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An Invitation to Health 4th Canadian Edition By Lara Lauzon And Dianne Hales – Test Bank

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An Invitation to Health 4th Canadian Edition By Lara Lauzon And Dianne Hales – Test Bank

Chapter 8—Birth Control Choices and Pregnancy

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which term refers to the merging of one sperm and one egg? a. contraception b. implantation c. spermatogenesis d. conception ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Remember 2. What does the term “spermatogenesis” refer to? a. merging of the sperm and the egg b. implantation c. creation of sperm d. release of an ovum ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Remember 3. What is the term for the tiny clump of cells that travels down the fallopian tube? a. zygote b. blastocyst c. zona pellucida d. seminiferous tubule ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Remember 4. Which term refers to the period when the fertilized egg burrows into the uterine lining? a. menstruation b. implantation c. fertilization d. ovulation ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Remember 5. Which phrase best defines the term “contraception”? a. the process of the sperm fusing with the egg b. methods of preventing conception c. methods of stopping spermatogenesis d. the release of an ovum ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Higher order 6. Which percentage of contraceptive methods are accounted for by female methods of contraception? a. 55 percent b. 63 percent c. 70 percent d. 86 percent ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 187 BLM: Remember 7. What is the most commonly reported reason for non-use of contraception among sexually active female university students? a. perceived cost b. embarrassment to obtain c. forgetting about it when in the moment d. influence of alcohol ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 187 BLM: Remember 8. What factor should individuals always consider when choosing a type of contraception? a. ease of use b. comfort c. cost d. effectiveness ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 187 BLM: Remember 9. Which type of contraception has the highest success rate? a. condom with spermicide b. vasectomy c. oral contraception d. emergency oral contraception ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 188 BLM: Remember 10. Which term refers to the removal of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation? a. periodic abstinence b. outercourse c. coitus interruptus d. rhythm method ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 188 BLM: Remember 11. Which method of birth control is the most effective and risk-free? a. abstinence b. birth control pill c. condoms d. spermicide ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 188-189 BLM: Remember 12. Emma had unprotected sex two days ago and is fearful of becoming pregnant. What would be a safe and effective way to prevent Emma from becoming pregnant? a. cervical cap b. condoms c. spermicide d. emergency contraception ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 189 BLM: Higher order 13. What is one of the risks of taking the birth control pill, particularly for females who smoke? a. venous thromboembolism b. breast cancer c. pelvic inflammatory disease d. endometrial cancer ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 189 BLM: Higher order 14. Which type of oral contraceptive is least likely to result in ovulation? a. monophasic pill b. multiphasic pill c. progestin-only pill d. estrogen-only pill ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 189 BLM: Remember 15. How does the NuvaRing® work? a. The ring works by preventing fertilization. b. It releases high-dose estrogen and progestin. c. It contains higher amounts of hormones compared to the birth control pill. d. It releases low-dose estrogen and progestin. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 190 BLM: Higher order 16. What is the correct way to use the contraceptive patch? a. Replace the patch each week for three weeks, then take one week off. b. Wear the patch for three weeks, then replace with a new patch. c. Replace the patch every four weeks. d. Wear the patch one week on and one week off. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 191 BLM: Higher order 17. Which type of birth control uses a synthetic version of the hormone progesterone, which is given by injection? a. Norplant® b. Nuvaject c. Evra® d. Depo-Provera® ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 191 BLM: Remember 18. Which method of birth control should NOT be used by childless women who may want to have a child someday? a. IUD b. cervical cap c. PUD d. Norplant ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 192 BLM: Remember 19. What must be used in conjunction with a diaphragm in order for it to be effective? a. Norplant b. the pill c. spermicide d. condom ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 193 BLM: Remember 20. What method of contraception is available in both a male and a female version? a. contraceptive ring b. spermicide c. contraceptive patch d. condom ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 194-196 BLM: Higher order 21. What does the ovulation method of contraception depend on? a. monitoring the consistency of the mucus in the vagina b. measuring changes in body temperature c. noting changes in eating habits, mood, and water retention d. counting the days after menstruation begins to estimate release of the egg ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 198 BLM: Higher order 22. In 2005, which contraceptive method became available in Canada without a prescription? a. IUD b. emergency contraception c. Norplant d. birth control pill ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 198-199 BLM: Remember 23. What is the term for the cutting of the vas deferens, the tube that carries sperm from the testes to the urethra for ejaculation? a. hysterectomy b. vasectomy c. testesectomy d. vitrectomy ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 199 BLM: Remember 24. Which contraceptive method tends to increase sexual activity among many couples? a. birth control pill b. male condom c. sterilization d. Norplant ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 199-200 BLM: Remember 25. What procedure is involved in the method of female sterilization called “tubal ligation”? a. blocking the fallopian tubes b. cutting or tying the fallopian tubes c. injecting hormones into the fallopian tubes d. installing contraception pills in the fallopian tubes ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 200 BLM: Remember 26. What is the term for the late-stage abortion method that involves surgical opening of the uterus and removal of the fetus? a. hysterectomy b. dilatation and evacuation c. suction curettage d. hysterotomy ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 202 BLM: Higher order 27. In what year was abortion decriminalized in Canada? a. 1960 b. 1969 c. 1988 d. 1998 ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 202 BLM: Remember 28. Which of the following is NOT a component of preconception care? a. treating any diseases b. counselling on future birth control practices c. evaluating genetic risks d. promoting good nutrition ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 204 BLM: Higher order 29. Which term refers to the zygote once it reaches the uterus and becomes embedded in the lining? a. corpus luteum b. amnion c. embryo d. ovum ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 205 BLM: Remember 30. What is the term for the special organ that provides the embryo with fluids and nutrients? a. endometrium b. ovary c. uterus d. placenta ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 205 BLM: Remember 31. Which change does NOT commonly occur in the first trimester of pregnancy? a. breast enlargement b. weight gain c. increased urination d. fatigue ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 206 BLM: Higher order 32. Which change is typical of the third trimester of pregnancy? a. increased energy b. increased vaginal secretions c. increased urination d. ease of sleeping ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 206 BLM: Higher order 33. Which term refers to the condition that occurs when the fertilized egg remains in the fallopian tube instead of travelling to the uterus? a. ectopic pregnancy b. tubal ligation c. perinatal pregnancy d. tubal miscarriage ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 207 BLM: Remember 34. Which term refers to an incision from the lower end of the vagina toward the anus? a. detachment b. episiotomy c. crowning d. dilation ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 208 BLM: Remember 35. Which term refers to the position of a baby presenting with the feet or buttocks first? a. caesarean b. postpartum c. breech d. postnatal ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 208 BLM: Remember 36. During which stage of labour is a baby is born? a. first b. second c. third d. fourth ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 207-208 BLM: Remember 37. Which term refers to the assisted reproductive technique that involves removal of an egg, fertilizing that egg, then placing the fertilized egg back into the uterus? a. in vitro fertilization b. gestational surrogacy c. zygote intrafallopian transfer d. gamete intrafallopian transfer ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 209 BLM: Higher order COMPLETION 1. The creation of sperm is known as _________________. ANS: spermatogenesis PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Remember 2. When a sperm fuses with an ovum, this is called _________________. ANS: fertilization PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Remember 3. _________________ has occurred once the zygote attaches to the endometrium. ANS: Implantation PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Remember 4. The method of preventing conception by preventing ovulation or implantation is called _________________. ANS: contraception PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 186 BLM: Remember 5. The number of pregnancies that occur per year for every 100 women using a particular method of birth control is known as _________________. ANS: failure rate PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 187 BLM: Remember 6. The withdrawal of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation to prevent pregnancy is called __________________. ANS: coitus interruptus PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 188 BLM: Remember 7. An individual who waits until (s)he is married to have a sexual relationship is choosing _________________. ANS: abstinence PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 188-189 BLM: Higher order 8. The minipill contains a small amount of the hormone _________________. ANS: progestin PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 189 BLM: Remember 9. The _________________ pill mimics normal hormonal fluctuations of the natural menstrual cycle by providing different levels of estrogen and progesterone at different times of the month. ANS: multiphasic pill PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 189 BLM: Remember 10. Kissing, hugging, and sensual touching are activities involved in _________________. ANS: outercourse PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 189 BLM: Remember 11. The ____________________ is a small T-shaped device that is inserted into the vagina through the cervix. ANS: intrauterine device IUD PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 192 BLM: Remember 12. A bowl-like rubber cup inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix and prevent the passage of sperm into the uterus is a _________________. ANS: diaphragm PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 192 BLM: Remember 13. Counting the days after menstruation begins to estimate the day of ovulation is known as the _________________ method. ANS: calendar (rhythm) calendar rhythm PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 198 BLM: Remember 14. A nine-week-old embryo is called a _________________. ANS: fetus PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 205 BLM: Remember 15. The numbing of the lower body by injecting an anesthetic into the membrane around the spinal cord is called ______________. ANS: epidural block PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 207 BLM: Remember 16. When a baby is delivered through an incision in the abdomen and uterus, this is called a ______________ delivery. ANS: caesarean PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 209 BLM: Remember MATCHING Match the following definitions to each term. a. removal of the uterus b. female sterilization c. male sterilization d. opening of the cervix e. fertilized egg remains in fallopian tube f. childbirth preparation g. surgical opening of the uterus h. spontaneous abortion i. thinning of the cervix j. when the baby’s head appears 1. effacement 2. dilation 3. crowning 4. tubal ligation 5. psychoprophylaxis 6. ectopic pregnancy 7. hysterotomy 8. hysterectomy 9. vasectomy 10. miscarriage 1. ANS: I PTS: 1 2. ANS: D PTS: 1 3. ANS: J PTS: 1 4. ANS: B PTS: 1 5. ANS: F PTS: 1 6. ANS: E PTS: 1 7. ANS: G PTS: 1 8. ANS: A PTS: 1 9. ANS: C PTS: 1 10. ANS: H PTS: 1 ESSAY 1. Describe the benefits of abstaining from sexual activity until individuals are in their twenties and engaging in sex with fewer partners during their lifetime. ANS: A. less likely to get sexually transmitted infections B. less likely to suffer infertility C. less likely to develop cervical cancer PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 189 BLM: Higher order 2. Describe the difference between the three types of oral contraceptives used in Canada. ANS: A. Constant dose (monophasic pill)—releases synthetic progestin and estrogen at constant levels throughout the menstrual cycle B. Multiphasic pill—mimics normal hormonal fluctuations of the natural menstrual cycle by providing different levels of estrogen and progestin at different times of the month C. Minipill (progestin-only pill)—contains a small amount of progestin and no estrogen PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 189 BLM: Higher order 3. Describe the components of the physical exam that should take place before taking the birth control pill. ANS: A. Routine blood pressure test B. Pelvic exam, including Pap smear C. Breast exam D. Blood test E. Urine sample PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 190 BLM: Higher order 4. Describe three fertility awareness methods of contraception. ANS: A. Basal body temperature method—taking body temperature upon waking every morning; temperature rise after ovulation and an elevated temperature for three consecutive days indicate a safe period B. Calendar method/rhythm method—counting the days after menstruation begins in order to calculate the estimated day of ovulation C. Cervical mucus method/ovulation method—based on the observation of changes in the consistency of the mucus in the vagina, with sticky, cloudy mucus indicating a safe period. PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: 197-198 BLM: Higher order 5. Describe the four different methods of abortion. ANS: A. Medical abortion—the use of drugs to terminate a pregnancy B. Suction curettage—dilation of cervix, contents of uterus vacuumed out C. Dilation and evacuation—cervix opened, fetus removed from the uterus with medical instruments D. Hysterotomy—surgical opening of uterus, to remove the fetus PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 201-202 BLM: Higher order 6. Describe the changes that occur in a woman during pregnancy. ANS: A. First trimester—increased urination, enlarged breasts, nipples darken, nausea/vomiting, fatigue, increased vaginal secretions, sciatica, irregular bowel movements B. Second trimester—waist thickens, weight gain, blood volume increases, darkening of the face, increased salivation and perspiration, secretion of colostrum, indigestion, constipation, hemorrhoids, varicose veins C. Third trimester—increased urination, Braxton-Hicks contractions, shortness of breath, heartburn and indigestion, trouble sleeping, baby “drops” into the pelvis, naval out PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: 206 BLM: Higher order 7. Define and briefly describe the following two complications of pregnancy: A) ectopic pregnancy, B) miscarriage ANS: A. Ectopic pregnancy—In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg remains in the fallopian tube instead of travelling to the uterus. Ectopic, or tubal, pregnancies have increased dramatically in recent years. STIs, particularly chlamydia infections, have become a major cause of ectopic pregnancy. Other risk factors include previous pelvic surgery, particularly involving the fallopian tubes; pelvic inflammatory disease; infertility; and use of an IUD. B. Miscarriage—About 10 to 20 percent of pregnancies end in miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion, before the twentieth week of gestation. Major genetic disorders may be responsible for 33 to 50 percent of pregnancy losses. About 0.5 to 1 percent of women suffer three or more miscarriages, possibly because of genetic, anatomic, hormonal, infectious, or autoimmune factors. An estimated 70 to 90 percent of women who miscarry eventually become pregnant again. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 207 BLM: Higher order 8. Explain the three stages of labour. ANS: A. First stage—effacement (thinning) of cervix, dilation (opening) of cervix, amniotic sac breaks, first contractions begin; stage ends when cervix is dilated to 10 centimetres B. Second stage—cervix is completely dilated, the baby moves into the birth canal (vagina), head crowns, episiotomy may be performed, delivery of baby C. Third stage—uterus firmly contracts after birth of the baby, and delivery of placenta usually occurs within five minutes after birth PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 207-208 BLM: Higher order

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