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Governing Texas 2nd Edition By Anthony Champagne – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0393936848
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0393936841

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Governing Texas 2nd Edition By Anthony Champagne – Test Bank

Chapter 6:

Interest Groups and Lobbying

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Texans Advocating for Meaningful Student Assessment enabled people to join together and seek policy change in a number of ways EXCEPT by a. providing like-minded individuals an organizational structure for discussing problems and offering solutions. b. providing a vehicle for working with other organizations like the Texas Association of School Administrators, who were also concerned with testing. c. raising money to help pay for their efforts. d. educating the public and policy makers alike about the problems of testing across the elementary and secondary curriculum. e. successfully removing the end-of-year course exams. ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Applying 2. The 8F Crowd was a. an influential cartel of political activists who wrote the Texas Constitution of 1876. b. a loose but influential group of Texas businessmen. c. the first Latino civil rights organization in Texas. d. a group of corrupt politicians dependent on bribery during the early twentieth century. e. a group of eight Florida businessmen who came to Texas hoping to get elected to the Texas legislature. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 3. Which of the following is NOT a description of an interest group? a. Its members pursue a common goal. b. It attempts to affect public policy. c. Members seek to achieve their desired goals through political means. d. It is usually made up of a large number of people. e. It is typically active only at the national level of government. ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Applying 4. Which of the following is the farmers’ interest group that influenced the writing of the Texas Constitution of 1876? a. the Grange b. the 8F Group c. EMILY’s List d. the Texas Natural Resource Council e. the Texas Farm Bureau Association ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 5. What do interest groups want from policy makers? a. They want policy that is beneficial for their groups. b. They want information that benefits their groups. c. They want monies for their special projects. d. They want unlimited access to the policy makers. e. They want to help write policy that addresses their interests. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 6. Interest groups are often powerful in states a. with a strong two-party rivalry. b. dominated by one party. c. that have a weak or nonexistent party system. d. with powerful third parties. e. with low voter turnout. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Applying 7. Unlike private citizens involved in politics, better-funded interest groups have several advantages EXCEPT a. time. d. media access. b. money. e. continuity. c. expertise. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 8. The practice of combining several individual campaign contributions into one larger contribution from a group in order to increase the group’s impact is known as a. bribery. d. soft money. b. PAC-ing. e. hard money. c. bundling. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 9. Lobbyists can do all of the following EXCEPT a. provide information to politicians. b. write bills. c. testify before legislative committees. d. entertain politicians. e. provide information to politicians, write bills, testify before legislative committees, and entertain politicians. ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 10. The Texas Medical Association is best described as what kind of interest group? a. professional d. ideological b. pubic employee e. civil rights c. public interest ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 11. One of the most influential professional groups in Austin is the a. Mexican American Legal Defense Fund. b. Texas Lawyers Association. c. Texas Medical Association. d. Teachers Association. e. Business Association. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Applying 12. Which of the following is the best example of a public interest group? a. the Mexican American Legal Defense Fund b. the Texas Medical Association c. Common Cause d. Texans for Lawsuit Reform e. the Texas Bar Association ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 13. The largest and most effective public employee interest group in Texas is made up of a. firefighters. d. justices of the peace. b. police officers. e. autoworkers. c. teachers. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 14. Which of the following groups have had notable political success by litigating in federal courts? a. professional groups d. chemical company lobbyists b. public employee interest groups e. business lobbyists c. civil rights groups ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 15. Which of the following is NOT a common way for interest groups to gain access to politicians and policy makers? a. hiring former politicians as lobbyists b. spending money on entertaining politicians c. building support on an issue with constituents d. forming political action committees that allow members to bundle large contributions to candidates e. running for office themselves ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Applying 16. One important way for interest groups to gain access to those in Texas government is to employ ________ as lobbyists. a. retired sports stars b. political science majors c. Republican campaign consultants d. former legislators and government officials e. celebrities ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 17. What did Lonnie “Bo” Pilgrim do in 1989? a. He distributed $10,000 checks to state senators while lobbying them on a bill. b. He established the first political action committee devoted solely to Texas politics. c. He united a number of food production companies to create a single-industry lobbying group. d. He was convicted of bribing three Texas legislators with promises of free fried chicken for life. e. He bought a number of votes on a controversial bill by offering legislators free turkeys for Thanksgiving. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 18. What was the problem Speaker Sam Rayburn identified with the “steak men” at the beginning of the twentieth century? a. They were politicians who were in the pocket of the cattle industry. b. They were legislators who would “sell” their votes on a bill for free steak dinners. c. They were legislators who would attempt to cut all the meat out of the budgets. d. They were lobbyists who Rayburn said were full of “bull.” e. They were legislators who were in the pocket of the meat-packing industry. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 19. Texas has ________ laws dealing with lobbying by former government officials. a. no d. strong b. numerous e. two c. weak ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Applying 20. ________ was the former Texas Speaker of the House who was indicted for taking an illegal gift from a law firm that specialized in collecting delinquent taxes for local governments. a. Gib Lewis d. Tom Craddick b. James “Pete” Laney e. Sam Rayburn c. Bill Ratliff ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 21. Scandals about the “steak men,” Bo Pilgrim, and Gib Lewis resulted in a. restrictions on speaking fees. b. the creation of a state ethics commission. c. restrictions on pleasure trips. d. limits on lobbying behavior. e. removal of the “steak men” and Gib Lewis. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 22. Which interest is NOT represented in a list of the top interest groups in Texas? a. trial lawyers d. public employees b. the environment e. agriculture c. the gas and oil industry ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 23. One major way for interest groups to promote the political interests of elected officials who support their viewpoints and oppose the interests of those who do NOT is by engaging in a. campaign contributions. d. letter writing. b. hiring staff personnel. e. campaign consulting. c. buying media access. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 24. Which is NOT a reason for forming a political action committee? a. Candidates are more likely to notice a substantial contribution from a political action committee than small individual contributions. b. A substantial political action committee donation to a candidate can more likely gain political access than a lobbyist who simply asks. c. A political action committee sends a message that its members care strongly enough about their agenda. d. Candidates are more likely to allow political action committees to purchase media access during election season. e. Political action committees serve as intermediaries to provide money to candidates that their members might not want to support publicly. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 25. Which political action committees spend the least amount of money in Texas elections? a. single-issue political action committees b. labor unions c. business groups d. lawyers e. consumer groups ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 26. A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns is called a(n) a. interest group. d. advocacy association. b. political action committee. e. 8F crowd. c. campaign revenue association. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 27. Battleground Texas is the latest attempt by the Democratic Party to do all of the following EXCEPT a. identify potential Democratic voters. b. identify potential candidates. c. make voters familiar with Democratic positions. d. make voters familiar with Democratic candidates. e. increase voter turnout. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 28. Texas trial lawyers frequently ally with a. the gas and oil industry. d. public employee unions. b. pharmaceutical companies. e. environmental groups. c. consumer interest groups. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 29. When individuals or interest groups take out ads concerning a campaign issue but do not tie them directly to any particular candidate it is called a. soft-money spending. d. direct advocacy. b. bundling. e. hard-money spending. c. issue advocacy. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 30. Most political action committee spending in Texas represents a. business. b. labor. c. single-issue ideological organizations. d. consumers. e. agriculture. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 31. As in the U.S. Congress, most campaign contributions in Texas go to a. incumbents. d. political parties. b. supporters of business interests. e. Democrats. c. Republicans. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 32. Which of the following is NOT a typical threat to an incumbent running for re-election? a. scandal b. the greater fund-raising opportunities of challengers c. redistricting d. controversial voting record e. a well-funded challenger ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 33. On average, incumbents in the Texas House of Representatives are able to fund-raise ________ challengers. a. 50 percent more than d. 5 times as much as b. twice as much as e. 10 times as much as c. 3 times the amount of ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 34. If an interest group “gets on the late train,” it means a. the group’s lobbyists are unable to gain access to key politicians until after all opposing lobbyists have been heard. b. an interest group gives contributions after the election to a winning candidate the group had earlier opposed. c. a political action committee donates money for a candidate in the general election but not in the primaries. d. an interest group picks up on an issue only after public-opinion polling shows a great deal of support. e. the group donates money to a campaign that eventually loses the election. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 35. What is the function of EMILY’s List? a. It provides early campaign funding for female candidates. b. It is the largest victims’ rights group in Texas. c. It is designed to help raise money for the Texas teachers’ unions. d. It is a political action committee that raises money from the petrochemical industry. e. It is an organization that lobbies for more government efforts to stop child abduction. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 36. Which U.S. Supreme Court case in 2009 created the opportunity for organizations that opposed powerful incumbents to NOT disclose their donors? a. Clinton v. Patriot Citizens b. Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission c. McCutcheon v. Federal Elections Commission d. Bush v. Federal Elections Commission e. Tea Party v. Federal Elections Commission ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Individuals as Lobbyists OBJ: Explain how ordinary individuals can influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 37. Individuals are most likely to successfully lobby government when they a. are not challenged by powerful, organized interest groups. b. form their own political action committee. c. seek pardons or clemency. d. limit their requests to personal issues. e. write letters to legislators. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Individuals as Lobbyists OBJ: Explain how ordinary individuals can influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 38. According to the Measures of Texas Civic Health, ________ percent of Texans have either contacted or visited a public official, ranking Texas ________ among the states. a. 36; fiftieth d. 38; thirty-seventh b. 25; forty-second e. 78.1; forty-first c. 9; forty-ninth ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Individuals as Lobbyists OBJ: Explain how ordinary individuals can influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 39. What are the top two reasons Texans give for NOT voting? a. bad weather and inconvenient hours for voting b. busy and forgot to vote c. not interested/vote does not matter and don’t like the candidates d. busy/conflict with work and not interested/vote does not matter e. inconvenient hours for voting and transportation problems ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Individuals as Lobbyists OBJ: Explain how ordinary individuals can influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating TRUE/FALSE 1. Interest groups typically have more time, money, and expertise to offer politicians than do average citizens. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 2. Interest groups in Texas are NOT allowed to run paid advertisements in the media. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 3. To avoid conflicts of interest, all lobbyists in Texas are required to represent only a single client. ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Applying 4. A lobbyist is an individual employed by a political action committee who tries to influence governmental decisions on behalf of that group. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 5. Entertaining politicians is one of the most critical ways for lobbyists to gain access. ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 6. Lobbyists may gain access to legislators by building support for an issue among their constituents. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 7. Gaining access to politicians through personal connections is a violation of Texas state laws. ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 8. One of the most influential professional groups in Austin is the Texas Medical Association. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 9. Texas has strong laws dealing with lobbying from former government officials. ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Applying 10. Interest groups are limited to lobbying the legislature; they CANNOT lobby executive agencies or the courts. ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 11. Some of Texas’s biggest lobby spenders are groups that include the interests of consumers, the environment, or human services. ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 12. No large interest groups in Texas represent the environment. ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 13. More money is spent in Texas by the communications industry than any other represented interest. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 14. Political action committees help interest groups bundle campaign donations. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 15. Spending on issue advocacy ads by political action committees need NOT be reported by a candidate. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Evaluating 16. Interest groups representing labor organizations dominate Texas politics. ANS: F DIF: Difficult REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 17. Incumbents are most likely to receive large campaign contributions. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Remembering 18. Dark money is political money where the donors of the money do NOT have to be disclosed. ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Individuals as Lobbyists OBJ: Explain how ordinary individuals can influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 19. Redistricting and scandal are the two greatest threats to an incumbent’s electoral advantage. ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: Individuals as Lobbyists OBJ: Explain how ordinary individuals can influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Understanding ESSAY 1. Describe some of the different types of interest groups operating in Texas. Which ones have been the most influential? What are some interests that have been underrepresented in Texas? ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 2. It is vital for lobbyists to gain access to politicians and policy makers. Describe some of the ways in which interest groups and their representatives gain access in Texas politics. What are some of the potential abuses of this process? ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 3. Some have accused interest groups and lobbyists of undue influence over Texas government. Describe some of the regulations and restrictions that the law has placed upon lobbyists and interest groups operating in Texas. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 4. Not all interests are equally represented in Texas politics. Describe which interest groups have the most political clout and why? What are some interests that are not well represented in Texas, and why is this the case? What have been some practical effects of these differences in lobbying power? ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 5. How well do organized interests in Texas represent the needs of average Texans? Do organized interests contribute to problems such as hyperpluralism and polarization? ANS: Answer will vary. DIF: Difficult REF: Interest Groups in the Political Process OBJ: Define interest groups and describe the major ways they try to influence Texas government STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing 6. Campaign donations are one of the most important ways to influence in politics. Describe the role of interest-group money in politics. What are political action committees, and what do they do? How can they shape elections? ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Medium REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Understanding 7. Is there anything Texas can do to limit the impact of large campaign donors without limiting free speech? ANS: Answer will vary. DIF: Difficult REF: Another Side to Lobbying OBJ: Describe the role of PACs in Texas elections STA: 5 MSC: Analyzing

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