. B. tend to express distress and conflict through physical symptoms. C. repress their symptoms during times of stress. D. will avoid stressors at any cost. E. tend to express distress and conflict verbally. 33. Which of the following answers best defines the term cyberchondria? A. Excessive malingering on Internet chat rooms. B. Worrying well after listening to health related podcasts. C. Excessive use of health-related Internet sites to fuel anxiety. D. Hypochondriasis as a result of Internet bullying. E. Anxiety about a lack of secondary gains. 34. The worried well A. are concerned about physical and mental health. B. tend to express distress and conflict through physical symptoms. C. repress their symptoms during times of stress. D. tend to use health services less. E. are more likely to also have cyberchondria. 35. The notion that illness may actually be reinforcing because it exempts the individual from daily responsibilities is termed A. malingering. B. delay behaviour. C. secondary gains. D. hypochondriasis. E. somaticizing. 36. With respect to delay behaviour, A . people who are fearful of doctors, examinations, surgery, and medical facilities generally delay less than do people who are not fearful. B. the elderly appear to delay more than middle-aged individuals. C. people are less likely to visit a doctor if they do not have a family doctor. D. there is no danger associated with delay behaviour, people should seek medical help when they feel ready. E. people who delay seeking medical help are considered nonusers. 37. ______________ is the time between actually deciding to seek treatment and actually doing so. A. Appraisal delay B. Illness delay C. Behavioural delay D. Medical delay E. Response delay 38. Illness delay is the time A. it takes an individual to decide that a symptom is serious. B. between the recognition that a symptom implies an illness and the decision to seek treatment. C. between deciding to seek treatment and actually doing so. D. between a person’s recognition of a symptom and when the person seeks treatment. E. between receiving the treatment and when a patient begins to feel better. 39. The correct order of the stages of delay in seeking treatment is A. appraisal, illness, behavioural, and medical delay. B. behavioural, appraisal, illness, and medical delay. C. appraisal, illness, medical, and behavioural delay. D. appraisal, symptom, illness, and medical delay. E. behavioural, illness, appraisal, and medical delay. 40. The nature of physical symptoms may play an important role in a patient’s delay behaviour. Specifically, a patient will seek treatment less quickly when a symptom A. is persistent over time. B. is not highly visible. C. causes aches and pains. D. is similar to a symptom that was previously deemed minor. E. changes quickly. 41. Medical delay A. accounts for at least 30% of all delay behaviours. B. is more likely when symptoms deviate from the practitioner’s disease prototype. C. is more likely in cases where the diagnosis is not serious. D. is unrelated to the diagnostic process. E. is more likely when symptoms are acute in nature. 42. You have been asked to develop a public information program designed to minimize the delay behaviour of people who evidence one or more of the seven warning signs of cancer. Considering the research evidence presented in your text, the most effective appeal would emphasize the fact that A. certain cancers have a very poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. B.although the side effects can be debilitating, chemotherapy and radiation therapy can successfully treat many cancers. C. aggressive treatment enhances one’s chances of surviving cancer. D . precancerous symptoms are seldom troublesome or alarming, yet everyone is vulnerable to the disease and should seek early treatment. E. it would emphasize all of the above. 43. The role of the hospital has changed significantly over the last few decades. As hospitals have assumed many treatment functions, the average number of hospitalizations have A. remained the same. B. increased. C. decreased. D. leveled off. E. increased and then decreased. 44. In Canadian hospitals that have adopted a Johns Hopkins model, physician chiefs A. are at the top of the medical line of authority in the hospital. B. are the first person to act in case of an emergency. C. are not employees of the hospital. D. do not treat patients. E. act as “invited-guests” to the hospital. 45. Nosocomial infections A. occur when strict handwashing and sterilization of equipment guidelines are not practiced. B. account for more deaths per year in Canada than breast cancer, AIDS, and car accidents combined. C. are most likely to affect newborn and premature infants and the elderly. D. are infections that result from exposure to disease in the hospital setting. E. All of these answers are correct. 46. A quarter of a million Canadians per year suffer from A. hospital infection. B. influenza. C. diabetes. D. pneumonia. E. heart disease. 47. Which of the following is NOT one of the three components of burnout? A. emotional exhaustion B. increased concern for the client C. cynicism D. low sense of efficacy in one’s job E. All of these are components of burnout. 48. Psychologists in the hospital setting A. have decreased in recent years. B. have expanded their roles. C. are involved in pre-surgery and post-surgery preparation. D. diagnose and treat psychological problems that can complicate patient care. E. have reduced their roles due to budgetary concerns. 49. Burnout among nurses may result from A. a heavy workload. B. high rates of absenteeism and job turnover. C. experiencing emotional abuse in the workplace. D. workplace injuries. E. All of these answers are correct. 50. Shields and Wilkins (2006) found that nurses in Canada A. reported arriving late or leaving early from work. B. reported that they were not given enough time to do what was expected of them. C. experienced high physical demands from their job. D . reported that they were not given enough time to do what was expected of them and experienced high physical demands from their job. E. were less burnout than nurses in the United States. 51. Nurses who experience job strain, low supervisor/co-worker support, low autonomy, poor nursephysician working relations, high physical demands, and job insecurity were ___________ as likely to experience poor or fair physical and mental health compared to nurses who did not experience these demands. A. 5 times B. 3 times C. 10 times D. 2 times E. 1.5 times 52. The number of psychologists in hospital settings has _______________ since 1982. A. more than doubled B. decreased C. remained the same D. first decreased, then increased E. first increased, then decreased 53. Psychological control A. is important for patients and their families in a hospital setting. B. can be increased by proving the patient with information about their medical procedure. C. when increased can contribute to quick recovery of functioning. D. can be increased by providing extensive information about the admitting process. E. All of these answers are correct. 54. According to a study by Kulik and Mahler in 1987, cardiac patients about to undergo surgery showed benefits when they specifically had a post-operative patient as a roommate. This could be in part due to the fact that A. they were able to obtain information about what to expect after surgery. B. they were relieved to see that their roommate survived the surgery. C . they were able to obtain information about what to expect after surgery and were relieved to see that their roommate survived the surgery. D. they had someone to talk to during non-visiting hours. E. they got control of the television remote control, which is highly correlated to blood pressure. 55. The results of Irving Janis’ classic research (1958) evaluating presurgical control-enhancing interventions utilized with stressful medical procedures suggests that patient coping is facilitated by A. information about the procedure. B. cognitive-behavioural interventions. C. relaxation training. D. hypnosis E. mood enhancing drugs. 56. In the study by Mahler and Kulik (1998) on the use of videos to prepare patients for upcoming procedures, compared with patients who did not receive videotaped preparation, patients who saw a videotape A. reported higher self-efficacy during the recovery period. B. were released sooner from the hospital. C. felt significantly better prepared for the recovery period. D. were more adherent to recommended dietary and exercise changes during their recovery. E. reported higher levels of anxiety prior to surgery. 57. Explain how social and psychological factors are implicated in the recognition and interpretation of symptoms. 58. Answer the question posed by the text, “What predicts the use of health services?” 59. What factors predict health care delay? 60. Explain how hospitalization may affect patients’ sense of personal control. What reactions are commonly observed? 61. Summarize the research investigating the effectiveness of control-enhancing interventions. 8 Key 1. People’s awareness of their internal physiological state is remarkably accurate. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #1 2. People who are anxious or neurotic are more likely to recognize physical symptoms and worry about them without seeking treatment. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #2 3. Unintentional accident frequency and the use of services decline in adolescence and throughout young adulthood. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #3 4. Women use the health care system more than men do. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #4 5. Threats to self-esteem are related to the tendency to somaticize. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #5 6. Physicians are more likely to perceive female patients as psychologically disturbed. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #6 7. As recently as 80 years ago, hospitals were thought of as places where one goes to die. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #7 8. Many of the infections contracted during a hospital stay could be decreased with proper handwashing. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #8 9. Providing preparatory information to patients prior to surgery has little effect on their rate of recovery. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe how control can be increased in hospital settings Taylor – Chapter 08 #9 10. Verbal preparatory information is often more beneficial than patients viewing videotapes. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe how control can be increased in hospital settings Taylor – Chapter 08 #10 11. Individual differences in neuroticism have been found to influence symptom A. recognition but not reporting. B. reporting but not recognition. C. reporting and recognition. D. severity. E. hyperchondria. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #11 12. Medical student’s disease is an example of the role of _______________ in the recognition of symptoms. A. individual differences B. Type A behaviour C. cultural differences D. situational factors E. mood Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #12 13. When under stress, people are more likely to A. attribute stress-related physiological changes to stress rather than to illness. B. exaggerate their perception and interpretation of the meaning of the symptoms. C. believe they are less vulnerable to illness and direct their attention outward. D. repress their physical symptoms. E. delay seeking medical treatment. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #13 14. People in a bad mood A. suppress their symptoms. B. believe they are more capable of alleviating their symptoms. C. are pessimistic that any actions they might take would relieve their symptoms. D. perceive themselves as less vulnerable to future illness. E. tend to seek out more medical advice on the Internet. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #14 15. Symptom recognition is determined by individual differences in A. attention to one’s body and situational factors. B. tolerance of physical symptoms and access to medical care. C. physical reactivity and situational factors. D. physical reactivity and cultural factors. E. mood. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #15 16. Compared to those with no history of a particular medical condition, people who have a history of a particular medical condition are more likely to A. increase their vigilance and monitor their physical status to detect transitory changes in their bodily state. B. increase their vigilance and seek out information about the condition in an attempt to regain mastery and control. C. underestimate its prevalence in the general population and thus overestimate the threat to their health. D. overestimate its prevalence in the general population and thus regard their situation as less serious. E. disregard a symptom’s meaning and how common it is within their culture. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #16 17. Who of the following people is most likely to view their symptom as more serious and therefore seek treatment? A. Kerry who injured her side after someone opened a door into her. B. Eileen who banged her knee on the coffee table edge. C. Julie who injured her hand from having a heavy object drop on it. D. Kathy who has a sore shoulder from painting the walls in her house. E. None of these people are likely to view their symptoms as serious and requiring medical attention. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #17 18. Illness schemas are acquired through A. the media. B. personal experiences. C. medical dictionaries. D. family and friends. E. personal experience, the media, and family and friends. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #18 19. One component of illness schemas involves perceptions of the range of symptoms and treatments associated with a particular disease. This component refers to the _______________ of the disease. A. identity B. consequences C. cure D. causes E. symptoms Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #19 20. Illness schemas develop in A. childhood. B. adolescence. C. early adulthood. D. middle age. E. They can develop at any age. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #20 21. The _______________ model of illness is represented by alternating periods of either no or many symptoms. A. acute B. chronic C. cyclic D. terminal E. circular Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #21 22. Disease models influence people’s A. preventive health behaviours. B. adherence to treatment regimens. C. expectations about their future health. D. preventive health behaviours, adherence to treatment regimens, and expectations about their future health. E. ability to cope with ambiguous symptoms. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #22 23. Bruce has found that he becomes increasingly fatigued after even mild exertion. He discusses his problem with his neighbour, Sam, who recently suffered from a similar problem. Sam tells him that a megadose of vitamin B complex completely eradicated his symptoms. Bruce tries Sam’s remedy and does feel a little better. This is an example of A. folk medicine. B. self-care. C. disease prototypes. D. the lay referral network. E. cyberdiagnosis. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #23 24. In Canada, complementary and alternative therapies A. are viewed as simply unconventional or folk medicine. B. can only be self-administered. C. exclude natural health products. D. are often used because of the recommendation of friends and family members. E. are less expensive than in most other countries. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #24 25. The use of health services is lowest in A. childhood. B. adolescence and young adulthood. C. middle age. D. old age. E. infancy. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #25 26. Women’s higher use of medical care and poorer health than men may be attributed to the following factor(s): A. lower levels of employment. B. higher rates of part-time employment. C. more economic hardship. D. female medical care is more fragmented. E. All of these are reasons why a woman would seek out health care more often than a man. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #26 27. _______________ may contribute to higher levels of use of medical care by women. A. Lower levels of employment B. Higher rates of part-time employment C. Lower economic status D. More fragmented medical care E. All of these answers are correct. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #27 28. Socio-economic factors that contribute to differences in how health services are used are: A. Income. B. Culture. C. Education. D. Income and culture affect how health services are used, while education does not have any discernable effect. E. Income, culture, and education are all factors that contribute to differences in how health services are used. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #28 29. The Health Belief Model best predicts the treatment-seeking behaviour of A. men. B. women. C. ethnic minorities. D. people who have access to health services rather than people who do not have access to health services. E. the elderly. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #29 30. The research conducted at Bishop’s University in Quebec on the impact of linguistic barriers on the perceptions of health care services found that A.Anglophones perceived that there were fewer health care services in English available to them than there actually were. B.Anglophones were more dissatisfied with the services offered and therefore less likely to want to use these services in the future. C.Anglophones rated their future health as significantly poorer than that of Francophones if they remained living in Quebec. D . Anglophones felt there were fewer health care services available to them, resulting in dissatisfaction with services received and a negative mentality toward their future health care in Quebec. E . Anglophones in Quebec deemed their health care equal to that of the Francophones living in the same province – language barriers do not affect the perception of health care. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #30 31. The patient who complains of a medical disorder that is rightfully psychological in nature is more likely to be treated by a A. psychiatrist. B. general practitioner. C. specialist. D. lay practitioner. E. psychologist. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #31 32. Somaticizers A. exhibit strong beliefs in self-care. B. tend to express distress and conflict through physical symptoms. C. repress their symptoms during times of stress. D. will avoid stressors at any cost. E. tend to express distress and conflict verbally. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #32 33. Which of the following answers best defines the term cyberchondria? A. Excessive malingering on Internet chat rooms. B. Worrying well after listening to health related podcasts. C. Excessive use of health-related Internet sites to fuel anxiety. D. Hypochondriasis as a result of Internet bullying. E. Anxiety about a lack of secondary gains. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #33 34. The worried well A. are concerned about physical and mental health. B. tend to express distress and conflict through physical symptoms. C. repress their symptoms during times of stress. D. tend to use health services less. E. are more likely to also have cyberchondria. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #34 35. The notion that illness may actually be reinforcing because it exempts the individual from daily responsibilities is termed A. malingering. B. delay behaviour. C. secondary gains. D. hypochondriasis. E. somaticizing. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #35 36. With respect to delay behaviour, A . people who are fearful of doctors, examinations, surgery, and medical facilities generally delay less than do people who are not fearful. B. the elderly appear to delay more than middle-aged individuals. C. people are less likely to visit a doctor if they do not have a family doctor. D. there is no danger associated with delay behaviour, people should seek medical help when they feel ready. E. people who delay seeking medical help are considered nonusers. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #36 37. ______________ is the time between actually deciding to seek treatment and actually doing so. A. Appraisal delay B. Illness delay C. Behavioural delay D. Medical delay E. Response delay Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #37 38. Illness delay is the time A. it takes an individual to decide that a symptom is serious. B. between the recognition that a symptom implies an illness and the decision to seek treatment. C. between deciding to seek treatment and actually doing so. D. between a person’s recognition of a symptom and when the person seeks treatment. E. between receiving the treatment and when a patient begins to feel better. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #38 39. The correct order of the stages of delay in seeking treatment is A. appraisal, illness, behavioural, and medical delay. B. behavioural, appraisal, illness, and medical delay. C. appraisal, illness, medical, and behavioural delay. D. appraisal, symptom, illness, and medical delay. E. behavioural, illness, appraisal, and medical delay. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #39 40. The nature of physical symptoms may play an important role in a patient’s delay behaviour. Specifically, a patient will seek treatment less quickly when a symptom A. is persistent over time. B. is not highly visible. C. causes aches and pains. D. is similar to a symptom that was previously deemed minor. E. changes quickly. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #40 41. Medical delay A. accounts for at least 30% of all delay behaviours. B. is more likely when symptoms deviate from the practitioner’s disease prototype. C. is more likely in cases where the diagnosis is not serious. D. is unrelated to the diagnostic process. E. is more likely when symptoms are acute in nature. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #41 42. You have been asked to develop a public information program designed to minimize the delay behaviour of people who evidence one or more of the seven warning signs of cancer. Considering the research evidence presented in your text, the most effective appeal would emphasize the fact that A. certain cancers have a very poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. B. although the side effects can be debilitating, chemotherapy and radiation therapy can successfully treat many cancers. C. aggressive treatment enhances one’s chances of surviving cancer. D . precancerous symptoms are seldom troublesome or alarming, yet everyone is vulnerable to the disease and should seek early treatment. E. it would emphasize all of the above. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #42 43. The role of the hospital has changed significantly over the last few decades. As hospitals have assumed many treatment functions, the average number of hospitalizations have A. remained the same. B. increased. C. decreased. D. leveled off. E. increased and then decreased. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #43 44. In Canadian hospitals that have adopted a Johns Hopkins model, physician chiefs A. are at the top of the medical line of authority in the hospital. B. are the first person to act in case of an emergency. C. are not employees of the hospital. D. do not treat patients. E. act as “invited-guests” to the hospital. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #44 45. Nosocomial infections A. occur when strict handwashing and sterilization of equipment guidelines are not practiced. B. account for more deaths per year in Canada than breast cancer, AIDS, and car accidents combined. C. are most likely to affect newborn and premature infants and the elderly. D. are infections that result from exposure to disease in the hospital setting. E. All of these answers are correct. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #45 46. A quarter of a million Canadians per year suffer from A. hospital infection. B. influenza. C. diabetes. D. pneumonia. E. heart disease. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #46 47. Which of the following is NOT one of the three components of burnout? A. emotional exhaustion B. increased concern for the client C. cynicism D. low sense of efficacy in one’s job E. All of these are components of burnout. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #47 48. Psychologists in the hospital setting A. have decreased in recent years. B. have expanded their roles. C. are involved in pre-surgery and post-surgery preparation. D. diagnose and treat psychological problems that can complicate patient care. E. have reduced their roles due to budgetary concerns. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #48 49. Burnout among nurses may result from A. a heavy workload. B. high rates of absenteeism and job turnover. C. experiencing emotional abuse in the workplace. D. workplace injuries. E. All of these answers are correct. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #49 50. Shields and Wilkins (2006) found that nurses in Canada A. reported arriving late or leaving early from work. B. reported that they were not given enough time to do what was expected of them. C. experienced high physical demands from their job. D . reported that they were not given enough time to do what was expected of them and experienced high physical demands from their job. E. were less burnout than nurses in the United States. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #50 51. Nurses who experience job strain, low supervisor/co-worker support, low autonomy, poor nursephysician working relations, high physical demands, and job insecurity were ___________ as likely to experience poor or fair physical and mental health compared to nurses who did not experience these demands. A. 5 times B. 3 times C. 10 times D. 2 times E. 1.5 times Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #51 52. The number of psychologists in hospital settings has _______________ since 1982. A. more than doubled B. decreased C. remained the same D. first decreased, then increased E. first increased, then decreased Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #52 53. Psychological control A. is important for patients and their families in a hospital setting. B. can be increased by proving the patient with information about their medical procedure. C. when increased can contribute to quick recovery of functioning. D. can be increased by providing extensive information about the admitting process. E. All of these answers are correct. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe how control can be increased in hospital settings Taylor – Chapter 08 #53 54. According to a study by Kulik and Mahler in 1987, cardiac patients about to undergo surgery showed benefits when they specifically had a post-operative patient as a roommate. This could be in part due to the fact that A. they were able to obtain information about what to expect after surgery. B. they were relieved to see that their roommate survived the surgery. C . they were able to obtain information about what to expect after surgery and were relieved to see that their roommate survived the surgery. D. they had someone to talk to during non-visiting hours. E. they got control of the television remote control, which is highly correlated to blood pressure. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe how control can be increased in hospital settings Taylor – Chapter 08 #54 55. The results of Irving Janis’ classic research (1958) evaluating presurgical control-enhancing interventions utilized with stressful medical procedures suggests that patient coping is facilitated by A. information about the procedure. B. cognitive-behavioural interventions. C. relaxation training. D. hypnosis E. mood enhancing drugs. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe how control can be increased in hospital settings Taylor – Chapter 08 #55 56. In the study by Mahler and Kulik (1998) on the use of videos to prepare patients for upcoming procedures, compared with patients who did not receive videotaped preparation, patients who saw a videotape A. reported higher self-efficacy during the recovery period. B. were released sooner from the hospital. C. felt significantly better prepared for the recovery period. D. were more adherent to recommended dietary and exercise changes during their recovery. E. reported higher levels of anxiety prior to surgery. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe how control can be increased in hospital settings Taylor – Chapter 08 #56 57. Explain how social and psychological factors are implicated in the recognition and interpretation of symptoms. Answers may vary. Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms Taylor – Chapter 08 #57 58. Answer the question posed by the text, “What predicts the use of health services?” Answers may vary. Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services Taylor – Chapter 08 #58 59. What factors predict health care delay? Answers may vary. Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused Taylor – Chapter 08 #59 60. Explain how hospitalization may affect patients’ sense of personal control. What reactions are commonly observed? Answers may vary. Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient Taylor – Chapter 08 #60 61. Summarize the research investigating the effectiveness of control-enhancing interventions. Answers may vary. Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe how control can be increased in hospital settings Taylor – Chapter 08 #61 8 Summary Category # of Questions Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 56 Learning Objective: 08-01 Explain how people recognize and interpret symptoms 17 Learning Objective: 08-02 Know what predicts the use of health services 10 Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how health services are misused 15 Learning Objective: 08-04 Understand how hospitalization impacts the patient 13 Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe how control can be increased in hospital settings 7 Taylor – Chapter 08 6

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