HDEV 4 4E By Rathus – Test Bank
Chapter 07: Early Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development
True / False
1. Girls significantly outgrow boys in height during the preschool years. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 2. At two years of age, the brain already has attained 75% of its adult weight. a. True b. False ANSWER: True 3. Sprouting refers to the development of new memories. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 4. Infants and young toddlers find it more difficult to recover from brain damage than adults because their brain has not developed plasticity yet. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 5. Skipping is a fine motor skill and develops later than all gross motor skills. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 6. American children between the ages of one and three average eight to nine minor illnesses a year. a. True b. False ANSWER: True 7. Automobile accidents are the leading cause of death in early childhood. a. True b. False ANSWER: True 8. Sleep terrors usually occur during rapid-eye-movement REM sleep. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 9. Encopresis happens more during the day than at night. a. True b. False ANSWER: True 10. Egocentrism is characterized by one-dimensional thinking. a. True b. False ANSWER: True 11. Four-year-olds think dreams are real because of artificialism. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 12. Young children are able to use retrieval cues provided to them by adults to remember things. a. True b. False ANSWER: True 13. Fast mapping allows children to find their way easily in new environments. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 14. Children understand passive sentences before active ones. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 15. Pragmatics is more difficult when children are egocentric. a. True b. False ANSWER: True Multiple Choice 16. Which of the following is a difference between growth during childhood years and growth during infancy? a. Growth during the preschool years is significantly slower than growth during infancy. b. Growth during the preschool years is much faster than growth during infancy. c. Growth during preschool years involves gaining more baby fat than growth during infancy. d. Growth during preschool years requires more nutrition than growth during infancy. ANSWER: a 17. During the preschool years, _____. a. boys outgrow girls significantly b. girls outgrow boys significantly c. boys get slightly taller and heavier than girls d. girls get heavier than boys while boys get taller than girls ANSWER: c 18. In terms of height and weight gains during early childhood: a. boys and girls increase their amount of baby fat. b. boys and girls become more slender and lose some baby fat. c. girls become heavier and taller than boys. d. boys and girls grow more rapidly than they did during infancy. ANSWER: b 19. By the age of five a child’s brain: a. has reached 50% of its adult weight. b. has reached 75% of its adult weight. c. has reached 90% of its adult weight. d. has reached 10% of its adult weight. ANSWER: c 20. Increase in brain weight during the preschool years is due to the: a. increase in thickness of the skull. b. continuation of myelination of nerve fibers. c. increase in size of spinal cord. d. continuation of growth of the medulla. ANSWER: b 21. Myelination of neural pathways linking the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex: a. accounts for the decreasing memory abilities of the child. b. accounts for the increasing fine motor skills, balance, and coordination of the child. c. is linked to poor verbal skills in the developing child. d. is linked to dramatic increases in the child’s ability to imagine and be creative. ANSWER: b 22. In right-handed individuals, the left hemisphere of the brain is superior in _____. a. problem-solving functions b. visual–spatial functions c. aesthetic responses d. emotional responses ANSWER: a 23. In right-handed individuals, the right hemisphere of the brain is superior in _____. a. logical analysis b. visual-spatial functions c. computation d. problem-solving functions ANSWER: b 24. The corpus callosum is a thick bundle of nerve fibers that: a. connects the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum. b. connects the two hemispheres of the brain. c. allows the frontal lobe and the medulla to communicate. d. allows the cerebrum to interact with the limbic system. ANSWER: b 25. Which of the following is true of the corpus callosum? a. It starts developing only after the age of five. b. It processes visual information only. c. It connects the brainstem to the frontal regions of the brain. d. It is largely myelinated by eight years of age. ANSWER: d 26. _____ is the tendency of new parts of the brain to take up the functions of the injured parts. a. Elasticity b. Specificity c. Efficacity d. Plasticity ANSWER: d 27. Brendan is a one-year-old boy and has recently suffered an injury to the part of the brain that controls language. On examining him, the neurologist says that his brain will heal and that there will be no lasting damage due to his age. The neurologist bases this diagnosis on the _____ of Brendan’s brain. a. plasticity b. carcinogenicity c. elasticity d. immunogenicity ANSWER: a 28. Which of the following sentences defines gross motor skills? a. They are skills that involve the small muscles used in manipulation and coordination. b. They are skills that are used for locomotion that involve large muscle groups. c. They are skills that are used by children when drawing images or playing a musical instrument. d. They are skills that are acquired in late childhood or early adolescence. ANSWER: b 29. Which of the following activities involves gross motor skills? a. Painting a picture using a paintbrush b. Stringing four beads using a large needle c. Riding a bicycle with training wheels d. Building a tower with six cubes ANSWER: c 30. Which of the following is true of boys and girls regarding motor skills in early childhood? a. Girls are better at tasks requiring gross motor skills than boys. b. Boys are better at tasks requiring precise movements than girls. c. Motor skills of boys develop at a slower rate than that of girls. d. Motor skills are very similar between boys and girls. ANSWER: d 31. Which of the following statements is true about young preschoolers? a. They are more likely to engage in sociodramatic play than older preschoolers. b. They are more likely to engage in cooperative play than older preschoolers. c. They are more likely to engage in physical play than older preschoolers. d. They are more likely to engage in role play than older preschoolers. ANSWER: c 32. Which of the following is true about motor activity in early childhood? a. Motor activity begins to decline after two or three years of age. b. Motor activity increases dramatically after three years of age. c. Girls show a decline in motor activity whereas boys show an increase in motor activity. d. Children become more restless and are not able to sit still as they reach four and five years of age. ANSWER: a 33. Nathan and Joseph are chasing each other around the park and wrestling in the grass. Which of the following forms of play are the children involved in? a. Sociodramatic play b. Cooperative play c. Creative play d. Rough-and-tumble play ANSWER: d 34. Which of the following activities involves fine motor skills? a. Walking up stairs, two feet to a step b. Kicking a large ball c. Hopping on one foot d. Building a tower with six cubes ANSWER: d 35. During a recent parent-teacher meeting, the teacher explains to the parents of 3-year-old Cameron that he is in the design stage of artistic development. Which of the following is Cameron likely to draw? a. He draws and scribbles in various locations on the page. b. He draws very artistic pictures of landscapes. c. He draws a combination of the basic shapes. d. He draws recognizable objects like houses and airplanes. ANSWER: c 36. Handedness appears to be: a. present only in infants. b. influenced by genetics. c. identical in identical twins. d. entirely environmental in its development. ANSWER: b 37. Which of the following holds true for children moving from infancy into their second and third years? a. They need to consume more carbohydrates. b. They need significantly less vitamin intake. c. They need a significantly high fat intake. d. They need to consume fewer calories. ANSWER: d 38. Which of the following statements is true about two-year-olds? a. They typically have a more erratic appetite than an infant. b. They need about 2,300 calories per day. c. They need more calories per day than an infant. d. They typically have an increased appetite for salty foods. ANSWER: a 39. Which of the following is an example of a minor illness? a. Tuberculosis b. Measles c. Pneumonia d. Diarrhea ANSWER: d 40. Which of the following is true about childhood immunizations? a. They are used to eliminate diseases like arthritis and diabetes. b. They are still unavailable for diphtheria. c. They have greatly reduced the incidence of serious childhood illnesses. d. They have completely eliminated serious childhood illnesses. ANSWER: c 41. Most preschoolers sleep: a. 16 hours in a 24-hour period. b. eight hours at night and take two naps per day. c. nine to ten hours at night and take one nap per day. d. irregularly at night and five to six hours in a day. ANSWER: c 42. Which of the following statements is true about sleep terrors? a. They are the same as nightmares. b. They occur during deep stages of slumber. c. They are more common in infancy than at other ages. d. They occur more often as the child gets older. ANSWER: b 43. Sleep terrors differ from nightmares because: a. nightmares are more frightening. b. sleep terrors occur during REM sleep, nightmares do not. c. nightmares are usually outgrown, sleep terrors are not. d. sleep terrors occur during a deeper sleep stage. ANSWER: d 44. Sleepwalking is related to: a. immaturity of the nervous system. b. trouble controlling impulses. c. general misbehavior. d. developmental and learning disorders. ANSWER: a 45. Which of the following is a similarity between sleep terrors and somnambulism? a. Both occur during lighter rapid-eye movement. b. Both involve violent agitation when awakened during an episode. c. Both occurrences drop as children develop. d. Both are common among adults than children. ANSWER: c 46. Which of the following is true of bed-wetting? a. Bed-wetting is a sign of poor parenting. b. Bed-wetting increases in occurrence with age. c. Bed-wetting is more common among girls than boys. d. Bed-wetting occurs more often during deep sleep. ANSWER: d 47. Which of the following is an explanation for enuresis? a. It may be caused by hyperactivity of the prefrontal cortex. b. It may be caused by an immature motor cortex. c. It may be caused by a deficit of specific neurotransmitters needed to achieve this physical control. d. It may be caused by a pathological connection in the diencephalon. ANSWER: b 48. Harsh punishment in response to encopresis: a. aggravates the problem and causes anxiety. b. will usually stop it within a few weeks. c. appears to work for boys, but not for girls. d. teaches self-control, and that is what is needed. ANSWER: a 49. Enuresis usually occurs during the night, while encopresis usually occurs during the day. a. Enuresis usually occurs during the night, while encopresis usually occurs during the day. b. Enuresis is caused due to psychological factors, while encopresis is caused due to physical factors. c. Enuresis is usually outgrown with age, while encopresis becomes more frequent with age. d. Enuresis usually occurs among girls, while encopresis usually occurs among boys. ANSWER: a 50. According to Piaget, the preoperational stage of cognitive development: a. is characterized by sensorimotor intelligence. b. involves the use of abstract reasoning. c. lasts from approximately age two to age seven. d. involves a growing mastery of formal logic. ANSWER: c 51. Being able to pretend involves: a. the use and recollection of symbols. b. only basic cognitive skill. c. concrete operational thought. d. the ability to use language. ANSWER: a 52. Children involved in violent pretend play demonstrate: a. higher levels of creativity than other children. b. less antisocial behavior in later childhood. c. more helping behavior toward other children. d. lower levels of empathy than other children. ANSWER: d 53. Which of the following is true about imaginary friends? a. They are a sign of serious cognitive problems. b. They mean the child has problems with real relationships. c. They are companions for 95% of preschoolers. d. They are more common in firstborn children. ANSWER: d 54. Compared to children who do not have imaginary companions, children with imaginary companions: a. are more aggressive. b. are less cooperative. c. show more advanced language development. d. show lesser ability to concentrate. ANSWER: c 55. Caitlin thinks that all people love dolls because she loves dolls. Caitlin displays _____. a. egocentrism b. concrete operations c. symbolic thinking d. cognitive flexibility ANSWER: a 56. Which of the following is true of transductive reasoning? a. It involves reasoning by going from one isolated event to another. b. It involves reasoning by looking into multiple events together. c. It involves reasoning by going to only the most complicated event among a group of events. d. It involves reasoning by looking into similar, related events. ANSWER: a 57. Conservation is the understanding that: a. parents are aware of everything happening to their children even when they are not present. b. properties of objects remain the same, even if you change their superficial characteristics. c. one’s perspective is the same as other people’s perspective, irrespective of the situation. d. environmental features, such as mountains and thunder, have been designed and created by people. ANSWER: b 58. Class inclusion tasks are difficult for the preoperational child because: a. it requires the child to have the ability of seriation. b. the child unnecessarily compares various subclasses of information. c. it requires the child to focus on two aspects of a situation at once. d. the child focuses on multiple large classes at a time. ANSWER: c 59. Which of the following is true of a child’s zone of proximal development? a. It refers to an area in which children develop new cognitive skills as a function of working with more skilled people. b. It refers to an area in which children develop new cognitive skills by self-learning. c. It refers to an area in which children develop their gross motor skills by rough-and-tumble play. d. It refers to an area in which children develop their drawing skills on their own with the passage of time. ANSWER: a 60. Appearance-reality distinction is the understanding that _____. a. there is a difference between real events and mental events. b. novel words refer to unfamiliar objects and events. c. more than one aspect of a situation can be focused on at a time. d. the world can be perceived from another person’s point of view. ANSWER: a 61. Which of the following is a limitation of assessing memory in young children? a. Underdevelopment of their brains b. Inaccuracy in their verbal reports c. Slow development of neurons d. Poor development of the amygdala ANSWER: b 62. Gina is three years old. She can tell you that before going to bed, she puts her pajamas on, brushes her teeth, and hears a story. Gina’s account of this repeated event is called _____. a. a scaffold b. rehearsal c. fast mapping d. a script ANSWER: d 63. Which of the following is a difference between scripts and episodic memory? a. Scripts are accounts of specific events, while episodic memory are accounts of repeated events. b. Scripts are rarely recollected in adulthood, while episodic memories are recollected in adulthood. c. Scripts are orderly accounts of information, while episodic memories are abstract accounts of information. d. Scripts are coherent in nature, while episodic memories are generalized accounts of information. ANSWER: b 64. Which of the following is true of contrast assumption? a. Assuming that novel terms must refer to something that you already know b. Assuming that novel terms must refer to unfamiliar objects c. Assuming that words refer to whole objects, and not characteristics of objects d. Assuming that similar objects must belong to the same category ANSWER: b 65. Which of the following is true of inner speech? a. It is proof that cognitive development precedes language development. b. It is proof that language development precedes cognitive development. c. It is the ultimate binding of language and thought. d. It is the conversation that a child has with his or her imaginary playmate. ANSWER: c Completion 66. The single most common cause of death in early childhood is _________. A. lead poisoning B. sleep disorders C. malnourishment D. motor vehicle accidents ANSWER: motor vehicle accidents 67. ________ thought is characterized by the use of symbols to represent objects and relationships among them. A. Deductive B. Transductive C. Preoperational D. Precausal ANSWER: Preoperational 68. _________ refers to the belief that environmental features were made by people. A. Artificialism B. Transductive reasoning C. Precausal thought D. Animism ANSWER: Artificialism 69. Focusing on only one dimension at a time, a characteristic of preoperational thought identified by Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory, is known as _________. A. centration B. scaffolding C. rehearsal D. conservation ANSWER: centration 70. A parent who demonstrates to a child how to tie their shoes and then gradually turns over the responsibility of the task to the child is exhibiting _________. A. cognitive scaffolding B. cognitive centration C. cognitive attachment D. cognitive conservation ANSWER: cognitive scaffolding 71. Knowing the distinction between actual and mental events and between how things appear and how they really are indicates that a person has a(n) _________. A. zone of proximal development B. theory of mind C. autobiographical memory D. appearance–reality distinction ANSWER: theory of mind 72. By about age _________, many children have learned to verbalize information silently to themselves by counting mentally, for example, rather than aloud. A. one B. ten C. five D. three ANSWER: five 73. _________ refers to a process of quickly determining a word’s meaning, which facilitates children’s vocabulary development. A. Fast mapping B. Rehearsal C. Pragmatics D. Scaffolding ANSWER: Fast mapping 74. _________ refers to the application of regular grammatical rules for forming inflections to irregular verbs and nouns. A. Fast mapping B. Rehearsal C. Pragmatics D. Overregularization ANSWER: Overregularization 75. Changing one’s speech to fit a particular social situation demonstrates _________. A. grammar B. syntax C. pragmatics D. egocentrism ANSWER: pragmatics Essay 76. Describe the development of handedness in early childhood. Is handedness influenced by genetic factors? ANSWER: Handedness emerges during infancy, usually by two to three months of age. This can be tested by placing a rattle or another toy in the infant’s hand. If the toy is placed in the infant’s right hand, he or she will generally hold the rattle longer than if it is placed in the left hand. This right-hand preference usually emerges by two or three months of age. By four months, a clear right-hand preference is prominent. Right- or left-handed, children demonstrate a preference for a one-handed grasp between 6 and 14 months. The exact rates of right- and left-handed individuals are unclear. Handedness seems to have a genetic component, as a child with two right-handed parents will have a 92% chance of being right-handed, while a child with two left-handed parents may have only a 50% chance of being left-handed. The exact ramifications for cognitive or emotional connections to handedness are also still under investigation. Please see the section ”Motor Development” for more details. 77. Briefly describe the nutritional needs of preschool children. ANSWER: Two-to-three-year-olds need 1000–1,400 calories of food per day, and four-to-eight-year-olds require some 1,200–2,000 calories a day, depending on growth and activity level. This is a very wide range, so an absolute prescription for a given child is not advisable. The Mayo Clinic advises eating a balanced diet of protein sources (for example, seafood, lean meats, nuts), fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. During the second and third years, a child’s appetite typically becomes erratic, but because the child is growing more slowly than in infancy, he or she needs fewer calories. Children who eat little at one meal may compensate by eating more at another. Infants seem to be born liking the taste of sugar, although they are fairly indifferent to salt. But preference for sweet and salty foods increases if children are repeatedly exposed to them. Parents and television advertising also influence the development of food preferences. Please see the section ”Health and Illness” for more details. 78. Explain the major illnesses that occur in early childhood. ANSWER: Advances in immunization along with the development of antibiotics and other medications have dramatically reduced the incidence and effects of serious childhood diseases. Because most preschoolers and school children have been inoculated against major childhood illnesses such as rubella (German measles), measles, tetanus, mumps, whooping cough, diphtheria, and polio, these diseases no longer pose the threat they once did. Although many major childhood diseases have been largely eradicated in the United States and other industrialized nations, they remain fearsome killers of children in developing countries. Around the world, eight to nine million children die each year of just six diseases: pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, tetanus, whooping cough, and tuberculosis. Air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels for heating and cooking causes many respiratory infections, which are responsible for nearly one death in five among children who are younger than five years of age. Diarrhea kills nearly two million children under the age of five each year. Diarrheal diseases are mostly related to unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation and hygiene. Please see the section ”Health and Illness” for more details. 79. Describe the cognitive abilities and limitations of preoperational-aged children. ANSWER: Although children of the preoperational age still show confusion between symbols and the objects they represent, they are beginning to understand how their minds work. In addition, children are beginning to use symbols to represent objects. This, of course, is necessary for the development of language. Children of this age are beginning to engage in symbolic or “pretend” play which demonstrates advancements in the ability to imagine. Preoperational-aged children are highly egocentric, assuming that others think the same things they do. They are still unable to understand conservation tasks because they still show one-dimensional thinking and irreversibility. They are likely to display animism (in which thoughts and feelings are attributed to inanimate objects), and artificialism (such as believing that people created thunder). Please see the section “Jean Piaget’s Preoperational Stage” for more details. 80. Discuss the development of memory in early childhood. Explain the various factors that influence memory in early childhood. ANSWER: Children, like adults, often remember what they want to remember. By the age of four, children can remember events that occurred at least one and a half years earlier. Young children seem to form scripts, which are abstract, generalized accounts of repeated events. Even though children as young as one and two years of age can remember events, these memories seldom last into adulthood. This memory of specific events—known as autobiographical memory or episodic memory— is facilitated by children talking about the memories with others. Factors that affect memory include what the child is asked to remember, the interest level of the child, the availability of retrieval cues or reminders, and what memory measure we are using. First, children find it easier to remember events that follow a fixed and logical order than events that do not. Although young children can remember a great deal, they depend more than older children do on cues provided by others to help them retrieve their memories. Children’s memory can often be measured or assessed by asking them to say what they remember. Please see the section ”Development of Memory” for more details.