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Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind Research and Everyday Experience Goldstein 4th-Edition

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1305416422
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1305416420

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SKU:tb1002164

Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind Research and Everyday Experience Goldstein 4th-Edition

CHAPTER 8: Everyday Memory and Memory Errors

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Autobiographical memory research shows that a person’s brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos
a. the person has seen before.
b. of familiar places.
c. they took themselves.
d. the person has never seen before.

ANS: C REF: pages 205-206
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

2. For most adults over age 40, the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for
a. childhood and adolescence.
b. adolescence and early adulthood.
c. early adulthood and middle age.
d. childhood and middle age.

ANS: B REF: page 206
TYPE: FACTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

3. Asking people to recall the most influential events that happened during their college careers show that ____ in people’s lives appear to be particularly memorable.
a. peer-group experiences
b. academic challenges
c. the sophomore year
d. transition points

ANS: D REF: page 207
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

4. The observation that older adults often become nostalgic for the “good old days” reflects the self-image hypothesis, which states that
a. life in a society gets more complicated and difficult as generations pass.
b. memory for life events is enhanced during the time we assume our life identities.
c. people tend to remember more of the positive events in their lives than negative ones.
d. our memories change as we live longer and have more “lifetime periods” to draw events from.

ANS: B REF: page 207
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

5. Schrauf and Rubin’s “two groups of immigrants” study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. These results support the
a. cognitive hypothesis.
b. self-image hypothesis.
c. narrative rehearsal hypothesis.
d. autobiographical hypothesis.

ANS: A REF: page 207
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

6. Extrapolating from the cultural life script hypothesis, which of the following events would be easiest to recall?
a. Retiring from work at age 40
b. Marrying at age 60
c. Graduating from college at age 22
d. Having a child at age 45

ANS: C REF: page 207
TYPE: APPLIED DIFF: EASY

7. Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?
a. It is vivid memory for emotional events.
b. It is vivid, highly accurate memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event.
c. It is memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.
d. It is vivid, highly accurate memory for emotional events.

ANS: C REF: pages 209-210
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

8. Your text argues that the proper procedure for measuring the accuracy of flashbulb memories is
a. source monitoring.
b. scripting.
c. repeated recall.
d. pre-cueing.

ANS: C REF: page 209
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

9. A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that
a. rehearsal cannot account for them.
b. people’s confidence in a memory predicts its accuracy (high confidence = high accuracy).
c. extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate.
d. they are permanent and resist forgetting.

ANS: C REF: page 210
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

10. Experiments that argue against a special flashbulb memory mechanism find that as time increases since the occurrence of the flashbulb event, participants
a. remember more details about the event.
b. make more errors in their recollections.
c. report less confidence about their recollections.
d. report less vivid recollections of the event.

ANS: B REF: pages 210 KEY: WWW
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

11. Your text describes two experiments that measured people’s memory for what they were doing when they heard about the terrorist attack on 9/11. Results of these experiments show that participants
a. believed that their memories for the attack remained accurate over a 52-week period.
b. displayed memory for this flashbulb event that declined with time.
c. reported less vivid memories of 9/11 as time passed.
d. both believed their memories for the attack were accurate over a 52-week period and displayed memory for the flashbulb event that declined with time.

ANS: D REF: pages 211-212
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

12. The idea that we remember life events better because we encounter the information over and over in what we read, see on TV, and talk about with other people is called the
a. narrative rehearsal hypothesis.
b. cognitive hypothesis.
c. life-narrative hypothesis.
d. reminiscence hypothesis.

ANS: A REF: page 212
TYPE: FACTUAL DIFF: EASY

13. According to the _____ approach to memory, what people report as memories is based on what actually happened plus additional factors such as other knowledge, experiences, and expectations.
a. event-specific
b. source
c. constructive
d. misinformation

ANS: C REF: page 213
TYPE: FACTUAL DIFF: EASY

14. The “telephone game” is often played by children. One child creates a story and whispers it to a second child, who does the same to a third child, and so on. When the last child recites the story to the group, his or her reproduction of the story is generally shorter than the original and contains many omissions and inaccuracies. This game shows how memory is a ______ process.
a. life-narrative
b. narrative-rehearsal
c. consequentiality based
d. constructive

ANS: D REF: page 214
TYPE: APPLIED DIFF: MODERATE

15. In the “War of the Ghosts” experiment, participants’ reproductions contained inaccuracies based on
a. narrative rehearsal.
b. source misattributions.
c. cultural expectations.
d. shallow processing.

ANS: C REF: page 214
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

16. Bartlett’s experiment in which English participants were asked to recall the “War of the Ghosts” story that was taken from the French Indian culture illustrated the
a. misinformation effect.
b. familiarity effect.
c. constructive nature of memory.
d. reminiscence bump.

ANS: C REF: page 214 KEY: WWW
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: DIFFICULT

17. The repeated reproduction technique used in memory studies involves
a. the same participants remembering some information at longer and longer intervals after learning the information.
b. different groups of participants remembering some information across different periods of time after learning the information.
c. the same participants remembering some information for as many trials as it takes to recall all of the information correctly.
d. the same participants recalling some information many times but, each time, receiving different retrieval cues to assist their recall.

ANS: A REF: page 214
TYPE: FACTUAL DIFF: EASY

18. Wei has allergy symptoms. He has gone to his regular doctor and an allergy specialist, but he wasn’t given a prescription by either doctor. Instead, he was advised to buy any over-the-counter medicine. While he was in the specialist’s waiting area, he read a magazine where he saw three ads for an allergy medicine called SneezeLess. A week later, in a drug store, Wei says to his brother, “My doctor says SneezeLess works great. I’ll buy that one.” Wei and his doctor never discussed SneezeLess. Wei has fallen victim to which of the following errors?
a. MPI
b. Recovered memory
c. Schema confusion
d. Source monitoring

ANS: D REF: page 215
TYPE: APPLIED DIFF: MODERATE

19. Unconscious plagiarism of the work of others is known as
a. narrative rehearsal.
b. cryptomnesia.
c. repeated reproduction.
d. repeated recall.

ANS: B REF: page 215
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

20. Jacoby’s experiment, in which participants made judgments about whether they had previously seen the names of famous and non-famous people, found that inaccurate memories based on source misattributions occurred after a delay of
a. one week.
b. 24 hours.
c. one hour.
d. one month.

ANS: B REF: pages 215-216
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: DIFFICULT

21. The experiment for which people were asked to make fame judgments for both famous and non-famous names (and for which Sebastian Weissdorf was one of the names to be remembered) illustrated the effect of _____ on memory.
a. repeated rehearsal of distinctive names
b. source misattributions
c. encoding specificity
d. schemas

ANS: B REF: pages 215-216 KEY: WWW
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

22. ____ occurs when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that is not explicitly stated or necessarily implied by the sentence.
a. Observer perspective
b. Pragmatic inference
c. Prospective memory
d. Automatic narrative

ANS: B REF: page 218
TYPE: FACTUAL DIFF: DIFFICULT

23. The experiment in which participants first read sentences about John fixing a birdhouse and were then asked to identify sentences they had seen before, illustrated that memory
a. is better for vivid descriptions.
b. is like a tape recording.
c. depends on the participant’s mood.
d. involves making inferences.

ANS: D REF: page 218
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

24. Arkes and Freedman’s “baseball game” experiment asked participants to indicate whether the following sentence was present in a passage they had previously read about events in a game: “The batter was safe at first.” Their findings showed inaccurate memories involved
a. omissions of information that was presented.
b. participants who did not understand baseball and assumed more information was presented than actually was.
c. creations from inferences based on baseball knowledge.
d. confusions about presented information when it was ambiguous.

ANS: C REF: page 219
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

25. Your friend has been sick for several days, so you go over to her home to make her some chicken soup. Searching for a spoon, you first reach in a top drawer beside the dishwasher. Then, you turn to the big cupboard beside the stove to search for a pan. In your search, you have relied on a kitchen
a. source memory.
b. episodic memory.
c. schema.
d. scan technique.

ANS: C REF: page 219 KEY: WWW
TYPE: APPLIED DIFF: MODERATE

26. In the experiment in which participants sat in an office and then were asked to remember what they saw in the office, participants “remembered” some things, like books, that weren’t actually there. This experiment illustrates the effect of _____ on memory.
a. schemas
b. scripts
c. confabulation
d. bias

ANS: A REF: page 219
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

27. A script is a type of schema that also includes knowledge of
a. a sequence of actions.
b. what is involved in a particular experience.
c. information stored in both semantic and episodic memory.
d. items appropriate to a particular setting.

ANS: A REF: page 219
TYPE: FACTUAL DIFF: EASY

28. Jackie went to the grocery store to pick up yogurt, bread, and apples. First, she picked up a hand basket for carrying her groceries, and then she searched the store. After finding what she needed, she stood in a check-out line. Then, the cashier put her items in a plastic bag, and soon after, Jackie left the store. As readers of this event, we understand that Jackie paid for the groceries, even though it wasn’t mentioned, because we are relying on a grocery store _____ that is stored in _______ long-term memory.
a. narrative; semantic
b. script; semantic
c. narrative; episodic
d. script; episodic

ANS: B REF: pages 219-220
TYPE: APPLIED DIFF: DIFFICULT

29. In the “sleep list” false memory experiment, false memory occurs because of
a. constructive memory processes.
b. verbatim recall.
c. the effect of scripts.
d. none of these

ANS: A REF: page 220 KEY: WWW
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: EASY

30. The sleep list experiment, in which many people misremember the word “sleep” as being part of a list of words, is an example of
a. a repeated recall error.
b. a disadvantage of memory’s constructive nature.
c. misleading postevent information’s influence on memory.
d. retroactive interference.

ANS: B REF: page 220
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

31. In discussing the survival value of the memory system, your text highlights the undesirability of
a. weapons focus.
b. shallow processing.
c. the reminiscence bump.
d. photographic memory.

ANS: D REF: pages 221-222
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: DIFFICULT

32. Your text’s discussion of false memories leads to the conclusion that false memories
a. are a natural consequence of a largely adaptive memory system.
b. occur for details but not for entire events.
c. occur in laboratory settings but do not occur in real-world circumstances.
d. do not occur for all people but rather are experienced by suggestible or inattentive people.

ANS: A REF: pages 221-222
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

33. The conclusion to be drawn from the man named Shereshevskii whose abnormal brain functioning gave him virtually limitless word-for-word memory is that having memory like a video recorder
a. is largely a blessing because no event would be erased.
b. is an advantage because it eliminates “selective” recording (remembering some events and forgetting others), which provides no useful service to humans.
c. helped him draw powerful inferences and intelligent conclusions from his vast knowledge base.
d. none of the above

ANS: D REF: page 221 KEY: WWW
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

34. “S,” who had a photographic memory that was described as virtually limitless, was able to achieve many feats of memory. According to the discussion in your text, S’s memory system operated _____ efficiently than normal.
a. more
b. less

ANS: B REF: page 221
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

35. The misinformation effect occurs when a person’s memory for an event is modified by misleading information presented
a. before the event.
b. during the event.
c. after the event.
d. all of the above

ANS: C REF: page 222
TYPE: FACTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

36. The misinformation effect does not occur when people are told explicitly that the postevent information may be incorrect.
a. True
b. False

ANS: B REF: pages 222-223
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: MODERATE

37. Loftus and Palmer’s “car-crash slides” experiment described in the text shows how a seemingly minor word change can produce a change in a person’s memory report. In this study, the MPI was (were) the word(s)
a. “fast.”
b. “smashed.”
c. “miles per hour.”
d. “car crash.”

ANS: B REF: page 223
TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIFF: DIFFICULT

 

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