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Fundamentals Of Anatomy Physiology 9th Edition By Frederic H. Martini – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0321709330
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0321709332

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Fundamentals Of Anatomy Physiology 9th Edition By Frederic H. Martini – Test Bank

Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Martini)
Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) The spinal cord is part of the
A) peripheral nervous system.
B) somatic nervous system.
C) central nervous system.
D) autonomic nervous system.
E) afferent nervous system.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

2) The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
A) conus medullaris
B) filum terminale
C) cauda equina
D) dorsal root
E) ventral root
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

3) Spinal nerves are
A) purely sensory.
B) purely motor.
C) both sensory and motor.
D) interneuronal.
E) involuntary.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

4) The spinal cord consists of five regions and ________ segments.
A) 5
B) 12
C) 25
D) 31
E) The number varies widely among individuals.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

5) The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
A) axons of motor neurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
C) cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
E) synapses.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

6) The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
A) axons of motor neurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
C) cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
E) interneurons.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

7) The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
A) axons of motor neurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
C) cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
E) interneurons.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

8) The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
A) arachnoid.
B) pia mater.
C) dura mater.
D) epidural block.
E) periosteum.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

9) After age ________ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.
A) 8
B) 12
C) 18
D) 4
E) 1
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

10) If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,
A) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked.
B) output to visceral organs would be blocked.
C) the spinal cord would not be able to process information at that level.
D) the brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord.
E) sensory input would be blocked.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

11) The subdural space lies between
A) the arachnoid mater and the pia mater.
B) the pia mater and the dura mater.
C) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
D) the pia mater and the subarachnoid space.
E) the endosteum and the periosteum.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

12) The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
A) dura mater.
B) subarachnoid space.
C) arachnoid.
D) pia mater.
E) choroid plexus.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

13) A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a
A) cervical enlargement.
B) lumbar enlargement.
C) spinal nerve.
D) spinal meninx.
E) spinal ganglion.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

14) In meningitis,
A) inflammation of the meninges occurs.
B) bacteria can be the cause.
C) viruses can be the cause.
D) CSF flow can be disrupted.
E) All of the answers are correct.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

15) Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
A) It is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery.
B) It affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection.
C) It can provide sensory and motor anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected.
D) It can provide mainly sensory anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected.
E) All of the answers are correct.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

16) Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
A) filum terminale.
B) subarachnoid space.
C) dura mater.
D) pia mater.
E) arachnoid mater.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

17) The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age
A) 20 years.
B) 10 years.
C) 4 years.
D) 6 months.
E) 2 months.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
18) The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the
A) cranial meninges.
B) cranial mater.
C) spinal meninges.
D) spinal mater.
E) epidural membranes.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

19) Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the
A) pia mater.
B) dura mater.
C) epidural space.
D) subdural space.
E) subarachnoid space.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

20) Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
A) dura mater.
B) arachnoid mater.
C) epidural space.
D) subarachnoid space.
E) cerebral ventricles.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

21) In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about
A) T6.
B) T10.
C) L1.
D) L5.
E) C1.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
22) Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
A) loss of sensation in his torso
B) inability to breathe
C) problems with moving his arms
D) uncontrollable sweating of his feet
E) problems with moving his legs
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

23) The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly
A) unmyelinated axons.
B) neuroglia.
C) Schwann cells.
D) myelinated and unmyelinated axons.
E) nodes of Ranvier.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

24) The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) nerve tracts.
B) columns.
C) meninges.
D) nerve cell bodies.
E) funiculi.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

25) The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) sensory nuclei.
B) somatic motor nuclei.
C) autonomic motor nuclei.
D) nerve tracts.
E) sympathetic nuclei.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
26) The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) sensory nuclei.
B) somatic motor nuclei.
C) autonomic motor nuclei.
D) nerve tracts.
E) sympathetic nuclei.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

27) Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the
A) central canal.
B) posterior gray horns.
C) gray commissures.
D) white columns.
E) anterior gray horns.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

28) In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as
A) nuclei.
B) ganglia.
C) columns.
D) nerves.
E) horns.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

29) The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called
A) wings.
B) horns.
C) pyramids.
D) fibers.
E) tracts.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
30) Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
A) anterior gray horns.
B) lateral gray horns.
C) posterior gray horns.
D) gray commissures.
E) white commissures.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

31) The white matter of the spinal cord contains
A) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
B) bundles of dendrites with common origins, destinations, and functions.
C) sensory and motor nuclei.
D) both axons and dendrites.
E) interneurons.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Figure 13-1 The Spinal Cord
Use Figure 13-1 to answer the following questions:

32) Identify the structure labeled “1.”
A) anterior white column
B) lateral white column
C) lateral white horn
D) median commissure
E) posterior white column
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

33) Identify the structure labeled “4.”
A) posterior gray column
B) dorsal gray ganglion
C) posterior white column
D) posterior gray horn
E) anterior gray horn
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

34) Identify the structure labeled “10.”
A) anterior white commissure
B) anterior median fissure
C) anterior white column
D) anterior gray commissure
E) anterior white horn
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

35) What is the function of the structure labeled “12”?
A) control of skeletal muscle
B) somatic sensory receiving
C) visceral sensory receiving
D) control of visceral effectors
E) ascending pathway
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

36) What is the function of the structure labeled “14”?
A) control of skeletal muscle
B) somatic sensory processing
C) control of visceral effectors
D) somatic motor control
E) visceral sensory processing
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

37) Where do somatic motor neurons reside?
A) 10
B) 12
C) 13
D) 14
E) 15
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

38) Where are the white columns of the spinal cord?
A) 4, 5, 6
B) 1, 2, 3
C) 7, 11
D) 12, 13
E) 8
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
39) The outermost connective-tissue covering of nerves is the
A) endoneurium.
B) endomysium.
C) perineurium.
D) epineurium.
E) epimysium.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

40) The preganglionic fibers that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord and carries visceral motor fibers that are myelinated form the
A) white rami communicantes.
B) gray rami communicantes.
C) dorsal ramus.
D) ventral ramus.
E) dermatomes.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

41) The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region with the spinal nerve and contain postganglionic fibers that innervate glands in the body wall or limbs are
A) white rami communicantes.
B) gray rami communicantes.
C) dorsal ramus.
D) ventral ramus.
E) dermatomes.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

42) Postganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form
A) dorsal rami.
B) ventral rami.
C) white rami.
D) gray rami.
E) sympathetic nerves.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
43) Which of the following associations is incorrect?
A) 8 cervical spinal nerves
B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves
C) 5 lumbar spinal nerves
D) 5 sacral spinal nerves
E) 1 coccygeal spinal nerve
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

44) The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back.
A) white ramus communicantes
B) gray ramus communicantes
C) dorsal ramus
D) ventral ramus
E) dermatome
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

45) Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region.
A) cervical
B) thoracic
C) lumbar
D) sacral
E) coccygeal
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

46) The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 contribute fibers to the ________ plexus.
A) cervical
B) brachial
C) lumbar
D) sacral
E) thoracic
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

47) In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?
A) cranial
B) cervical
C) brachial
D) lumbar
E) sacral
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
48) In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.
A) myasthenia gravis
B) neuronal damage
C) shingles
D) chickenpox
E) Hodgkin’s disease
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

49) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the
A) perineurium.
B) epineurium.
C) endoneurium.
D) epimysium.
E) endosteum.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

50) Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the ________ muscles.
A) shoulder
B) intercostal
C) abdominal
D) leg
E) facial
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

51) The ________ innervates the ventrolateral body surface, structures in the body wall, and the limbs.
A) white rami communicantes
B) gray rami communicantes
C) dorsal ramus
D) ventral ramus
E) dermatomes
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
52) The obturator nerve is distributed to the
A) adductors of the hip.
B) skin over the perineum.
C) extensors of the hip.
D) skin over buttocks.
E) biceps femoris.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

53) A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will
A) lead to skeletal muscle weakness or paralysis.
B) interfere with position sense.
C) mainly interfere with crude touch and temperature sense.
D) block autonomic regulation.
E) affect visceral motor function.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

54) The complex, interwoven network formed by contributions from the ventral rami of neighboring spinal nerves is termed a(n)
A) dermatome.
B) autonomic nerve.
C) lateral nerve.
D) tract.
E) plexus.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

55) Each of the following nerves originates in the lumbar plexus, except the ________ nerve.
A) saphenous
B) sciatic
C) femoral
D) obturator
E) genitofemoral
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
56) The ________ nerve, which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm.
A) ansa cervicalis
B) lesser occipital
C) radial
D) phrenic
E) sciatic
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

57) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the
A) endoneurium.
B) perineurium.
C) aponeurium.
D) metaneurium.
E) subneurium.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

58) The ventral rami form four major plexuses, including all of the following, except the ________ plexus.
A) brachial
B) lumbar
C) sacral
D) nuchal
E) cervical
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

59) If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he
A) might be unable to breathe on his own.
B) could walk without difficulty.
C) would have full range of motion in all extremities.
D) would be in a coma.
E) would have difficulty chewing and moving the tongue.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application
60) As the ________ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and the tibial nerve.
A) perineal
B) femoral
C) brachial
D) pudendal
E) sciatic
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

61) Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?
A) the anterior gray horns
B) the anterior gray commissures
C) ascending tracts
D) descending tracts
E) the anterior white commissures
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

62) The brachial plexus gives rise to all of the following nerves, except the
A) radial.
B) median.
C) ulnar.
D) musculocutaneous.
E) phrenic.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Figure 13-2 Spinal Nerves
Use Figure 13-2 to answer the following questions:

63) Identify the structure labeled “2.”
A) ventral root
B) dorsal ramus
C) spinal nerve
D) ventral ramus
E) white ramus
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

64) Identify the structure labeled “3.”
A) spinal nerve
B) gray ramus
C) white ramus
D) dorsal ramus
E) ventral ramus
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
65) Identify the neuron inside the structure labeled “3.”
A) preganglionic neuron
B) postganglionic neuron
C) somatic motor neuron
D) sensory neuron
E) interneuron
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

66) Identify the structure labeled “4.”
A) spinal nerve
B) gray ramus
C) white ramus
D) dorsal ramus
E) ventral ramus
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

67) Identify the structure labeled “5.”
A) autonomic nerve
B) autonomic ganglion
C) rami communicantes
D) dorsal root ganglion
E) ventral root
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

68) Identify the structure labeled “6.”
A) autonomic nerve
B) sympathetic ganglion
C) dorsal root ganglion
D) rami communicantes
E) ventral root
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

69) Identify the structure labeled “8.”
A) peripheral nerve
B) dorsal ramus
C) spinal nerve
D) ventral root
E) dorsal root
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
70) What is the function of the structure labeled “12”?
A) somatic motor control
B) visceral motor control
C) somatic sensory input
D) visceral sensory input
E) sensory receptor for pain
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

71) What is the function of the structure labeled “13”?
A) sensory receptor for pain
B) visceral sensory input
C) somatic motor control
D) somatic sensory input
E) visceral motor control
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

72) Which branch carries motor neurons to structures on the back of the body trunk?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 5
D) 7
E) 11
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

73) In which structure are sensory cell bodies located?
A) 4
B) 6
C) 5
D) 10
E) 12
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

74) Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the following, except
A) convergent.
B) divergent.
C) multipolar.
D) reverberating.
E) parallel processing.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-5
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
75) All of the following are true of neural reflexes, except that they
A) are automatic motor responses.
B) are the simplest form of behavior.
C) help preserve homeostasis.
D) cannot be modified by the brain.
E) involve at least two neurons.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-6
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

76) Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ________ reflexes.
A) visceral
B) innate
C) acquired
D) somatic
E) vegetative
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-6
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

77) Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following, except
A) their development.
B) where information processing occurs.
C) the motor response.
D) the complexity of the neural circuit.
E) whether they are sensory or motor.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-6
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

78) All of the following are true of muscle spindles, except that they
A) are found within skeletal muscle.
B) consist of specialized fibers called intrafusal fibers.
C) are found in tendons.
D) are the receptor for the stretch reflex.
E) are innervated by gamma motor neurons.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

79) The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the ________ reflex.
A) stretch
B) tendon
C) flexor
D) crossed extensor
E) reciprocal
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

80) Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a process called
A) a crossed extensor reflex.
B) a stretch reflex.
C) a tendon reflex.
D) reciprocal inhibition.
E) reverberating circuits.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

81) The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.
A) stretch
B) tendon
C) flexor
D) crossed extensor
E) reciprocal
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

82) The flexor reflex
A) prevents a muscle from overstretching.
B) prevents a muscle from generating damaging tension.
C) moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.
D) usually depends on cranial neurons.
E) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

83) In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?
A) a monosynaptic reflex
B) a polysynaptic reflex
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

84) All of the following are true of polysynaptic reflexes, except that they
A) are arranged according to dermatomes.
B) are intersegmental in distribution.
C) involve reciprocal innervation.
D) have reverberating circuits that prolong the reflexive motor response.
E) involve pools of interneurons.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
85) Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back. Her frightened parents take her to the emergency room, where she is examined. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). These results suggest that
A) Tina has injured one of her descending nerve tracts.
B) Tina has injured one of her ascending nerve tracts.
C) Tina has a spinal injury in the lumbar region.
D) Tina has a spinal injury in the cervical region.
E) Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 13-8
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

86) Which of the following is not true about a positive Babinski reflex?
A) normal in newborns
B) abnormal in adults
C) a sign of injury to descending spinal tracts
D) why you close your eyes when you sneeze
E) flaring of the toes when the sole is stroked
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 13-8
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Short Answer Questions

87) The dura mater tapers inferiorly to form the ________.
Answer: coccygeal ligament
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

88) The condition in which a person loses all feeling and movement of the arms and legs due to spinal cord injury is termed ________.
Answer: quadriplegia
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

89) The loss of feeling and movement of the legs is termed ________.
Answer: paraplegia
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

90) The ________ separates the dura mater from the walls of the vertebral canal.
Answer: epidural space
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

91) The dorsal root contains ________ neurons.
Answer: sensory
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
92) Blood vessels traveling within the ________ space deliver oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord.
Answer: subarachnoid
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

93) During the procedure known as a(n) ________, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region.
Answer: lumbar puncture (or spinal tap)
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

94) The white ramus and the gray ramus collectively are called the ________.
Answer: rami communicantes
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

95) Suppose that you feel something brushing against your abdomen. The sensory information would be carried to the spinal cord over a ________ ramus.
Answer: ventral
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

96) The specific strip of skin that is innervated by a specific spinal nerve is called a(n) ________.
Answer: dermatome
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

97) A complex, interwoven network of nerves is called a(n) ________.
Answer: plexus
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

98) The nerve crucial for breathing that originates within the cervical plexus is called the ________ nerve.
Answer: phrenic
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

99) In ________, one neuron synapses on several postsynaptic neurons.
Answer: divergence
Learning Outcome: 13-5
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

100) In ________, axon collaterals extend back toward the source of the impulse and further stimulate the earlier neurons.
Answer: reverberation
Learning Outcome: 13-5
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
101) The neural “wiring” of a single reflex is called a(n) ________.
Answer: reflex arc
Learning Outcome: 13-6
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

102) ________ reflexes activate skeletal muscles. (Note: Be sure to capitalize the first letter of your answer).
Answer: Somatic
Learning Outcome: 13-6
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

103) The most complicated spinal reflexes are called ________.
Answer: intersegmental reflex arcs
Learning Outcome: 13-6
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

104) Reflexes that activate muscles on the same side of the body as the stimulus are called ________.
Answer: ipsilateral
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

105) Reflexes that activate muscles on the opposite side of the body as the stimulus are called ________.
Answer: contralateral
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

106) In a(n) ________ reflex, a sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron.
Answer: monosynaptic
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

107) A(n) ________ reflex has at least one interneuron placed between the sensory and motor neurons.
Answer: polysynaptic
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Essay Questions

108) What would happen if the dorsal root of a spinal nerve were completely transected?
Answer: The dorsal roots contain axons of sensory neurons, so input from those afferents within the severed root would not be transmitted to the CNS and thus this lesion would result in a complete loss of feeling from the body region served by the afferent fibers in that dorsal root.
Learning Outcome: 13-2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
109) While playing football, Ramón is tackled hard, and as he tries to get up, he finds that he has difficulty flexing and adducting his left thigh and extending his left leg. Which nerve innervating the lower limb may be damaged, and how would the damage affect sensory perception in Ramón’s left leg?
Answer: Ramón has a damaged left femoral nerve. This nerve also supplies sensory innervation to the skin on the anteromedial surface of the thigh and medial surfaces of the leg and foot, so he will also experience numbness in those regions.
Learning Outcome: 13-4
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

110) What is a reflex arc? What components must be present to qualify?
Answer: A reflex arc is the wiring pattern of neurons that underlie a particular reflex. A reflex arc consists of three elements at the minimum: (1) a sensory receptor and neuron to carry afferent information to the CNS; (2) an excitatory synapse on a motor neuron; (3) the motor neuron to generate an action potential and conduct the impulse to an effector such as a skeletal muscle motor unit.
Learning Outcome: 13-6
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

111) Sometimes, when it is difficult to initiate a knee-jerk reflex by tapping the patellar tendon, a patient will be asked to voluntarily make a fist. Then the reflex will be easily evoked. What does this illustrate about the relation between voluntary and involuntary reflex movement?
Answer: Descending motor tracts that excite the motor neurons that activate forearm and hand muscles also send excitatory impulses to motor neurons lower down the spinal cord. These EPSPs spatially summate with the excitatory inputs from the muscle spindles to quadriceps motor neurons, bringing the quadriceps neurons to threshold, and thus generate a brisk “knee jerk” response.
Learning Outcome: 13-7
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

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