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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 11TH EDITION WOOLFOLK By TEST BANK

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0137144547
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0137144549

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SKU:tb1002166

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 11TH EDITION WOOLFOLK By TEST BANK

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Test Items ……………………………….1

Chapter 2 Test Items………………………………..15

Chapter 3 Test Items………………………………..36

Chapter 4 Test Items………………………………..58

Chapter 5 Test Items……………………………….82

Chapter 6 Test Items……………………………….102

Chapter 7 Test Items……………………………….126

Chapter 8 Test Items……………………………….153

Chapter 9 Test Items……………………………….175

Chapter 10 Test Items………………………………192

Chapter 11 Test Items………………………………203

Chapter 12 Test Items………………………………227

Chapter 13 Test Items………………………………250

Chapter 14 Test Items………………………………..274
Chapter 1: Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) According to the Woolfolk text, which of the following is true of expert teachers?
A) They are more likely than novices to ignore students’ wrong answers.
B) They take more time to solve problems.
C) They judge their success based on their students’ achievements.
D) They have a limited and focused knowledge base.

Answer: C
Explanation: C) It is NOT true that experts deal with new events as new problems. In fact, the opposite is true in the sense that experts employ their prior knowledge to come up with efficient solutions to new problems. They also make good use of students’ wrong answers, are reflective about decisions, and have different ways of understanding the subject matter.
Page Ref: 9
Skill: Understanding
P: .73
D: .21

2) According to James Popham, the law No Child Left Behind
A) will not affect teachers in secondary education schools.
B) will shorted the length of the school year.
C) will affect the lives of teachers every day.
D) relates to only teachers who teach in rural areas.
E) will go into effect after January 2009.

Answer: C
Explanation: C) By the end of the 2005-2006 school year, all teachers must have core academic subjects and be “highly qualified.” The NCLBA will affect the lives of teachers everyday.
Page Ref: 6
Skill: Understanding

3) The concerns of educational psychology are distinctive in that they
A) are limited to the classroom.
B) do not overlap those of other fields of study.
C) have no place in the laboratory.
D) relate to improving learning and instruction.

Answer: D
Explanation: D) The concerns of educational psychology relate to improving learning and instruction. To achieve this objective, educational psychologists draw from other disciplines (e.g., psychology and sociology) and conduct research in both the classroom and the laboratory.
Page Ref: 10
Skill: Understanding
P: .83
D: .16

 

 

4) Use of the “common sense” approach to teaching is viewed by educational psychologists as
A) appropriate in most circumstances.
B) inappropriate unless supported by research.
C) more reliable than scientific judgments.
D) the main factor that differentiates experts from novices.

Answer: B
Explanation: B) Educational psychologists view the “common sense” approach to teaching as inappropriate or potentially misleading unless supported by research. As illustrated by the examples in the textbook, common sense ideas often do not work in the expected manner when applied in classrooms.
Page Ref: 10-11
Skill: Understanding
P: .69
D: .38

5) Research by Ogden, Brophy, and Evertson (1977) on selecting primary-grade students to read aloud suggests that the best method is to
A) ask for volunteers to read.
B) call on students in a prescribed order.
C) call on students at random.
D) have students read as a group (choral response).

Answer: B
Explanation: B) Research by Ogden, Brophy, and Evertson (1977) indicated that first graders achieved better when they were called upon to read in a prescribed order. Their interpretation was that the children would spend more time rehearsing when they were aware of the sections that they would be asked to read and would get more practice reading because they were not over-looked.
Page Ref: 11 / Skill: Knowledge

6) Wong’s research indicated that when individuals read a research result, they tended to
A) become resistant toward using the strategy involved.
B) find the results more obvious than originally thought.
C) put the results into practice immediately.
D) seek more information on the subject.

Answer: B
Explanation: B) Wong (1987) demonstrated that when subjects in her study were shown research results (whether or not correct) in writing, they had a greater tendency to believe that the results were obviously true.
Page Ref: 11-12
Skill: Knowledge

7) Research on acceleration for bright children suggests that acceleration is generally
A) beneficial for these children at all age/grade levels.
B) beneficial for younger children but detrimental for older children.
C) detrimental for younger children but beneficial for older children.
D) harmful for children at all age/grade levels.

Answer: A
Explanation: A) Research summarized by Kirk and his colleagues (1993) suggests that acceleration (skipping grades) is generally beneficial (and, at least, not harmful) for bright children at all levels. Page Ref: 11 / Skill: Knowledge
8) When studies are based only on observations, the results should be expressed as
A) cause-and-effect relationships.
B) descriptions.
C) principles.
D) theories.

Answer: B
Explanation: B) When studies are based only on observations, the results must be expressed as descriptions of events. Descriptive studies rely on observational and subjective data. Correlational studies identify the relationship(s) among two or more variables for a specific group of people. Experimental studies require controlled, objective data in order to establish causal relationships.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
P: .56
D: .43

9) A case study is an investigation of
A) a small group of people with similar backgrounds.
B) different groups of people over a period of time.
C) one person or group over a specific period of time.
D) people from one geographic area.

Answer: C
Explanation: C) Case studies involve an intensive examination of real-life contexts (such as schools or classrooms) through direct observations, biographical data, school records, test results, peer ratings, and a wide variety of other observational tools. The researcher would investigate one person or a group of people intensively over a relatively long period of time.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Knowledge
P: .83
D: .24

10) A correlation is a statistical description indicating the
A) direction but not the strength of a relationship.
B) direction and strength of a relationship.
C) strength and direction of a treatment effect.
D) strength but not the direction of a relationship.

Answer: B
Explanation: B) Correlation coefficients indicate both the strength and direction of relationships (e.g., strong positive or weak negative). Treatment effects are not involved in correlational research.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Knowledge
P: .75
D: .28
11) A researcher participates in a class over a two-month period and analyzes the strategies the teacher employs to maintain discipline. This research is an example of what specific type of research study?
A) Cross-sectional
B) Ethnography
C) Experimental
D) Longitudinal

Answer: B
Explanation: B) Ethnographic studies involve an intensive examination of real-life contexts (such as schools or classrooms) through observations. In this example, the researcher spent two months observing the teacher and recording descriptions of the discipline techniques employed. There is no indication that the researcher is a participant observer in the research.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding

12) A researcher concludes from his study that, on a typical school day, students spend only 50 percent of their time engaged in learning. What specific type of research must have been conducted in order for this conclusion to be valid?
A) Single-subject design
B) Participant-observer
C) Descriptive
D) Experimental

Answer: C
Explanation: C) Descriptive methods would be used by a researcher to study how much time is spent on learning activities during a typical day. This would require observations for a number of days and might include students’ self-reports and/or teacher ratings in order to identify a pattern for the amount of time actually spent in learning activities.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
P: .72
D: .52

13) A positive correlation between two factors indicates that the factors
A) are NOT necessarily related.
B) are strongly related.
C) decrease proportionately.
D) tend to increase or decrease together.

Answer: D
Explanation: D) A positive correlation indicates that two factors increase or decrease together. As one increases so does the other; as one decreases so does the other. Therefore, the two factors for a positive correlation vary in the same direction. If the correlation is negative, one factor increases while the other factor decreases. [Note that, unless it is perfect, the correlation only suggests a tendency or pattern.]
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Knowledge
P: .59
D: .42

 

 

 

 

 

14) What size or direction of correlation coefficient is likely to be obtained between children’s ages (from five to 13 years) and the distance that they can long jump?
A) Close to zero
B) Either +1.00 or -1.00
C) Negative
D) Positive

Answer: D
Explanation: D) A positive relationship is likely to exist between children’s ages and the distance they can long jump. Due to their greater physical size, strength, and agility, older children will generally be able to jump farther than younger children. As age increases, jumping distance tends to increase, at least through adolescence.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
15) Which one of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship?
A) -0.03
B) -0.78
C) +0.56
D) +0.70

Answer: B
Explanation: B) The strongest correlation of the four choices is represented by -0.78. It is NOT the sign (direction) that determines strength; it is the closeness of the correlation to either +1.00 or -1.00. A correlation of -0.78 represents a fairly strong negative relationship between the factors being correlated.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
P: .68
D: .64

16) What type of correlation coefficient is likely to be obtained between reading ability and running ability of high-school students?
A) Close to zero
B) Either +1.00 or -1.00
C) Strong positive
D) Weak negative

Answer: A
Explanation: A) A correlation close to zero is likely to exist between reading ability and running ability. The two factors are relatively independent. Better readers are not likely to be faster or slower runners than others and slower readers are not any better at running than their fast-reading peers.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding

 

 

 

 

17) When a correlation coefficient of -0.80 is found between factor A and factor B, the most accurate interpretation is that
A) a decrease in factor A is strongly related to a decrease in factor B.
B) a decrease in factor A is strongly related to an increase in factor B.
C) there is NO significant relationship between the two factors.
D) there is a very weak relationship between the two factors.

Answer: B
Explanation: B) A correlation of -0.80 indicates a strong negative relationship. Decreases in factor A will be associated with increases in factor B. Decreases in both factors will result in a positive relationship.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
P: .66
D: .49
18) A correlation study indicates that teachers’ interest in teaching and the amount of the day their students are engaged in learning correlate at +0.46. This coefficient would indicate that
A) as teacher interest decreases, engaged time increases.
B) as teacher interest increases, engaged time tends to increase.
C) interest in teaching leads to a large increase in engaged time.
D) there is virtually NO relationship between the two variables.

Answer: B
Explanation: B) The +0.46 correlation coefficient suggests a moderately strong positive relationship between teaching interest and engaged time. Teachers who have more interest in teaching tend to have students who are more engaged in learning, and vice versa.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
P: .84
D: .25

19) A correlation coefficient of 0.90 indicates that
A) one event has been caused by another event.
B) one event is strongly related to another event.
C) the two events are related 10 percent of the time.
D) the two events are related 90 percent of the time.

Answer: B
Explanation: B) A correlation of 0.90 indicates a strong positive relationship. Correlations do not imply cause and effect, only that the two variables or factors are related.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
P: .92
D: .21

20) A researcher reports that students who have the highest test scores in school tend to be more involved in extracurricular activities than are other students. What specific type of research study must have been conducted?
A) Correlational
B) Descriptive
C) Ethnographic
D) Experimental

Answer: A
Explanation: A) The researcher conducted a correlational study. The purpose is to determine the relationship between test scores and extracurricular activities. Ethnographic studies are another specific type of descriptive research. NO treatment is being manipulated; thus, the research is NOT experimental.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
21) Random assignments would be most critical in what type of research?
A) Case study
B) Correlational
C) Descriptive
D) Experimental

Answer: D
Explanation: D) By randomly assigning subjects to treatments and evaluating the treatments, experiments are designed to study cause and effect. Unlike descriptive studies, changes made in an experimental study can be attributed to the treatments introduced, because all other relevant factors are intended to be controlled. In correlational studies, usually only one group of subjects is studied on a variety of factors. A cross-sectional study typically involves several groups of subjects who are then compared on a variety of factors. Such studies are not experimental.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Knowledge
P: .57
D: .28

22) Which one of the following instances is MOST like a random sample for a class of thirty students?
A) A coin is tossed in order to select students alternately one by one into the experimental and control groups.
B) The first ten students who enter the classroom are placed into the experimental group and the next ten into the control group.
C) The first twenty volunteers are selected from the physics class and alternately placed into experimental and control groups.
D) The twenty students with the highest GPAs are selected and alternately placed into experimental and control groups.

Answer: A
Explanation: A) A random sample is one in which each subject has an equal opportunity to be selected for any group. The three situations described in the alternative answers to this question all concern special, rather than randomly composed, groups of students. Thus, identifying the experimental groups by coin tossing is the method that most closely approximates a random selection.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding

23) When a result from a research project involving an experimental design is reported in the literature as significant, this result
A) contradicts the prevailing theoretical views.
B) is unrelated to theory development.
C) is unlikely to have occurred by chance.
D) will indicate its practical importance.

 

Answer: C
Explanation: C) Statistical significance means that the result is unlikely to have occurred by chance. It does NOT necessarily imply that the result has either practical or theoretical importance.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Understanding
P: .76
D: .38
24) What type of research participants should researchers use for studies of cause-and-effect relationships?
A) Controlled samples
B) Random samples
C) Related samples
D) Skilled samples

Answer: B
Explanation: B) Random assignments are critical for establishing cause-effect relationships. If such assignments are NOT employed, the researcher will be unable to determine whether treatment differences are caused by the treatments themselves or by the treatment groups being different in some important way that is related to the outcome being studied.
Page Ref: 12
Skill: Knowledge

25) Dr. Patterson concludes from her research that using a systematic study strategy CAUSED good grades for students assigned to a particular group. For this conclusion to be valid, the type of research that was performed must have been what type of study?
A) Correlational
B) Descriptive
C) Experimental
D) Observational

Answer: C
Explanation: C) Dr. Patterson can infer cause and effect only from experimentation. Correlational research and observational research provide descriptive results that do not support causal relations. However, these latter two types of research can often lead to questions that can be studied by means of experimental research.
Page Ref: 12-13
Skill: Understanding
P: .54
D: .41

26) A researcher finds that students who were given computers to use at home demonstrated greater independent learning skills than a comparable group that was not selected to receive home computers. What type of research study was probably designed for this conclusion to be valid?
A) Correlational
B) Descriptive
C) Experimental
D) Observation

Answer: C
Explanation: C) Apparently, an experimental approach was employed. The key factor is the manipulation and then comparison of different treatments: having computers vs. not having them.
Page Ref: 12 / Skill: Understanding / P: .53 / D: .30

27) An explanation of how we remember things that we have learned is called a
A) construct.
B) correlation.
C) principle.
D) theory.

Answer: D
Explanation: D) A theory is an explanation of behavior or human functioning, such as how we remember what we have learned or why we are motivated to do something.
Page Ref: 14
Skill: Knowledge
28) According to the law No Child Left Behind
A) research is not important for improving schools.
B) states have some say in defining “proficiency” for students
C) initial hypotheses about education which have not been tested can still improve educational practices.
D) mandates all teachers must conduct a research project on an annual basis.

Answer: B
Explanation: B) According to NCLBA scientifically based research based on rigorous research can produce valid and reliable results for improving education.
Page Ref: 5
Skill: Knowledge

29) According to the Point/Counterpoint discussion in Chapter 1, the following statement is true about what kind of research should guide education
A) Some researchers challenge the idea that educational research should be similar to research in medicine because humans in school settings are much too complex and function in frequently changing social environments.
B) Researchers agree educational research should be based on experimental trials, similar to medical studies.
C) Most researchers agree children in schools are over studied and too much research in taking place in school settings.
D) Most educational researchers agree teaching is an art and cannot be based on scientific research.

Answer: A
Page Ref: 15

30) According to Woolfolk, over time theories
A) have returned to the core ideas set forth years ago by Sigmund Freud.
B) have become less important in educational research and practice.
C) have become more systematic and scientific.
D) are less scientific compared to ten years ago.

Answer: C
Page Ref: 17

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