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HDEV 3rd Edition by Spencer A. Rathus – Test Bank

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HDEV 3rd Edition by Spencer A. Rathus – Test Bank

Chapter 6—

Infancy: Social and Emotional Development

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The best way to characterize attachment would be that it is a. only experienced by humans. b. a reciprocal relationship between child and parent. c. unrelated to survival needs. d. unaffected by one’s environment. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 2. Mary Ainsworth, a preeminent researcher on attachment, defined attachment as: a. an enduring emotional bond between one animal or person and another. b. a crisis that, when resolved, helps to propel people to higher levels of cognitive development. c. a psychosexual developmental event that occurs as a result of pathological needs. d. a learned behavior resulting from reinforcements and punishments by the parents. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 3. A mother leaves the room and her infant starts to cry. This may represent: a. preoperational processing c. an avoidant attachment b. separation anxiety d. visual recognition memory ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 4. Mary Ainsworth used the _____ to study attachment. a. Strange Situation method c. Mother-Absent procedure b. Mother-Present procedure d. Stranger Introduction test ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 5. The Strange Situation assesses: a. how the infant responds when the mother leaves the room and when she comes back b. how a child will “recover” after having suffered from abuse c. the type of temperament a child has d. a neonate’s physical health ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 6. An infant fusses mildly when his mother leaves and seeks interaction and comfort from her upon her return. This infant is showing ________ attachment. a. ambivalent/resistant c. Avoidant b. Insecure d. Secure ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 7. Which of the following children would be the least distressed by the departure of their mother from the room in which they are playing? a. Moira, who has a disorganized-disoriented attachment to her mother b. Charles, who has an ambivalent/resistant attachment to his mother c. Henry, who has an avoidant attachment to his mother d. Arauro, who has a secure attachment to her mother ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 8. Which of the following children would be the most distressed by the departure of their father from the room in which they are playing? a. Scott, who has an ambivalent/resistant attachment to his father b. Jean, who has a disorganized-disoriented attachment to her father c. Erik, who has an avoidant attachment to his father d. Lisa, who has a secure attachment to her father ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 9. An infant appears dazed and confused by her mother’s departure. Sometimes he moves toward her, and then he will start to move away from her. Which kind of attachment does this child seem to have toward his mother? a. an ambivalent/resistant attachment c. an avoidant attachment b. a disoriented disorganized attachment d. a secure attachment ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 10. Securely attached infants are: a. happier than other infants. b. more distressed than other infants when their mothers leave them alone. c. more difficult to put to bed at night than other infants. d. more likely to express anger toward their parent than other infants. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 11. A child is willing to explore the environment and shows positive emotions to things that she/he does not know. This child is most likely to have a(n): a. ambivalent attachment c. secure attachment b. avoidant attachment d. disorganized attachment ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 12. Securely attached infants and toddlers are ________ than insecurely attached infants a. more egocentric b. lower in self-esteem c. less tolerant of others who are not like them d. more cooperative with caregivers ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 13. Which of the following is not one of the factors that researchers believe contribute to the development of attachment relationships? a. a child’s temperament b. the type of care the child receives as an infant c. whether the child was breastfed by his or her mother d. the type of attachment their parents experienced as children ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 14. A securely attached infant: a. will be a healthy, well-adjusted adolescent b. will not be well adjusted as an adolescent as attachment does not predict later outcomes c. will not be well adjusted as an adolescent because attachment leads to adolescent rebellion d. may or may not be well-adjusted as an adolescent depending upon other childhood events ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 15. Research indicates that insecure attachment at one year of age predicts: a. poorer academic success by the time the child reaches high school b. healthy adjustment in later childhood c. psychological disorders at age 17 d. psychological problems for male children ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 16. Parents of securely attached infants: a. are actually less likely to be affectionate to their children b. respond more sensitively to their babies’ smiles and cries c. provide less predictable caregiving d. encourage independence in their children from an earlier age than parents of insecurely attached infants. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 17. Which of the following appears to be true? a. attachment runs in families b. most siblings develop different kinds of attachment relationships with their parents, since the parents tend to show favoritism towards one of the siblings. c. attachment is important for early childhood, but diminishes in importance later in life. d. attachment to one’s father is far less important to their attachment to their mother, provided that both parents are present in the child’s life ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 18. An infant with a “difficult” temperament is more likely than other infants to: a. have a mother who is sensitive and responsive b. become securely attached c. have a mother who is has other children to tend to d. have a mother who reports feeling distant from the infant. ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 19. The sensitivity of a father to the needs of his child a. determines the level of attachment between them. b. is unrelated to infant attachment c. is based upon the mother’s pattern of attachment d. only affects boys and not girls ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 20. Jerome is securely attached to his parents. However, his parents undergo a divorce and Jerome is now being neglected. What is likely to happen to his level of attachment? a. it may change because of the change in care he is receiving b. once attachment bonds are in place, they will not change c. it will remain unchanged if he lives with his mother, but will likely become worse if he lives with his father. d. it depends upon age, as attachment will not change after age 3 ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 21. Can insecurely attached children become more securely attached? a. no, once an attachment is established it does not change b. yes, if their stress levels decrease or they receive improved caregiving c. yes, research finds that insecure attachments almost always become more secure with age d. yes ,but only if the child’s had a secure attachment with their own parents ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 22. With “indiscriminate” attachment: a. the child sways back and forth in attachment between the father and the mother b. the child shows no tendency to form attachment bonds c. the child shows no preference in attachment for any one person d. attachment is weak and will quickly become insecure ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 23. Research with Ugandan infants shows: a. indiscriminate attachment early on b. the beginning of specific attachment to the mother at 2 months, which grew intense by 4 months of age c. fear of strangers developing by about 5 months d. that almost all of these infants, about 97%, developed a secure attachment to their mother and father ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 24. Brenna is 2 months old. At a recent family reunion, she was passed around for multiple relatives to hold. Emily showed no particular preference for her mother, father, or any other relative. In which of Ainsworth’s phases of attachment is Brenna? a. the absolute-attachment phase c. the attachment-in-the-making phase b. the initial-preattachment phase d. the clear-cut-attachment phase ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 25. Which phase of attachment is characterized by indiscriminate attachment? a. absolute-attachment phase c. attachment-in-the-making phase b. initial-preattachment phase d. clear-cut-attachment phase ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 26. According to Ainsworth, which of the following is not a phase of attachment? a. absolute-attachment phase c. attachment-in-the-making phase b. initial-preattachment phase d. clear-cut-attachment phase ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 27. Which phase of attachment is characterized by preference for familiar figures? a. absolute-attachment phase c. attachment-in-the-making phase b. initial-preattachment phase d. clear-cut-attachment phase ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 28. Christopher is 4-months-old. He prefers to be held by his mother or father rather than relatives or people he’s never met. In terms of attachment, in which of Ainsworth’s phases is Christopher? a. absolute-attachment phase c. attachment-in-the-making phase b. initial-preattachment phase d. clear-cut-attachment phase ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 29. Which attachment phase is characterized by an intense dependence on the primary caregiver? a. absolute-attachment phase c. attachment-in-the-making phase b. initial-preattachment phase d. clear-cut-attachment phase ANS: D DIF: Factual REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 30. In studies of Scottish and Ugandan infants, which of the following was true? a. the Ugandan infants were more likely to be securely attached than the Scottish infants b. fear of strangers followed separation anxiety in both studies c. the Scottish infants showed no separation anxiety d. fear of strangers preceded separation anxiety in both studies ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 31. A cognitive view of attachment assumes that: a. attachment will assist in developing the child’s cognitive skills b. attachment and cognitive skills are unrelated c. some understanding of object permanence is necessary for specific attachment d. infant-specific attachments will occur as soon as the child can recognize faces ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 32. According to the cognitive perspective, at what age will a child develop specific attachments? a. 6-7 months c. 3-4 months b. 4-5 months d. 1-2 months ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 33. Dr. Martin is conducting a study of infant attachment. Her hypothesis is that infants who have not yet developed some concept of object permanence will not show specific attachments to caregivers. Which theoretical view of attachment does Dr. Martin hold? a. cognitive c. psychoanalytic b. behavioral d. biological ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 34. Which theoretical view suggests that attachment bonds are learned through conditioning? a. cognitive c. psychoanalytic b. behavioral d. biological ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 35. Which theoretical view contends that caregivers become “love objects” and form the basis for all later attachments? a. cognitive c. psychoanalytic b. behavioral d. biological ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 36. According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, an infant’s attachment to the mother is primarily a result of: a. fulfillment of oral needs. b. sexual desire of the infant for the mother. c. reinforcement and shaping of the infant’s behavior by the mother. d. the achievement of object permanence on the part of the mother. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 37. According to Erikson’s psychoanalytic theory, what is most critical for a child to develop in the first year of life? a. a sense of trust c. a sense of identity b. a sense of autonomy d. a sense of self-efficacy ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 38. The conclusions gleaned from the Harlow’s (1966) research most directly contract a. Ainsworth’s view c. Freud’s view b. Erikson’s view d. none of these ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 39. Research by Harry and Margaret Harlow (1966) suggests that: a. the basis of attachment is the food provided by the mother b. monkeys – and presumably humans – have an instinctive need for contact comfort c. attachment is driven by the need for trust d. infants become attached because it helps them to form their identity ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 40. In a classic research study of infant attachment with rhesus monkeys, Harry and Margaret Harlow (1966) observed that the monkeys: a. spent most of their time clinging to the wire mother with the baby bottle b. spent most of their time clinging to the cloth mother c. divided their time between the two surrogate mothers d. would not come near either surrogate mother ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 41. Ainsworth and Bowlby (1991), in agreement with ethology, suggested that smiling in the infant: a. is random until about 6-months of age b. is usually due to gastrointestinal distress c. is unrelated to attachment d. may serve as a stimulus to elicit affection from others ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 42. Imprinting must occur during a specific time period for it to develop at all, as demonstrated by Konrad Lorenz with baby geese. This time period is known as a: a. sensitive period. c. learning period. b. maturational period. d. critical period. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 43. Attachment that occurs during a critical period based upon a stimulus is called: a. imprinting c. maturation b. fixed response d. maternal instinct ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 44. Based on the available research studies, would you say that it is possible for a human being to develop no attachment relationships? a. no, because it is genetic b. no, because a child will attach to anyone regardless of the amount of contact c. yes, attachment must occur within 2 months or it will never occur d. yes, but attachment bonds can be built later ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Application 45. Can social deprivation experiments be conducted with infants? a. yes, and the findings are consistent with animal studies b. no, it would be unethical to experimentally induce social deprivation c. no, because infants do not need social contact to attach and thrive d. yes, but the studies are longitudinal and extremely expensive to conduct ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 46. Spitz’ classic study of infants in an orphanage showed that institutionalized children who receive little or no social stimulation: a. appeared depressed and withdrawn. b. showed great interest in adults when given more stimulation. c. were profoundly retarded. d. showed elevated rates of failure to thrive syndrome. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 47. Amy is a 4-month-old infant. She appears withdrawn, depressed, and is losing all interest in the world. Amy: a. may suffer from early-onset schizophrenia b. probably has severe neurological damage c. may be the victim of social deprivation d. may be displaying early signs of mental retardation ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Application 48. The research of Yarrow and Goodwin (1971, 1973) suggests that social and sensory deficiencies causes more problems for a child’s development than a lack of love, but this applies to infants who: a. suffer from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). b. who have suffered from educational or emotional abuse. c. have developed an insecure attachment type. d. too young to have developed specific attachments. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 49. The research of Kagan and Klein (1973) suggests that children who are socially deprived: a. will never recover b. can recover fully, but only if the social deprivation is rectified by 3-4 months of age c. will not recover if the social deprivation lasts for 6 months or more d. may fully recover if the social deprivation occurred for no more than 13-14 months ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 50. Research on the children raised in the Guatemalan village where fresh air and sunshine are considered to be harmful has shown: a. these children do not recover from their deprivation when they get older. b. these children are cheerful and active while inside as infants and young children. c. these children are as active and alert at age 11 as children from the U.S. d. these children had double the rate of mortality before the age of 10 than children in more developed countries. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 51. According to research, more than ________ of United States parents have spanked or slapped their children. a. one half c. one third b. one quarter d. one fifth ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 52. How many children in the United States are reported to be abused or neglected each year? a. nearly 750,000 c. nearly 3 million b. nearly 1 million d. 5 million ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 53. Which of the following is not one of the forms of child maltreatment noted by your author? a. educational neglect c. physical neglect b. emotional abuse d. financial abuse ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 54. Which of the following is true about sexual abuse of children? a. the rate of occurrence is difficult to determine. b. is usually just misinterpreted and harmless c. cases are always clear and unambiguous d. the victim is female in about 90% of cases ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 55. Which of the following has research found about children who have suffered from abuse? a. They tend to develop better social skills than nonabused children in order to cope with their abuse. b. They have lower in self-esteem and do poorer in school than their nonabused peers. c. They tend to use drugs and alcohol about as much as their nonabused peers. d. They usually recover from the negative effects by adulthood. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 56. Austin has been maltreated by his parents. As a result, he is more likely: a. to compensate by developing pathologically high self-esteem b. to show impaired cognitive functioning c. to act less aggressively toward peers or romantic partners. d. over-achieve in his school performance ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Application 57. Parents are more likely to abuse: a. children who are already in pain of some kind b. first-born children c. full-term infants d. girls ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 58. How can child abuse be prevented? a. by strengthening parenting skills in the general population b. by giving school teachers the authority to keep a child from returning to their home if they suspect that abuse has occurred c. by making child abuse a crime d. by taking abused children out of the environment and placing them in foster care ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 59. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD): a. tend to be evident by age 3 b. are generally not apparent until the child enters kindergarten c. are found in 100 out of 1,000 children d. are found in 200 out of 1,000 children ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 60. Cynthia has Asperger’s disorder. Which of the following is true? a. she will not demonstrate significant cognitive or language delays b. because this is the same as autism, she will demonstrate significant cognitive and language delays c. she will not show social deficiencies or stereotyped behaviors d. her symptoms will diminish and eventually disappear with time ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Application 61. Which of the following is not considered an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)? a. Asperger’s disorder c. Childhood disintegrative disorder b. Rett’s disorder d. Rumination disorder ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 62. Kai was developing normally until the age of two, after which he began to lose skills that he had previously acquired. Kai may be suffering from a. Asperger’s disorder c. childhood disintegrative disorder b. Rett’s disorder d. autism ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Application 63. Autism: a. is 3 to 4 times more likely in girls than boys b. is more likely to strike a child from a low socioeconomic background c. shows very strong ethnic differences d. is 4 to 5 times more likely in boys than in girls ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 64. Research has found that children with autism may suffer from an unusual sensitivity to several neurotransmitters. Which of the following is not one of them? a. serotonin c. acetylcholine b. dopamine d. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 65. When young Mathias’s mother says, “Good morning honey, how did you sleep,” he responds by simply repeating what she said instead of answering her question. This is a form of language disturbance called a. mutism c. pronoun reversal b. echolalia d. pronominal inversion ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Application 66. David always refers to himself as “you.” This: a. could represent an unusual speech pattern called pronoun reversal b. is an indication of insecure attachment relationships c. is atypical when language is first acquired d. is a common feature in childhood schizophrenia ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Application 67. William’s mother moved the lamp that was beside his crib. When William woke up and noticed this, he started to scream and would not stop screaming until the lamp was moved back. William: a. shows the need for “sameness” that all children show b. demonstrates one of the symptom of autism c. was simply frightened by the change d. may suffer from schizophrenia ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Application 68. Which of the following may accompany autism? a. A need for change and variety in one’s surroundings b. intense interest in relationships with others c. self-mutilation, including head-banging, biting, and pulling of the hair d. an enhanced need for affection with others ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 69. Which of the following represents echolalia? a. referring to the self as “you” or “she” b. refusing to speak c. automatic repetition of sounds d. an intense need to hear the same sentences repeated over and over again ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 70. What is the most likely cause of autism? a. vaccines c. deficient child-rearing b. a viral infection during infancy d. biological issues ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 71. Which of the following research findings would lend support for a biological cause of autism? a. discovering that parents of autistic children are deficient in their parenting b. finding that peer rejection is correlated with autistic behaviors in children c. discovering that concordance rates for ASDs are about 60% among identical twins d. finding that poor nutrition is related to ASDs ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 72. Biological factors suspected of contributing to ASDs include: a. abnormal brain wave patterns or seizures b. increased activity in the frontal and temporal lobes c. contact with lead or other heavy metals in-utero d. vaccines that are administered shortly after birth ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 73. How has autism been most effectively treated? a. behavior modification has been used to increase children’s interactions with others b. antipsychotic medications have proven most effective in treating cases of autism c. no treatments have proven effective in diminishing ASD symptoms d. electroconvulsive therapy is effective in enhancing language development ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 74. How does placement in daycare affect attachment? a. most children in daycare are insecurely attached to their mothers b. it depends greatly upon the type of daycare facility c. it affects attachment bonds of boys more so than girls d. regardless of use of daycare, most children are securely attached to their caregiver(s). ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 6-3 Day Care OBJ: 6-3 MSC: TYPE: Factual 75. Research indicates that children in daycare: a. are less independent, self-confident, and outgoing b. have better school performance during the elementary school years c. are less aggressive than children who do not attend daycare d. grow less tall by about 2 inches than children who were not placed in daycare. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 6-3 Day Care OBJ: 6-3 MSC: TYPE: Factual 76. In a study of day care facilities, which of the following was not one of the components used to describe a “high quality” care center? a. extent to which children were “challenged” by the academic aspects of the care provided b. richness of the learning environment c. ratio of caregivers to children d. individual attention received by each child ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-3 Day Care OBJ: 6-3 MSC: TYPE: Factual 77. “A state of feeling that has physiological, situational, and cognitive components” is the definition of ________. a. emotion c. mood b. temperament d. trait ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 78. Which of the following is true regarding researchers of infant emotions? a. they agree that emotional expressions of infants tend to reflect two states – positive attraction and withdrawal. b. they agree that emotions develop in an orderly fashion c. they agree as to what emotions are first shown and/or whether discrete emotions are present at birth d. they agree that emotions are entirely genetic in nature and are not influenced by one’s environment. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 79. Is there a relationship between emotional development and patterns of attachment? a. yes, resistant children have been found to be most fearful and less joyful b. yes, secure children were found to show more fear and anger c. no, there is no relationship between emotional development and attachment d. yes, there is a relationship between emotional development and attachment, but only in the first year of life ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 80. Although it would be too early for the emergence of true stranger anxiety, research has found that children as young as ______ of age may compare the faces of strangers to their mothers, looking back and forth at both of them. a. 1 to 2 weeks c. 4 to 5 months b. 2 to 3 months d. 10 to 12 months ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 81. Stranger anxiety: a. occurs more often in girls than boys b. usually develops at approximately 1 year of age c. usually develops around 6-9 months of age d. occurs in American infants but not in those of other cultures ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 82. If you want to make friends with a child who is showing stranger anxiety, which of the following should you do? a. rush over to the child and pick them up b. approach the child when he/she is far away from their attachment figure c. approach the child when they are with their attachment figure, and do so in their own home or other familiar environment. d. approach the child in unfamiliar surroundings, rather than in their own home ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Application 83. Carver and Vaccaro (2007) suggest that social referencing requires three components. Which of the following is not one of those components? a. looking at another, usually older individual in a novel, ambiguous situation. b. associating that individual’s emotional response with the unfamiliar situation c. demonstrating an absence of separation anxiety. d. regulating their own emotional response in accord with the response of the older individual. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 84. A child observes another child acting unafraid in the presence of a stranger. Then, the observing child also stops acting afraid of the stranger. This is an example of: a. social referencing c. insecure attachment b. secure attachment d. activation of reflexes ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Application 85. Emotional regulation refers to: a. an infant’s attempt to understand the range of emotions they feel b. a parent’s attempt to decrease negative emotionality in their child c. the ways in which young children control their emotions d. a child who has overcome stranger anxiety ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 86. Research on emotional regulation has shown: a. emotional regulation is completely genetic, and is tied to one’s infantile temperament. b. adolescents who had been securely attached early in life had better emotional regulation than others who had been less securely attached. c. emotional regulation is inborn and cannot be learned. d. one’s emotional regulation is unrelated to interactions with one’s parent. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 87. While Neisha is sleeping, her mother puts a spot of makeup on her nose. When Neisha wakes up, her mother places her in front of a mirror and Neisha reaches and physically touches her own nose. This means: a. Neisha is at least 24-months-old b. Neisha does not recognize herself in the mirror c. Neisha’s self-concept has begun to develop d. Neisha does not like makeup ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Application 88. Infants: a. have no self-concept until at least 2 years of age. b. who are abused have no self-concept while those who were not abused do. c. who are securely attached develop a sense of self-concept later than other infants. d. begin to develop a self-concept during their first year of life. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 89. Self-awareness: a. does not reliably occur until about 24 months of age b. is not necessary for sharing and cooperation c. makes possible the development of self-conscious emotions such as embarrassment and envy d. is unaffected by the child’s social and emotional development ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 90. Which is the most common form of temperament, as found in studies by Chess and Thomas (1989)? a. easy c. slow-to-warm-up b. difficult d. ambivalent/resistant ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 91. Which of the following is not a component of a child’s temperament? a. activity level c. adaptability to new situations b. regularity in eating and sleep habits d. weight gain in the first year ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 92. Nathan has irregular sleep and feeding schedules, he responds to frustrations with tantrums and loud crying, and he takes a long time to adjust to new routines. Which temperament classification most accurately describes Nathan? a. easy c. slow-to-warm up b. difficult d. disengaged ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Application 93. 6-month old Jonah’s parents know that he goes to sleep every night at 7:30, and usually does not wake up until at least 1 or 2 am for a feeding. When they are driving out of town on a 4-hour trip, they leave at 7:25 so that the baby will fall asleep as they leave and sleep through the entire drive. Jonah’s predictability and regular schedule indicates that he has a(n) ________ temperament. a. secure c. easy b. difficult d. slow to warm up ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Application 94. How stable is temperament? a. moderately stable from infancy onward b. no stability from infancy to adulthood c. stable for boys, but not for girls d. stable, but only in certain ethnic and racial groups ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 95. ________ refers to agreement between a parent’s expectations of a child and the child’s temperament. a. Attachment c. Goodness of fit b. Temperament d. Emotional regulation ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 96. By what age do children typically start demonstrating a preference for gender-specific toys, such as dolls for girls and toy trucks for boys? a. 8 to 10 months c. 18 to 24 months b. 12 to 18 months d. 3 years ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 97. In Worrell & Goodheart’s (2006) study of adult reactions to babies, how did the investigators examine which type of toy adults would select for the baby? a. the type of music that they had playing in the baby’s bassinette b. the type of haircut that the baby received c. the type of clothing and the “gender” of the name they assigned to the baby d. the type of wallpaper that was on the wall in the room where the baby was seen ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 98. Research has shown that adults: a. speak to boys and girls in the same way. b. play more “rough and tumble” games with girls than boys. c. react more positively to gender ‘appropriate’ games and toys than to opposite-gender games and toys. d. do not choose different toys or room decorations for boys and girls. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 99. When the bedrooms of children between the ages of 5 months and 6 years were examined in research, it was found that boys’ rooms were typically decorated with ________ while girls’ rooms were more often decorated with ________. a. animal themes ; lace, ruffles, and pastels b. trucks and cars; animal themes c. letter and numbers; dolls and books d. guns and “army men”; pretend tea sets and posters of singers ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 100. Research on gender differences has shown: a. no differences between boys and girls. b. toy preference differences in early childhood. c. differences in boys’ and girls’ social behavior. d. consistent differences in activity and irritability levels. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual MATCHING Match the following: a. An insecure attachment marked by severe distress when attachment figure leaves, followed by inconsistent behavior when reunited k. When a child uses a caregiver’s facial expressions to interpret ambiguous situations b. When an infant first has a negative mood but becomes gradually more positive over time. This infant also has a “somewhat irregular” schedule of biological functioning. l. Characterized by mild distress when attachment figure leaves, followed by a desire for interaction and comforting when reunited c. When an infant has irregular biological routines and has very intense reactions to stimuli m. When an infant is very adaptable and has a positive quality of mood d. Automatic repetition of sounds or words n. The second stage on the development of attachment, where there is a preference for familiar figures e. The third stage in the development of attachment, where there is an intense preference for the primary caregiver o. Facilitates the development of self-conscious emotions, such as pride, guilt, and shame f. Is more likely to be abused p. An example would be when a child refers to herself as “you” or “she” g. Usually begins to develop at 6 to 9 months of age q. An insecure attachment marked by indifference when attachment figure leaves and an absence of emotional response when reunited h. Concordance rates for autism in identical twins r. Involves placing some rouge (make-up) on the nose of a child. i. Number of parents who have slapped or spanked their child s. The number of children abused or neglected each year j. An important way to help reduce incidence of child abuse t. An example would be when an infant looks away from an unpleasant stimulus 1. Easy baby 2. Stranger anxiety 3. Over half 4. Social referencing 5. Secure attachment 6. Mirror technique 7. Clear-cut attachment 8. Self-awareness 9. Ambivalent/resistant attachment 10. 3 million 1. 11. Difficult baby 2. 12. Echolalia 3. 13. Strengthening parenting skills 4. 14. Avoidant attachment 5. 15. Emotional regulation 6. 16. A child in pain 7. 17. Sixty percent 8. 18. Attachment-in-the-making 9. 19. Pronoun reversal 10. 20. Slow-to-warm-up baby 1. ANS: M 2. ANS: G 3. ANS: I 4. ANS: K 5. ANS: L 6. ANS: R 7. ANS: E 8. ANS: O 9. ANS: A 10. ANS: S 1. 11. ANS: C 2. 12. ANS: D 3. 13. ANS: J 4. 14. ANS: Q 5. 15. ANS: T 6. 16. ANS: F 7. 17. ANS: H 8. 18. ANS: N 9. 19. ANS: P 10. 20. ANS: B TRUE/FALSE 1. Attachment only occurs in human beings. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 2. Babies who show avoidant attachment are the least distressed by their mother’s departure in the Strange Situation. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 3. Ainsworth found that there are two phases during which attachment classifications develop. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 4. Separation anxiety occurs when children react negatively to being away from their caregivers. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 5. Most American infants are securely attached. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 6. Self-awareness is measured using the Strange Situation. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 7. Attachment pattern is related to the child’s temperament. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 8. Mothers, but not fathers, become attached to their children based on the quality of their interactions. ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 9. The clear-cut-attachment phase occurs at about 6 or 7 months and is characterized by intensified dependence on the primary caregiver, usually the mother. ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 10. According to ethologists, attachment occurs during a critical period for humans. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-1 Attachment: Bonds That Endure OBJ: 6-1 MSC: TYPE: Factual 11. The effects of social deprivation of monkeys and humans cannot be reversed after the deprivation has occurred. ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 12. Fewer than 10,000 children are reported as being abused or neglected each year in the U.S. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 13. Children with autism show little interest in social interactions. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 14. Asperger’s disorder and Rett’s disorder are two forms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 15. Autism is caused by poor parenting. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-2 When Attachment Fails OBJ: 6-2 MSC: TYPE: Factual 16. Children with day care experience are less likely to share their toys. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-3 Day Care OBJ: 6-3 MSC: TYPE: Factual 17. Quality of childcare is unimportant in determining its effects on children. ANS: F DIF: Moderate REF: 6-3 Day Care OBJ: 6-3 MSC: TYPE: Factual 18. Emotional development is linked to attachment relationship. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 19. Children are born with the ability to regulate their emotions. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 20. Having a fear of strangers during the first year of life is a sign of pathology. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 21. Emotional regulation has been demonstrated by infants under one year of age. ANS: T DIF: Moderate REF: 6-4 Emotional Development OBJ: 6-4 MSC: TYPE: Factual 22. A majority of children are labeled “difficult” in studies of temperament. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 23. One’s goodness of fit with the environment is unrelated to the outcome of one’s development. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 24. Girls tend to advance more rapidly in their motor development in infancy. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual 25. Adults treat boys and girls the same in all ways. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 6-5 Personality Development OBJ: 6-5 MSC: TYPE: Factual COMPLETION 1. Mary Ainsworth (1989), a preeminent researcher, defines ________ as an enduring emotional bond between one animal or person and another. ANS: attachment 2. When infants try to maintain contact with caregivers but are unsuccessful, they thrash about, fuss, cry, screech, or whine. This demonstrates ________ anxiety. ANS: separation 3. John Bowlby (1988) suggested that attachment is essential to the ________ of an infant. ANS: survival 4. Mary Ainsworth used the ________ method to assess the development of attachment in infants and children. ANS: Strange Situation 5. ________ babies are the most emotional. They show severe signs of distress when their mothers leave and show ambivalence upon reunion by alternately clinging to their mothers and pushing them away. ANS: Ambivalent/resistant 6. ____________________ attachment is indicated when a child seems dazed or confused and demonstrates contradictory behavior toward their attachment figure. ANS: Disorganized-disoriented 7. Fathers are more likely to engage in ________ than mothers with their infants. ANS: rough-and-tumble play 8. During the ________ phase of attachment development, which occurs at about 3 or 4 months, infants have a preference for familiar figures. ANS: attachment-in-the-making 9. The cognitive view of attachment suggests that an infant must develop the concept of ________ before specific attachment becomes possible ANS: object permanence 10. From the ________ perspective on attachment, a caregiver becomes a conditioned reinforcer. ANS: behavioral (or learning) 11. ________ is the first psychosocial conflict experienced by infants, according to Erikson’s psychoanalytic theory. ANS: Trust vs. mistrust 12. For waterfowl, such as geese and ducks, ________ must occur during a critical period for it to occur at all. ANS: imprinting 13. Children who are ________ are less intimate with peers and more aggressive, angry, and noncompliant than other children ANS: abused 14. ________ disorders are characterized by impairment in communication skills and social interaction, and by repetitive, stereotyped behavior ANS: Autism spectrum 15. ________ disorder is characterized by a range of physical, behavioral, motor, and cognitive abnormalities that begin after a few months of normal development. ANS: Rett’s 16. Various lines of evidence suggest a key role for ________ factors in autism ANS: biological 17. The concordance (agreement) rates for autism are about ________ percent among pairs of identical (MZ) twins ANS: 60 18. Treatment for autism is mainly based on principles of ________, although investigation of ________ approaches is also under way ANS: learning; biological 19. By the age of 2 to 3 months, ________ smiling has replaced ________ smiling. ANS: social; reflexive 20. ________ is the seeking out of another person’s perception of a situation to help us form our own view of it ANS: Social referencing 21. ________ refers to the ways in which young children control their own emotions. ANS: Emotional regulation 22. The mirror technique in which a child’s nose is daubed with rouge is used to measure a child’s ________. ANS: self-concept (or sense of self) 23. Each child has a characteristic ________, a stable way of reacting and adapting to the world that is present early in life ANS: temperament 24. Thomas and Chess (1989) identified three types of temperament: easy, difficult, and ________. ANS: slow to warm up 25. A child with a ________ temperament has been defined as one who has irregular sleep and feeding schedules, is slow to accept new people and situations, takes a long time to adjust to new routines, and responds to frustrations with tantrums and crying ANS: difficult 26. A parent may respond in such as a way as to help make a child’s temperament change in a positive direction. This helps achieve ________ between the child’s temperament and environment. ANS: goodness of fit SHORT ANSWER 1. What is the difference between a securely attached infant and an insecurely attached infant? ANS: A securely attached infant will be somewhat upset upon the exiting of the mother and happy to see her return. An insecurely attached infant may exhibit either an avoidant or ambivalent/resistant attachment pattern. In avoidant attachment, the infant shows little or no distress when the mother leaves the room. Ambivalent/resistant infants are very emotional, becoming extremely upset if mother leaves the room, and acting of two minds upon her return. Though not technically described as an insecure attachment, researchers have also identified the disorganized-disoriented attachment style, which is marked by uncertainty in the child, and a dazed and often contradictory set of behaviors toward the attachment figure. The majority of infants are securely attached. 2. Explain the main factors associated with parents abusing their children. ANS: Abuse is more likely to occur when one or both of the parents were victims of childhood abuse. A lack of adequate coping and childrearing skills, unrealistic expectations of children, and substance abuse are also risk factors. Further, stress is a big factor, including divorce, losing a job, moving, or the birth of a new family member. Children who already experience pain may be victims as they can be difficult to soothe. Children who are irritable, disobedient, inappropriate, or unresponsive are also more likely to be victims of abuse . 3. Describe how children with autism can be distinguished from children who do not have autism. ANS: Infants with autism are usually physically normal, learning to crawl and walk at normal ages. However, they seem to lack almost any attachments or social skills. As infants, they tend not to smile or explore things with their mouths. They do not seek cuddling or hugging and prefer to play by themselves, even when other children are present. Some children with autism even mutilate themselves in a variety of ways. As these children get older, differences become more obvious. Children with autism tend to practice echolalia and mutism. They tend to have a strong desire for exact sameness, and any change in their environment can cause an outburst. The most prominent feature of children with autism is how content they seem with being alone and their absence of bonded relationships with others. 4. Explain how social referencing functions in infancy. ANS: We tend to use social referencing when a social situation is ambiguous. We observe those around us to see how they are reacting to the situation to help us make a decision on how to act, often modeling their responses. Infants have the ability to social reference just as adults do, but on a simpler level. For example, an infant will judge the friendliness of the expression his/her mother has on her face when interacting with a stranger, subsequently showing the stranger a similar expression. 5. Explain how self-concept develops in infants. ANS: Infants eventually begin to realize that the hand passing in front of their eyes belongs to them. At about 18-months of age, infants begin to be able to detect a spot of rouge on their face in a mirror (this is called the mirror technique). Once the infant becomes self-aware, social graces such as sharing can form. Being self-aware makes way for the development of feelings such as envy, pride, and shame. Infants over 18-months of age thus tend to seek parental approval, whereas younger infants do not. 6. How is the Strange Situation method used to assess attachment pattern? ANS: In the Strange Situation, first used by Mary Ainsworth to assess attachment pattern, an infant or child is kept in a room first with its mother. After a while, a stranger (member of the experiment team) enters the room. Then the mother leaves the room while the infant or child remains with the stranger. The mother returns to the room. During each of these phases of the experiment, the infant or child’s behavior is recorded. The behavior is examined to see whether the infant or child explores its environment, shows distress or wariness when the stranger arrives, and distress or upset when the mother leaves. The infant or child is also assessed when the mother returns to see how the infant or child reacts to their mother’s return, such as whether it goes right up to the mother or ignores her. The combination of these reactions are examined and determined to be in one of several categories of attachment pattern. 7. Briefly describe the three types of temperament identified by Thomas and Chess (1989). ANS: The three types of temperament are: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm. The easy child has regular sleep and feeding schedules, approaches new situations (such as a new food or a new school) with enthusiasm and adapts to them easily, and is generally cheerful. The difficult child, on the other hand, has irregular sleep and feeding schedules, is slow to accept new people and situations, takes a long time to adjust to new routines, and responds to frustrations with tantrums and crying. The slow-to-warm-up child falls between the other two This child has somewhat irregular biological schedules, responds to new stimuli with negative withdrawal, adapts slowly to new situations, has a mild intensity of reactions, and their quality of mood is initially negative and gradually becomes more positive over time.. 8. How does an infant use social referencing to determine how to behave in unfamiliar situations? ANS: Infants as young as 6 months old look at their caregiver’s facial expressions and also detect their tone of voice to determine how to react in a new situation. The infant determines what the caregiver’s emotional response is to the situation and regulates its own emotions in response to the caregiver’s response. This is particularly important in ambiguous situations where there may not be adequate environmental cues for a child to interpret their surroundings effectively. 9. How is goodness of fit important in determining the outcome of a child’s temperament? ANS: Goodness of fit occurs when a child’s environment accommodates his or her temperament. When there is good fit, the child’s temperament remains constant. When the environment does not fit with the child’s temperament, the child may have experience problems in connecting with their caregiver. This can also lead the child’s temperament may be modified with the guidance of a parent. 10. Briefly describe the three stages of attachment identified by Ainsworth and her colleagues (1978). ANS: There are three stages of attachment development, according to Ainsworth and colleagues (1978). The first stage, known as the initial-preattachment phase, lasts from birth to about 3 months and is characterized by indiscriminate attachment. This means that infants will want to maintain contact with a caregiver, but no specific one is required. The second stage, known as the attachment-in-the-making phase, occurs at about 3 or 4 months and is characterized by preference for familiar figures. Now the infant prefers to be with one or more regular caregivers. The third, or clear-cut-attachment phase, occurs at about 6 or 7 months and is characterized by intensified dependence on the primary caregiver, usually the mother. During this stage, the infant will generally show a significant amount of distress when separated from the primary caregiver.

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