Search

In Stock

Dental Radiography Principles and Techniques, 5Th Edition By Joen Iannucci – Test Bank

Instant delivery only

  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0323297420
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0323297424

$28.00

SKU:tb1002116

Dental Radiography Principles and Techniques, 5Th Edition By Joen Iannucci – Test Bank

Chapter 09: Dental X-Ray Film Processing
Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The latent image is
a. visible to the naked eye.
b. the image on the radiographic film after processing.
c. the image on the radiographic film before processing but after exposure.
d. the image on the radiographic film before exposure.

ANS: C
The latent image is the image on the radiographic film before processing but after exposure.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 82 OBJ: 1 | 2
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

2. Which of the following statements is true about the development step in film processing?
a. The unexposed, unenergized halide crystals are removed from the film.
b. A subtraction reaction causes the black metallic silver to remain on the film.
c. Developing is the first step in processing film.
d. The film emulsion is hardened during the development stage.

ANS: C
During processing, a chemical reaction occurs, and the halide portion of the exposed, energized silver halide crystal is removed, leaving a black metallic silver on the film. A reduction reaction causes the black metallic silver to remain on the film. In both automatic and manual processing, development is the first step in the film processing sequence. The film emulsion is softened during the development stage and hardened during the fixation stage for film processing.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 86 OBJ: 2 | 3 | 8
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

3. When the film exits the film processor, you notice that it appears foggy and lacks detail. Which of the following could be a possible solution to prevent this from occurring with the next patient’s film?
a. Increase fixing time.
b. Eliminate light leaks.
c. Increase developer temperature.
d. Decrease safelight distance.

ANS: B
Fixing time does not affect film fog. Light leaks are a cause of film fog, all light leaks need to be eliminated. Additional causes of film fog are improper film storage, outdated film, contaminated processing solutions, and high developer temperatures. High developer temperature is a cause of film fog. Decreasing the safelight distance will increase risk of film fog.

DIF: Application REF: Page 100 OBJ: 5 | 23
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

4. You have just taken your film from the water bath, and you notice white spots on the radiographs. How can you prevent this from occurring in the future?
a. Gently agitate fixer and developer with the film rack to disperse the air bubbles when placing the film rack in the developer or fixer solution.
b. Eliminate all light leaks.
c. Increase fixation time.
d. Prevent cross-contamination of chemicals.

ANS: A
White spots on radiographs are caused from air bubbles that prevent the chemicals from contacting the film emulsion. To prevent this, gently agitate fixer and developer with the film rack when placing the film rack in the developer or fixer solution. White spots can also be the result of fixer contacting the film prior to development. Eliminating light leaks will prevent film fog and overexposed film, not white spots. Increasing the fixation time will prevent yellow-brown spots on the film; it will not cause white spots. Cross-contamination of chemicals will cause fogged film and black spots on the film, not white spots.

DIF: Application REF: Page 98 OBJ: 21 | 23
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

5. All of your anterior radiographs have a single crescent shaped radiolucent line toward the incisal edge of the radiograph. What is the most likely caused of this?
a. Film processor gate is scratching the film.
b. Torn emulsion from the film rack
c. Bad package of film
d. Improper opening of the film packet

ANS: D
Scratches on the film will be clear or radiopaque and will be of varying shapes. Torn emulsion will appear clear or radiopaque and will not usually have a crescent shape. Bad or outdated film will generally cause a fogged appearance on the film. The error described is a fingernail artifact. It is caused by improperly opening the film packet and bending the film against the fingernail. It occurs most frequently while opening the size 0 and 1 film packets.

DIF: Application REF: Page 98 OBJ: 22 | 23
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

6. You noticed that the top part of two of your radiographs is black when you take them out of the manual processing tanks. Which of the following was the cause of this?
a. Wash water is too cold.
b. Fixer cut off
c. Developer is too hot.
d. Developer cut off

ANS: B
The temperature of the wash water will not cause a black edge on the film. The portion of film that is not exposed to the fixer will be black. This occurs when the fixer levels are too low. Fixer cut off occurs most often to the film at the top of the film rack. Developer chemicals that are too hot will cause all film to be black. The portion of film that is not exposed to the developer will be white. This occurs when the developer levels are too low.

DIF: Application REF: Page 97 OBJ: 21
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.c. Identify optimum procedures for processing films
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

7. When comparing current patient radiographs to radiographs taken several years ago, you noticed that the radiographs taken several years ago have a yellowish brown appearance. You realize that you have seen the same type of spotting with other radiographs that were taken several years ago. What is the cause of this?
a. Underdevelopment
b. Insufficient water bath
c. Deterioration of radiograph over time
d. Overfixation

ANS: B
Under development causes light film. Yellow-brown stains on the radiographs are caused by exhausted developer or fixer, insufficient fixing time, and insufficient rinsing time.

DIF: Application REF: Page 97 OBJ: 22
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.c. Identify optimum procedures for processing films
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

8. You have just developed a set of bitewings. When they come out of the automatic processor, the radiographs are clear. What is the cause of this error?
a. Safelight was too close to the film.
b. White light was left on while developing.
c. Film was underdeveloped.
d. Fixer and developer tanks were switched.

ANS: D
Film fog will occur when the safe light is too close to the film. White light exposure will cause black film. Underdeveloped film will be light. A clear film error during processing occurs when the film is put in the fixer prior to development.

DIF: Application REF: Pages 96-97 OBJ: 22
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

9. You noticed that the top quarter of one of your bitewings is black. The other three bitewings that you put in the automatic processor were fine. What is the cause of this error?
a. Safelight was turned off.
b. White light was left on while developing.
c. Darkroom door was opened before film was completely in automatic processor.
d. Developer cut off

ANS: C
There will not be any impact to the film if the safelight is turned off. White light exposure will overexpose the film and will result in black film. It would affect the entire film, not just one area of the film. If the darkroom door is opened before the film is completely in the automatic processor, the exposed portion of film will be black. The portion of film that is not exposed to the developer will be white. This occurs when the developer levels are too low.

DIF: Application REF: Page 99 OBJ: 15 | 23
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

10. The overall appearance of your films is too dark. Which of the following is the cause of this error?
a. Film was in the developer too long.
b. Film was in the fixer too long.
c. The white light was left on while opening the film packets.
d. Film was left in the water bath too long.

ANS: A
Overdeveloped film is a cause of dark film. Overdevelopment occurs from excess development time, high developer temperatures, and overconcentrated developer solution. Overdevelopment and light exposure are the two errors that cause overdeveloped film. Film that is exposed to light the entire time the film packets are opened will usually be black. Film that is exposed to low amounts of light may have varying degrees of exposure and could appear too dark. The water bath will not affect film density.

DIF: Application REF: Page 93 OBJ: 22
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

11. All excess chemicals are removed from the emulsion during
a. development.
b. rinsing.
c. fixation.
d. washing.

ANS: C
All excess chemicals are removed from the emulsion during fixation.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 86 OBJ: 6
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

12. Concentrated powder and liquid film processing solutions are mixed with _______ before use.
a. ammonia
b. vinegar
c. tap water
d. distilled water

ANS: D
Concentrated powder and liquid film processing solutions are mixed with distilled water before use.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 86 OBJ: 7
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

13. To maintain freshness, strength, and solution levels, film processing and wet tank solutions must be replenished
a. hourly.
b. daily.
c. weekly.
d. monthly.

ANS: B
To maintain freshness, film processing solutions must be replenished daily.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 86 OBJ: 7 | 14
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.c. Identify optimum procedures for processing films
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

14. Normal use of processing chemistry is defined as ____ intraoral films per day.
a. 18
b. 30
c. 50
d. 60

ANS: B
Normal use of processing chemistry is defined as 30 intraoral films per day.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 86 OBJ: 7
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.c. Identify optimum procedures for processing films
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

15. The black shades and the distinct contrast of the radiographic image are created by _______________ in the developer solution.
a. sodium sulfite
b. sodium carbonate
c. hydroquinone
d. elon

ANS: C
Sodium sulfite is the preservative in developer. Sodium carbonate activates the developing agents. Hydroquinone generates the black tones and the sharp contrast of the radiographic image. Elon generates the many shades of gray of the radiographic image.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 86 OBJ: 9
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

16. Developer solution should be kept at____ degrees Fahrenheit for optimum developing conditions.
a. 64
b. 68
c. 72
d. 76

ANS: B
The optimal temperature for the developer solution is 68 degrees Fahrenheit.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 86 OBJ: 13
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.c. Identify optimum procedures for processing films
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

17. The chemical responsible for creating the gray shades on the radiographs is?
a. Hydroquinone
b. Sodium sulfite
c. Elon
d. Sodium carbonate

ANS: C
Hydroquinone generates the black tones seen on a dental radiograph. The antioxidant sodium sulfite is the preservative used in the developer solution. Elon generates the many shades of gray seen on a dental radiograph. Sodium carbonate generates the softening of the emulsion seen on a dental radiograph.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 86 OBJ: 9
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

18. Developer solution will not be effective below
a. 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
b. 63 degrees Fahrenheit.
c. 65 degrees Fahrenheit.
d. 75 degrees Fahrenheit.

ANS: A
Hydroquinone, one of the developing agents, is inactive below 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 86 OBJ: 9
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

19. (1) Developer chemicals contain a preservative that prevents the chemicals from oxidizing when exposed to air. (2) Sodium carbonate is the preservative used in developer solutions.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

ANS: C
Developer chemicals contain a preservative that prevents the chemicals from oxidizing when exposed to air. Sodium sulfite is the preservative used in developer solutions.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 87 OBJ: 9
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

20. From where will you retrieve your film when it exits the automatic processor?
a. Drying chamber
b. Film feed slot
c. Film recovery slot
d. Film retrieval holding area

ANS: B
Wet film is dried with heated air in the drying chamber of the automatic processor. Film is inserted into the film feed slot to begin film processing. Once film has processed, it is dropped into and retrieved from the film recovery slot.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 85 OBJ: 4
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.b. Describe how to process exposed intra- and extraoral films using automatic processors MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

21. The developer solution contains a preservative to prevent oxidation when the chemicals come in contact with _______________.
a. silver halide
b. silver bromide
c. air
d. moisture

ANS: C
The purpose of the preservative is to prevent the developer solution from oxidizing in the presence of air.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 86 OBJ: 9
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

22. (1) Potassium bromide, an alkaline accelerator, activates the developer solution and softens the gelatin in the film emulsion. (2) Sodium carbonate, the restrainer, prevents film fog by stopping the development of the silver halide crystals.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

ANS: B
Sodium carbonate, an alkaline accelerator, activates the developer solution and softens the gelatin in the film emulsion. Potassium bromide, the restrainer, prevents film fog by stopping the development of the silver halide crystals.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 87 OBJ: 9
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

23. (1) The developer chemicals should be checked and replenished if needed on a daily basis. (2) The fixer chemicals should be checked and replenished if needed on a weekly basis.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

ANS: C
Both the developer and fixer chemicals should be checked and replenished if needed on a daily basis.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 85 OBJ: 7 | 14
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

24. (1) The radiolucent image on the film becomes more visible during the development stage when the developing agent, sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate, removes the unexposed, underdeveloped silver halide crystals from the film emulsion. (2) Continued development of the crystals during the fixing process is prevented by the acidifier, acetic or sulfuric acid, in the fixer.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

ANS: D
The radiolucent image on the film becomes more visible during the fixation stage when the fixing agent, sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate, removes the unexposed, underdeveloped silver halide crystals from the film emulsion. Continued development of the crystals during the fixing process is prevented by the acidifier, acetic or sulfuric acid, in the fixer.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 85 OBJ: 10
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.3.a. Describe functions of processing solutions
MSC: NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Write a review

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to Top
Product has been added to your cart